Welding - Recommendations for welding of metallic materials - Part 3: Arc welding of stainless steels

This European Standard gives general recommendations for the fusion welding of stainless steels. Specific details relevant to austenitic, austenitic-ferritic, ferritic and martensitic stainless are given in annexes A to D.

Schweißen - Empfehlungen zum Schweißen metallischer Werkstoffe - Teil 3: Lichtbogenschweißen von nichtrostenden Stählen

Dieses Dokument enthält allgemeine Anforderungen für das Schmelzschweißen von nichtrostenden Stählen. Besondere Hinweise, die sich auf austenitische, austenitisch ferritische, ferritische und martensitische nicht¬rostende Stähle beziehen, sind in den Anhängen A bis D wiedergegeben.

Soudage - Recommendations pour le soudage des matériaux métalliques - Partie 3 : Soudage à l'arc des aciers inoxydables

Le présent document donne des recommandations générales pour le soudage par fusion des aciers inoxydables. Des détails spécifiques aux aciers inoxydables austénitiques, austéno-ferritiques, ferritiques et martensitiques sont donnés dans les Annexes A à D.

Varjenje - Priporočila za varjenje kovinskih materialov - 3. del: Obločno varjenje nerjavnih jekel

Ta evropski standard podaja splošna priporočila za talilno varjenje nerjavnega jekla. Posebne podrobnosti, ki se nanašajo na avstenitno, avstenitno-feritno, feritno in martenzitno nerjavno jeklo, so navedene v dodatkih A–D.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jun-2017
Publication Date
30-Jan-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Jan-2019
Due Date
16-Mar-2019
Completion Date
31-Jan-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Schweißen - Empfehlungen zum Schweißen metallischer Werkstoffe - Teil 3: Lichtbogenschweißen von nichtrostenden StählenSoudage - Recommendations pour le soudage des matériaux métalliques - Partie 3 : Soudage à l'arc des aciers inoxydablesWelding - Recommendations for welding of metallic materials - Part 3: Arc welding of stainless steels77.140.20Visokokakovostna jeklaStainless steels25.160.10Varilni postopki in varjenjeWelding processesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1011-3:2018SIST EN 1011-3:2019en,fr,de01-marec-2019SIST EN 1011-3:2019SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 1011-3:2001/A1:2004SIST EN 1011-3:20011DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 1011-3:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1011-3
December
t r s z ICS
t wä s x rä s r Supersedes EN
s r s sæ uã t r r rEnglish Version
Welding æ Recommendations for welding of metallic materials æ Part

uã Arc welding of stainless steels Soudage æ Recommandations pour le soudage des matßriaux mßtalliques æ Partie

uã Soudage à l 5arc des aciers inoxydables
Schweißen æ Empfehlungen zum Schweißen metallischer Werkstoffe æ Teil

uã Lichtbogenschweißen von nichtrostenden Stählen This European Standard was approved by CEN on

s y September
t r s zä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Serbiaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23,
B-1040 Brussels

t r s z CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s r s sæ uã t r s z ESIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 4 Parent metal ...................................................................................................................................................... 7 5 Storage and handling ..................................................................................................................................... 7 6 Welding consumables .................................................................................................................................... 7 7 Fabrication ........................................................................................................................................................ 7 7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 7 7.2 Weld details ....................................................................................................................................................... 8 7.3 Weld backing .................................................................................................................................................... 8 8 Quality requirements of welds ................................................................................................................... 9 9 Distortion ........................................................................................................................................................... 9 10 Post-weld cleaning .......................................................................................................................................... 9 Annex A (informative)

Welding of austenitic stainless steels ................................................................... 11 A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 A.1.1 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................ 11 A.1.2 Microstructure .............................................................................................................................................. 11 A.1.3 Types of austenitic stainless steel .......................................................................................................... 11 A.2 Welding aspects ............................................................................................................................................ 12 A.2.1 Welding details ............................................................................................................................................. 12 A.2.2 Welding consumables ................................................................................................................................. 13 A.3 Consequences of welding .......................................................................................................................... 13 A.3.1 Cracking ........................................................................................................................................................... 13 A.3.2 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................ 14 A.3.3 Corrosion resistance ................................................................................................................................... 14 A.3.4 Distortion ........................................................................................................................................................ 15 A.4 Post-weld treatment ................................................................................................................................... 15 A.4.1 Heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................. 15 A.4.2 Cleaning ........................................................................................................................................................... 15 Annex B (informative)

Welding of ferritic stainless steels ........................................................................ 16 B.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16 B.1.1 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................ 16 B.1.2 Microstructure .............................................................................................................................................. 16 B.2 Welding aspects ............................................................................................................................................ 16 B.2.1 Welding details ............................................................................................................................................. 16 B.2.2 Welding consumables ................................................................................................................................. 17 B.3 Consequences of welding .......................................................................................................................... 17 B.3.1 Cracking ........................................................................................................................................................... 17 B.3.2 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................ 17 B.3.3 Corrosion resistance ................................................................................................................................... 17 SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 3 B.3.4 Distortion......................................................................................................................................................... 18 B.4 Post-weld treatment .................................................................................................................................... 18 B.4.1 Heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................. 18 B.4.2 Finishing .......................................................................................................................................................... 18 Annex C (informative)

Welding of austenitic-ferritic stanless steels ..................................................... 19 C.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19 C.1.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19 C.1.2 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................. 19 C.1.3 Microstructure ............................................................................................................................................... 19 C.1.4 Types of austenitic – ferritic stainless steel ........................................................................................ 19 C.2 Welding aspects............................................................................................................................................. 19 C.2.1 Welding details .............................................................................................................................................. 19 C.2.2 Welding consumables ................................................................................................................................. 20 C.3 Consequences of welding ........................................................................................................................... 21 C.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21 C.3.2 Cracking ........................................................................................................................................................... 21 C.3.3 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................ 21 C.3.4 Corrosion resistance.................................................................................................................................... 21 C.3.5 Distortion......................................................................................................................................................... 21 C.3.6 Porosity ............................................................................................................................................................ 21 C.4 Post-weld treatment .................................................................................................................................... 22 C.4.1 Heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................. 22 C.4.2 Cleaning ............................................................................................................................................................ 22 Annex D (informative)

Welding of martensitic and martensitic-austenitic stainles steels ............ 23 D.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23 D.1.1 Chemical composition ................................................................................................................................. 23 D.1.2 Types of martensitic and martensitic-austenitic stainless steel ................................................. 23 D.2 Welding aspects............................................................................................................................................. 23 D.3 Consequences of welding ........................................................................................................................... 24 D.3.1 Cracking ........................................................................................................................................................... 24 D.3.2 Mechanical properties ................................................................................................................................ 24 D.3.3 Corrosion resistance.................................................................................................................................... 24 D.3.4 Distortion......................................................................................................................................................... 24 D.4 Post-weld treatment .................................................................................................................................... 25 D.4.1 Heat treatment .............................................................................................................................................. 25 D.4.2 Cleaning ............................................................................................................................................................ 25 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 26

SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 4 European foreword This document (EN 1011-3:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding and allied processes”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2019, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by June 2019. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 1011-3:2000. EN 1011 consists of the following parts, under the general title Welding — Recommendations for welding of metallic materials: — Part 1: General guidance for arc welding; — Part 2: Arc welding of ferritic steels; — Part 3: Arc welding of stainless steels; — Part 4: Arc welding of aluminium and aluminium alloys; — Part 5: Welding of clad steel; — Part 6: Laser beam welding; — Part 7: Electron beam welding; — Part 8: Welding of cast irons. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 5 Introduction This document is being issued with several annexes in order that it may be extended to cover the different types of steel which will be produced to all the European steel standards for stainless steels. When this document is referenced for contractual purposes, the ordering authority should state the need for compliance with the standard and such other annexes as are appropriate. This document gives general guidance for the satisfactory production and control of welding and details the possible detrimental phenomena which may occur with advice on methods by which they may be avoided. It is generally applicable to all stainless steels and is appropriate regardless of the type of fabrication involved, although the application standard may have additional requirements. Permissible design stresses in welds, methods of testing and acceptance levels are not included because they depend on the service conditions of the fabrication. These details should be obtained from the design specification. This document contains additional details for fusion welding of stainless steels and should be read in conjunction with the general recommendations in EN 1011-1. SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 6 1 Scope This document gives general recommendations for the fusion welding of stainless steels. Specific details relevant to austenitic, austenitic-ferritic, ferritic and martensitic stainless steels are given in Annexes A to D. 2 Normative references The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN ISO 5817, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817) EN ISO 14175, Welding consumables — Gases and gas mixtures for fusion welding and allied processes (ISO 14175) CEN ISO/TR 15608, Welding — Guidelines for a metallic materials grouping system (ISO/TR 15608) EN ISO 15609-1, Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials — Welding procedure specification — Part 1: Arc welding (ISO 15609-1) 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp

3.1 passive layer thin, transparent and tightly adherent film on the surface of stainless steels which protects them against corrosive attack 3.2 stabilized/unstabilized stabilized steels contain additions of strong carbide/nitride forming elements, (usually titanium or niobium), which limit the formation of chromium carbides/nitrides, allowing the stainless steel to retain its corrosion resistance, particularly around grain boundaries 3.3 ferrite number number indicating magnetic attraction, relative to a series of reference samples and therefore, proportional to the ferro-magnetic phase content, approximately equal to ferrite (delta ferrite) content over the range 0 % to 10 % but more readily measured SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 7 3.4 consumable insert length of filler metal which is manufactured to conform with the shape and dimensions of the weld preparation and is melted to become an integral part of the joint during welding 4 Parent metal This dokument applies to stainless steels of the austenitic, ferritic, martensitic and austenitic/ferritic stainless types, according to groups 8 to 10 of CEN ISO/TR 15608. 5 Storage and handling When storing, handling or fabricating stainless steel, the environment shall be controlled to avoid permanent breakdown of the passive layer, which gives stainless steel its good corrosion resistance. Stainless steels shall be protected from contamination and surface damage during all stages of storage, fabrication and transportation. Contact between stainless steels and other materials, e.g. carbon steels, copper, paints, dyes and tapes, which cause a breakdown of the passive layer or other detrimental effects should be avoided. When contact is not avoidable care should be taken that all residues are removed. Racking for stainless steels shall be strongly built and shall be lined in a secure manner with materials that will not contaminate stainless steel, e.g. dry wood, plastic or stainless steel. Unlined or painted carbon steel racking shall not be used. Lifting grabs shall be made from or lined with a non-contaminating material. Welding fixtures, earth clamps or manipulators shall be either manufactured from or lined with non-contaminating materials. 6 Welding consumables Filler materials should be selected having regard to the parent metals and the particular application and shall comply with the relevant standards. Where consumable inserts are used they shall correspond with the relevant filler metal as well as with the parent material composition. 7 Fabrication 7.1 General Facilities for fabrication of stainless steels shall be segregated from other works and kept free of all possible contaminating materials such as lead, zinc, copper, copper alloys or carbon steels, etc. Forming tools shall be cleaned thoroughly before use to avoid cross contamination. All lubricants used in the forming operations shall be removed from the workpiece. Only tools dedicated to stainless steel shall be employed; this particularly applies to grinding wheels, cutting wheels and wire brushes. Welding heats up the parent metal which causes formation of oxide films both on the weld metal and on the surrounding areas of the weld. These oxides as well as slags produced by covered electrodes, flux cored wires and submerged arc welding, shall be removed if the weld is to be exposed to a corrosive medium or for other reasons (see Clause 10). When, during weld edge preparation oxidation, hardening and general contamination from thermal cutting processes occur, these should be eliminated by mechanically machining to a sufficient depth SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 8 from the cut face. During shearing cracking and burrs can occur. These may also require to be removed prior to welding. Where cut edges do not form fusion faces, care should be taken to ensure that the shearing or thermal cutting does not adversely affect the performance of the fabrication. Hard stamping should be avoided, but when it shall be used attention is drawn to the danger of it being applied in highly stressed or corrosive areas. Locations of these marks should be identicated. Hard stamping used for marking in radiographic examination should be subject to similar precautions. Welds which are to be inspected and approved should not be painted or otherwise treated until they have been accepted. 7.2 Weld details Welding details shall be described in an appropriate Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) in accordance with EN ISO 15609-1. Further details of weldability aspects are given in Annexes A to D. Acceptance criteria for misalignment of joints are given in EN ISO 5817. For certain applications (for example the welding of pipework) and welding processes, closer tolerances may be necessary. Where run-on/run-off pieces are used these shall be manufactured from a grade of stainless steel compatible with that used for the fabrication and shall have a thickness and edge preparation similar to that used for the joint. The removal of run-on/run-off pieces shall be performed by a method which does not adversely affect the properties of the parent metal and weld deposit. Inspection should be carried out to demonstrate that both the parent material and weld deposit are free from unacceptable imperfections. Where the weld has to be made from one side only, it may be necessary to protect the root side from atmospheric oxidation to maintain the corrosion resistance of the joint. The root run of such welds is generally made using the TIG or plasma welding process. 7.3 Weld backing Permanent backing shall consist of a compatible grade of stainless steel and should not be used where there is a risk of crevice corrosion. When it is not appropriate to use part of the structure as backing material, the material to be used shall be specified in the construction design. When using copper as a temporary backing material a groove shall be machined into the backing material in the fusion area. Care should be taken when welding as there is a risk of copper pick-up. This can be reduced by nickel or chromium plating of the copper backing material. When using high heat input, the copper backing should be water-cooled. Backing material shall be free from contamination such as grease, moisture, oxide, etc. Where temporary or permanent backing is employed, the joint shall be arranged in such a way as to ensure that complete fusion of the parts to be joined is readily obtained. When it is necessary to prevent oxidation on the reverse side of a weld, then purging using a suitable gas supply should normally be carried out. This is where a gas with a defined purity or gas mixture, in accordance with EN ISO 14175, compatible with the parent and weld metal, is passed under the weld root. The purpose is to prevent contamination by the atmosphere, principally oxygen, which can lead to unacceptable imperfections in the weld and/or a reduction of corrosion resistance. Where purging of the root area is to be carried out, the duration of purging prior to welding should be sufficient to ensure that the level of root oxidation (discoloration) is less or equal as required by the SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 9 design specification. The prepurge time will depend principally on gas flow rate, volume to be purged and, depending of purging gas density on the injection point. Where maximum allowable oxygen levels are specified, then it will be necessary to use an oxygen analyser of suitable sensitivity to measure the oxygen content of the exit gas. As a guideline it is suggested that ten volume changes be made before commencing welding. Gas purging should be maintained for sufficient duration to ensure that the finished weld underside surface oxidation level is acceptable. 8 Quality requirements of welds Welded joints shall be free from imperfections that would impair the service performance of the construction. Acceptance levels shall be in accordance with the application standard where it exists. If no application standard exists acceptance levels shall be determined on EN ISO 5817. Special quality requirements for stainless steels may be taken into account, such as appearance and corrosion resistance, and shall be specified. 9 Distortion Distortion in a weldment results from non-uniform expansion and contraction of weld metal and adjacent parent metal during welding. In austenitic stainless steel this phenomenon is much more pronounced than in unalloyed steel due to a larger expansion coefficient and a lower thermal conductivity. There are various practical ways of minimizing distortion such as: — minimizing the weld metal volume; — balanced (double sided) joint welding; — reduced heat input; — reduced numbers of weld layers; — backstep welding; — preset of the parts to be welded; — jigs and mechanical restraints; — tack welding; — heat sinks. Care should be taken that the methods chosen do not have a deleterious effect on the properties of the welds and the overall structure. 10 Post-weld cleaning The corrosion resistance of stainless steel weldments is significantly affected by their surface condition. The degree of post weld cleaning necessary depends upon the weld quality requirements and should be as required by the design specification. Post weld cleaning can be carried out by several processes, either separately or in combination, for example: SIST EN 1011-3:2019

EN 1011-3:2018 (E) 10 — Brushing: Dedicated wire brushes made with stainless steel bristles or other compatible material should be used. This technique cannot be used, in general, to remove adherent contaminants. Care should be taken when using mechanical rotary brushing as this may deform the surface giving microcracks which will reduce corrosion resistance. It may be necessary to follow brushing with a pickling operation. — Blasting: This technique is used for removal of adherant contaminants and also to give residual compressive stresses in the surface. Recommended blasting media include glass and stainless steel shot. These shall be free from iron or carbon steel contamination. — Grinding: Dedicated iron free and chl

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