Geographic information - Data quality (ISO 19157:2013)

ISO 19157 establishes the principles for describing the quality of geographic data. It defines components for describing data quality; specifies components and content structure of a register for data quality measures; describes general procedures for evaluating the quality of geographic data; establishes principles for reporting data quality. This International Standard also defines a set of data quality measures for use in evaluating and reporting data quality. It is applicable to data producers providing quality information to describe and assess how well a dataset conforms to its product specification and to data users attempting to determine whether or not specific geographic data is of sufficient quality for their particular application. This International Standard does not attempt to define minimum acceptable levels of quality for geographic data.
This International Standard also provides guidance on how to describe, evaluate and report data quality.
This International Standard is applicable to data producers providing quality information to describe and assess how well a dataset conforms to its product specification and to data users attempting to determine whether or not specific geographic data is of sufficient quality for their particular application.
This International Standard does not attempt to define a minimum acceptable level of quality for geographic data.

Geoinformation - Datenqualität (ISO 19157:2013)

Information géographique - Qualité de données (ISO 19157:2013)

L'ISO 19157:2013 établit les principes de description de la qualité des données géographiques. Elle
- définit des composants destinés à décrire la qualité de données;
- spécifie des composants et la structure du contenu d'un registre de mesures de qualité des données;
- décrit des procédures générales d'évaluation de la qualité des données géographique;
- pose les principes de la description de la qualité des données dans des rapports.
L'ISO 19157:2013 définit également un ensemble de mesures de qualité des données destinées à l'évaluation et à la mise en place de rapports sur la qualité de données. Elle s'applique aux producteurs de données fournissant des informations de qualité pour décrire et évaluer la façon dont un jeu de données répond à sa spécification de produit et aux utilisateurs cherchant à déterminer si des données géographiques spécifiques sont ou non de qualité suffisante pour leur application particulière.
L'ISO 19157:2013 ne cherche pas à définir des niveaux minimums acceptables de qualité en matière de données géographiques.

Geografske informacije - Kakovost podatkov (ISO 19157:2013)

Standard ISO 19157 določa načela za opisovanje kakovosti geografskih podatkov. Določa sestavne dele za opis kakovosti podatkov; določa sestavne dele in zgradbo vsebine registra za meritve kakovosti podatkov; opisuje splošne postopke za oceno kakovosti geografskih podatkov; določa načela za poročanje o kakovosti podatkov. Ta mednarodni standard določa tudi nabor meritev kakovosti podatkov za uporabo pri ocenjevanju in poročanju o kakovosti podatkov. Velja za proizvajalce podatkov, ki zagotavljajo kakovostne podatke, za opis in oceno stopnje ustreznosti nabora podatkov specifikaciji izdelka in uporabnike podatkov, ki poskušajo ugotoviti, ali so določeni geografski podatki dovolj kakovostni za njihovo želeno uporabo. Ta mednarodni standard ne poskuša določiti minimalnih sprejemljivih ravni kakovosti geografskih podatkov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Sep-2011
Publication Date
19-Jan-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Jan-2014
Due Date
13-Mar-2014
Completion Date
20-Jan-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
01-februar-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 19113:2005
SIST EN ISO 19114:2005
SIST EN ISO 19114:2005/AC:2006
Geografske informacije - Kakovost podatkov (ISO 19157:2013)
Geographic information - Data quality (ISO 19157:2013)
Geoinformation - Datenqualität (ISO 19157:2013)
Information géographique - Qualité de données (ISO 19157:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 19157:2013
ICS:
03.120.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo quality
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST EN ISO 19157:2015 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 19157
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
December 2013
ICS 35.240.70 Supersedes EN ISO 19113:2005, EN ISO 19114:2005
English Version
Geographic information - Data quality (ISO 19157:2013)

Information géographique - Qualité des données (ISO Geoinformation - Datenqualität (ISO 19157:2013)

19157:2013)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 November 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 19157:2013 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
EN ISO 19157:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
EN ISO 19157:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 19157:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 211 “Geographic

information/Geomatics” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 287 “Geographic Information” the

secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by June 2014.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 19113:2005, EN ISO 19114:2005.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 19157:2013 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 19157:2013 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19157
First edition
2013-12-15
Geographic information — Data quality
Information géographique — Qualité des données
Reference number
ISO 19157:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Package abbreviations ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Overview of data quality .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

7 Components of data quality ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 Overview of the components ...................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Data quality unit .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Data quality elements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4 Descriptors of data quality elements ................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Metaquality elements .....................................................................................................................................................................14

7.6 Descriptors of a metaquality element ..............................................................................................................................15

8 Data quality measures .................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

8.2 Standardized data quality measures .................................................................................................................................16

8.3 User defined data quality measures ..................................................................................................................................16

8.4 Catalogue of data quality measures ...................................................................................................................................16

8.5 List of components ...........................................................................................................................................................................17

8.6 Component details ............................................................................................................................................................................18

9 Data quality evaluation...............................................................................................................................................................................20

9.1 The process for evaluating data quality .........................................................................................................................20

9.2 Data quality evaluation methods .........................................................................................................................................21

9.3 Aggregation and derivation.......................................................................................................................................................23

10 Data quality reporting .................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................23

10.2 Particular cases ....................................................................................................................................................................................24

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suites .....................................................................................................................................................26

Annex B (informative) Data quality concepts and their use .....................................................................................................28

Annex C (normative) Data dictionary for data quality ...................................................................................................................34

Annex D (normative) List of standardized data quality measures ....................................................................................50

Annex E (informative) Evaluating and reporting data quality ................................................................................................96

Annex F (informative) Sampling methods for evaluating ........................................................................................................119

Annex G (normative) Data quality basic measures ........................................................................................................................127

Annex H (informative) Management of data quality measures .........................................................................................132

Annex I (informative) Guidelines for the use of Quality Elements .................................................................................135

Annex J (informative) Aggregation of data quality results .....................................................................................................144

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................146

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics

This edition of ISO 19157:2013 cancels and replaces ISO/TS 19138:2006, ISO 19114:2003 and

ISO 19113:2002, which have been technically revised.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
Introduction

Geographic data are increasingly being shared, interchanged and used for purposes other than their

producers’ intended ones. Information about the quality of available geographic data are vital to the

process of selecting a data set in that the value of data are directly related to its quality. A user of

geographic data may have multiple data sets from which to choose. Therefore, it is necessary to compare

the quality of the data sets to determine which best fulfils the requirements of the user.

The purpose of describing the quality of geographic data is to facilitate the comparison and selection

of the data set best suited to application needs or requirements. Complete descriptions of the quality

of a data set will encourage the sharing, interchange and use of appropriate data sets. Information on

the quality of geographic data allows a data producer to evaluate how well a data set meets the criteria

set forth in its product specification and assists data users in evaluating a product’s ability to satisfy

the requirements for their particular application. For the purpose of this evaluation, clearly defined

procedures are used in a consistent manner.

To facilitate comparisons, it is essential that the results of the quality reports are expressed in a

comparable way and that there is a common understanding of the data quality measures that have

been used. These data quality measures provide descriptors of the quality of geographic data through

comparison with the universe of discourse. The use of incompatible measures makes data quality

comparisons impossible to perform. This International Standard standardizes the components and

structures of data quality measures and defines commonly used data quality measures.

This International Standard recognizes that a data producer and a data user may view data quality

from different perspectives. Conformance quality levels can be set using the data producer’s product

specification or a data user’s data quality requirements. If the data user requires more data quality

information than that provided by the data producer, the data user can follow the data producer’s data

quality evaluation process flow to get the additional information. In this case the data user requirements

are treated as a product specification for the purpose of using the data producer process flow.

The objective of this International Standard is to provide principles for describing the quality for

geographic data and concepts for handling quality information for geographic data, and a consistent

and standard manner to determine and report a data set’s quality information. It aims also to provide

guidelines for evaluation procedures of quantitative quality information for geographic data.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19157:2013(E)
Geographic information — Data quality
1 Scope

This International Standard establishes the principles for describing the quality of geographic data. It

— defines components for describing data quality;

— specifies components and content structure of a register for data quality measures;

— describes general procedures for evaluating the quality of geographic data;
— establishes principles for reporting data quality.

This International Standard also defines a set of data quality measures for use in evaluating and reporting

data quality. It is applicable to data producers providing quality information to describe and assess how

well a data set conforms to its product specification and to data users attempting to determine whether

or not specific geographic data are of sufficient quality for their particular application.

This International Standard does not attempt to define minimum acceptable levels of quality for

geographic data.
2 Conformance

Any product claiming conformance to this International Standard shall pass all the requirements

described in the abstract test suite presented in Annex A as follows:
a) A data quality evaluation process shall pass the tests outlined in A.1;
b) Data quality metadata shall pass the tests outlined in A.2 and A.3;
c) A standalone quality report shall pass the tests outlined in A.4;
d) A data quality measure shall pass the tests outlined in A.5.
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document

and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
ISO 19115-1:2014, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 1: Fundamentals

ISO 19115-2:2009, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

ISO 19135:2005, Geographic information — Procedures for item registration
1) Under preparation.
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
4 Terms and definitions
4.1
accuracy

closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and the true value

Note 1 to entry: In this International Standard, the true value can be a reference value that is accepted as true.

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.1, modified – original Note has been deleted. New Note 1 to entry

has been added.]
4.2
catalogue

collection of items (4.18) or an electronic or paper document that contains information about the

collection of items
[SOURCE: ISO 10303-227:2005, 3.3.10, modified - Note has been deleted.]
4.3
conformance
fulfilment of specified requirements
[SOURCE: ISO 19105:2000, 3.8]
4.4
conformance quality level

threshold value or set of threshold values for data quality (4.21) results used to determine how well a

dataset (4.8) meets the criteria set forth in its data product specification (4.6) or user requirements

4.5
correctness
correspondence with the universe of discourse (4.24)
4.6
data product specification

detailed description of a dataset (4.8) or dataset series (4.9) together with additional information that

will enable it to be created, supplied to and used by another party
[SOURCE: ISO 19131:2007, 4.7, modified - Note has been deleted.]
4.7
data quality basic measure

generic data quality (4.21) measure used as a basis for the creation of specific data quality measures

Note 1 to entry: Data quality basic measures are abstract data types. They cannot be used directly when reporting

data quality.
4.8
dataset
identifiable collection of data

Note 1 to entry: A data set can be a smaller grouping of data which, though limited by some constraint such as

spatial extent or feature type (4.15), is located physically within a larger data set. Theoretically, a data set can be

as small as a single feature (4.11) or feature attribute (4.12) contained within a larger data set. A hardcopy map or

chart can be considered a data set.
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-1:—, 4.3 ]
2) To be published.
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
4.9
dataset series
collection of datasets (4.8) sharing common characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-1:—, 4.10]
4.10
direct evaluation method

method of evaluating the quality (4.21) of a dataset (4.8) based on inspection of the items (4.18)

within the dataset
4.11
feature
abstraction of real world phenomena

Note 1 to entry: A feature may occur as a type or an instance. Feature type (4.15) or feature instance (4.13) will be

used when only one is meant.
[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.11]
4.12
feature attribute
characteristic of a feature (4.11)

Note 1 to entry: A feature attribute has a name, a data type and a value domain associated with it. A feature

attribute for a feature instance (4.13) also has an attribute value taken from the value domain.

[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.12, modified – Examples have been deleted. Note 1 to entry has been added.]

4.13
feature instance

individual of a given feature type (4.15) having specified feature attribute (4.12) values

[SOURCE: ISO 19101-1:—, 4.1.14]
4.14
feature operation
operation that every instance of a feature type (4.15) may perform
[SOURCE: ISO 19110:2005, 4.5 - modified, Example and Note have been removed.]
4.15
feature type
class of features (4.11) having common characteristics
[SOURCE: ISO 19156:2011, 4.7]
4.16
geographic data
data with implicit or explicit reference to a location relative to the Earth
[SOURCE: ISO 19109:2005, 4.12, modified - Note has been deleted.]
4.17
indirect evaluation method

method of evaluating the quality (4.21) of a dataset (4.8) based on external knowledge

Note 1 to entry: Examples of external knowledge are data set lineage, such as production method or source data.

3) To be published.
4) To be published.
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SIST EN ISO 19157:2015
ISO 19157:2013(E)
4.18
item
anything that can be described and considered separately

Note 1 to entry: An item can be any part of a data set (4.8), such as a feature (4.11), feature relationship, feature

attribute (4.12), or combination of these.

[SOURCE: ISO 2859-5:2005, 3.4, modified – Original Example has been removed. Note 1 to entry has

been added.]
4.19
metadata
information about a resource
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-1:—, 4.9]
4.20
metaquality
information describing the quality (4.21) of data quality
4.21
quality
degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2005, 3.1.1, modified - Original Notes have been removed.]
4.22
register

set of files containing identifiers assigned to items (4.18) with descriptions of the associated items

[SOURCE: ISO 19135:2005, 4.1.9]
4.23
standalone quality report

free text document providing fully detailed information about data quality (4.21) evaluations, results

and measures used
4.24
universe of discourse
view of the real or hypothetical world that includes everything of interest
[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.29]
5 Abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviations
ADQR aggregated data quality results
AQL acceptance quality limit [ISO 3534-2:2006]
RMSE root mean square error
UML Unified Modeling Language
XML Extensible Markup Language
5) To be published.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19157:2013(E)
5.2 Package abbreviations

Abbreviations are used to denote the package that contains a class. Those abbreviations precede class

names, connected by a “_”. The standard in which those classes are located is indicated in parentheses.

A list of those abbreviations follows.
CI Citation [ISO 19115-1:2014]
CT Catalogues [ISO/TS 19139:2007]
DQ Data Quality [ISO 19157]
DQM Data Quality Measure [ISO 19157]
EX Extent [ISO 19115-1:2014]
GF General Feature [ISO 19109:2005]
MD Metadata [ISO 19115-1:2014]
QE Quality Extended [ISO 19115-2:2009]
RE Registration [ISO 19135:2005]
6 Overview of data quality
Working with data quality includes:

— understanding of the concepts of data quality related to geographic data. Annex B is a description of

data quality concepts used to establish the components for describing the quality of geographic data;

— defining data quality conformance levels in data product specifications or based on user

requirements. Establishment of data product specifications is described in ISO 19131:2007;

— specifying quality aspects in application schemas;
— evaluating data quality;
— reporting data quality.
NOTE 1 The development of application schemas is described in ISO 19109:2005.

A data quality evaluation can be applied to data set series, a data set or a subset of data within a data set,

sharing common characteristics so that its quality can be evaluated.

Data quality shall be described using the data quality elements. Data quality elements and their

descriptors are used to describe how well a data set meets the criteria set forth in its data product

specification or user requirements and provide quantitative quality information.

When data quality information describes data that have been created without a detailed data product

specification or with a data product specification that lacks quantitative measures and descriptors, the

data element may be evaluated in a non-quantitative subjective way as a descriptive result for each element.

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Some quality related information is provided by purpose, usage and lineage. This information is reported

as metadata in conformance with ISO 19115-1:2014.

NOTE 2 Purpose describes the rationale for creating a data set and contains information about its intended

use, which may not be the same as the actual use of the data set. Usage describes the application(s) for which a

data set has been used, either by the data producer or by other data users. Lineage describes the history of a data

set and recounts the life cycle of a data set from collection and acquisition through compilation and derivation to

its current form. This general, non-quantitative information is illustrative for users and can help assessing the

quality of a data set, especially in cases where it is used for a particular application that differs from the intended

application (see also 9.2.3).
This International Standard recog
...

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