Non-destructive testing - NDT training syllabuses (ISO/TS 25107:2019)

This document gives requirements and recommendations for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs. It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission testing, eddy current testing, leak testing, magnetic testing, penetrant testing, radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing, visual testing, thermographic testing, and strain gauge testing. ISO/TS 25108 gives requirements and recommendations for NDT training organizations.

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Leitfaden für Ausbildungs- Syllabus der zerstörungsfreien Prüfung (ISO/TS 25107:2019)

Essais non destructifs - Programmes de formation en END (ISO/TS 25107:2019)

Le présent document fournit des exigences et des recommandations relatives aux programmes de formation en essais non destructifs (END), dans le but d'harmoniser et de maintenir la norme générale de formation du personnel END pour les besoins de l'industrie.
Il fixe également les exigences minimales relatives à la formation structurée et efficace du personnel END afin d'assurer l'admissibilité aux examens de qualification conduisant à une certification par tierce partie conformément à des normes reconnues. Outre les essais non destructifs en général, les lignes directrices du présent document relatives aux programmes couvrent également le contrôle par émission acoustique, le contrôle par courants de Foucault, le contrôle d'étanchéité, le contrôle par magnétoscopie, le contrôle par ressuage, le contrôle par radiographie, le contrôle par ultrasons, le contrôle visuel, le contrôle par thermographie et le contrôle des contraintes résiduelles.
L'ISO/TS 25108 fournit des exigences et des recommandations pour les organismes de formation en essais non destructifs.

Neporušitvene preiskave - Programi usposabljanja osebja za neporušitveno preskušanje (ISO/TS 25107:2019)

Ta dokument vsebuje zahteve in priporočila za neporušitvene preiskave (NDT) – programe usposabljanja osebja za neporušitveno preskušanje z namenom uskladitve in vzdrževanja splošnega standarda usposabljanja osebja za neporušitvene preiskave za potrebe v panogi. Določa tudi minimalne zahteve za učinkovito strukturirano usposabljanje osebja za neporušitvene preiskave, s čimer se zagotovi upravičenost kvalifikacijskih izpitov za pridobitev certifikata, ki ga v skladu s priznanimi standardi organizirajo zunanji ponudniki. Njegove smernice za programe usposabljanja poleg splošnega neporušitvenega preskušanja zajemajo tudi preskušanje akustičnih emisij, preskušanje z metodo vrtinčnih tokov, preskušanje tesnjenja, magnetne preiskave, preskušanje s penetranti, radiografsko preskušanje, ultrazvočno preskušanje, vizualni pregled, termografske preiskave in preiskave z uporovnim merilnim lističem. Standard ISO/TS 25108 podaja zahteve in priporočila za organizacije, ki izvajajo usposabljanja osebja za neporušitvene preiskave.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Oct-2019
Due Date
29-Dec-2019
Completion Date
04-Dec-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020
01-januar-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST-TP CEN ISO/TR 25107:2007
Neporušitvene preiskave - Programi usposabljanja osebja za neporušitveno
preskušanje (ISO/TS 25107:2019)
Non-destructive testing - NDT training syllabuses (ISO/TS 25107:2019)

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Leitfaden für Ausbildungs- Syllabus der zerstörungsfreien

Prüfung (ISO/TS 25107:2019)
Essais non destructifs - Programmes de formation en END (ISO/TS 25107:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019
ICS:
03.100.30 Vodenje ljudi Management of human
resources
19.100 Neporušitveno preskušanje Non-destructive testing
SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020
CEN ISO/TS 25107
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
October 2019
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 19.100 Supersedes CEN ISO/TR 25107:2006
English Version
Non-destructive testing - NDT training syllabuses (ISO/TS
25107:2019)

Essais non destructifs - Programmes de formation en Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung - Leitfaden für Ausbildungs-

END (ISO/TS 25107:2019) Syllabus der zerstörungsfreien Prüfung (ISO/TS
25107:2019)

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 23 September 2019 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020
CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 135

"Non-destructive testing" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 138 “Non-destructive

testing” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes CEN ISO/TR 25107:2006.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO/TS 25107:2019 has been approved by CEN as CEN ISO/TS 25107:2019 without any

modification.
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SIST-TS CEN ISO/TS 25107:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 25107
First edition
2006-07-01
Non-destructive testing — Guidelines for
NDT training syllabuses
Essais non destructifs — Lignes directrices pour les programmes de
formation en END
Reference number
ISO/TR 25107:2006(E)
ISO 2006
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ISO/TR 25107:2006(E)
PDF disclaimer

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© ISO 2006

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Introduction to NDT .............................................................................................................................. 1

4.1 Role........................................................................................................................................................ 1

4.2 Task of NDT personnel......................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 History of NDT....................................................................................................................................... 2

4.4 Terminology of NDT.............................................................................................................................. 2

4.5 General environmental and safety considerations ........................................................................... 2

5 Radiographic testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3.......................................................................................... 3

6 Ultrasonic testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3 ............................................................................................. 19

7 Eddy current testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3 ........................................................................................ 25

8 Penetrant testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3 .............................................................................................. 31

9 Magnetic particle testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3 .................................................................................35

10 Leak testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3....................................................................................................... 41

11 Acoustic emissions testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3............................................................................. 58

12 Visual testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3 .................................................................................................... 67

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 78

© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved iii
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

In exceptional circumstances, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that

which is normally published as an International Standard ("state of the art", for example), it may decide by a

simple majority vote of its participating members to publish a Technical Report. A Technical Report is entirely

informative in nature and does not have to be reviewed until the data it provides are considered to be no

longer valid or useful.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/TR 25107 was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee

CEN/TC 138, Non-destructive testing, in collaboration with Technical Committee ISO/TC 135, Non-destructive

testing, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna

Agreement).
iv © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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Introduction

With this Technical Report, ISO/TC135 and CEN/TC138 present to the worldwide non-destructive testing

(NDT) community their recommendations for the minimum technical knowledge to be required of NDT

personnel. These recommendations provide means for evaluating and documenting the competence of

personnel whose duties demand the appropriate theoretical and practical knowledge.

As part of the efforts to streamline and harmonize the training and certification of NDT personnel, ISO/TC 135

and CEN/TC 138 have been actively involved in developing guidelines for training syllabuses (this Technical

Report) and for NDT training organizations (ISO/TR 27108). These documents are intended to serve those

involved in training and to be useful in achieving a uniform level of training material and — consequently — in

the competence of personnel.

This document, together with ISO/TR 27108, represents two years of effort for working groups of the two

technical committees in the promotion of harmonization and mutual recognition of minimum requirements

taken from the different existing certification schemes.

The content of this first edition has been based on the experience of the experts as well as on comments from

the end-user industries, as well as the most recent edition of the International Committee for Non-destructive

testing (ICNDT) recommended guidelines.

The time allotment for the different topics takes into account the latest developments in each method and, as

a consequence, the total duration can be sometimes greater than the minimum duration required by ISO 9712

and EN 473.

This Technical Report is to be revised in the coming years in order to maintain a workable document in line

with the development of NDT methods and techniques.

ISO/TC 135 and CEN/TC 138 wish to express their appreciation to all those who contributed to the production

of this publication.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL REPORT ISO/TR 25107:2006(E)
Non-destructive testing — Guidelines for NDT training
syllabuses
1 Scope

This Technical Report gives guidelines for non-destructive testing (NDT) training syllabuses, with the intention

of harmonizing and maintaining the general standard of training of NDT personnel for industrial needs.

It also establishes the minimum requirements for effective structured training of NDT personnel to ensure

eligibility for qualification examinations leading to third-party certification according to recognized standards. In

addition to non-destructive testing in general, its guidelines for syllabuses cover acoustic emission, eddy

current, leak, magnetic particle, penetrant, radiographic, ultrasonic and visual testing.

NOTE ISO/TR 27108 gives associated guidelines for NDT training organizations intended for the general part of

training courses.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 1330 (all parts), Non-destructive testing — Terminology
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1330 apply.

4 Introduction to NDT
4.1 Role

Non-destructive testing makes an important contribution to the safety, and economic and ecological welfare,

of our society.

NDT is the only choice for the testing of an object which may not be destroyed, modified or degraded by the

testing process. This is generally required for objects which are to be used after testing, for example, safety

parts, pipelines, power plants, and also constructions under in-service inspection, but even for unique parts in

archaeology and culture.

NDT is based on physical effects at the surface or the inner structure of the object under test. Often, the

outcome of the test needs to be interpreted to give a useful result; sometimes different NDT methods must be

combined, or verified by other test methods.
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4.2 Task of NDT personnel

NDT personnel have a great responsibility, not only with respect to their employers or contractors but also

under the rules of good workmanship. The NDT personnel must be independent and free from economic

influences with regard to his test results, otherwise the results are compromised. The NDT personnel should

be aware of the importance of his signature and the consequences of incorrect test results for safety, health

and environment. Under legal aspects, the falsification of certificates is an offence and judged according to the

national legal regulations. A tester may find himself in a conflicting situation about his findings with his

employer, the responsible authorities or legal requirements.

Finally, the NDT personnel is responsible for all interpretations of test results carrying his signature. NDT

personnel should never sign test reports beyond their certification.
4.3 History of NDT

The principle of NDT started to be put into practice with visual checks in prehistoric times. In medieval later

centuries, test methods such as simple leakage tests and hardness checks were introduced. The

breakthrough for NDT came with industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries: X-ray and ultrasonic testing

for inner defects, penetrant and magnetic particle testing for surface cracks. During the last few decades,

sophisticated, mostly electronically linked methods, such as eddy current testing, RADAR, computer

tomography and thermography have been developed. NDT methods have found application in a wide range of

industries — from civil engineering and industrial plants to space and defence technology.

The history of NDT is linked to many famous researchers and inventors, including Röntgen, Becquerel, Curie,

Oerstedt, Faraday and even Leonardo da Vinci. They discovered the physical principles and demonstrated

early applications. Altogether approximately 5 000 scientists worldwide made contributions to the present

state of NDT.

NDT is a global technology. Since NDT tasks and related technical problems are similar in all developed

countries, improved solutions and new equipment are spread around the world within a few months. Many

international conferences and standards committees contribute to a steady and consensual development of

NDT for the benefit of safety, economy and the environment.
4.4 Terminology of NDT

Correct and standardized terminology is a necessity for a particular technology applied worldwide. It is needed

for communication between contracting parties, NDT personnel and certifying bodies. Terms like “indication”,

“imperfection”, “flaw” and “defect” require a precise and unequivocal definition if confusion and

misinterpretation of results is to be avoided. See Clause 3.
4.5 General environmental and safety considerations

4.5.1 Non-destructive testing is often applied in conditions where the safety of the operator could be in

danger owing to local conditions, or where the application of the particular NDT method or techniques could in

itself compromise the safety of the operator and others in the vicinity.

An essential element of any course training for NDT personnel must therefore be safety. The duration of the

training for this subject should be adequate and be provided in addition to the technical training associated

with a particular NDT method.

4.5.2 General safety considerations include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:

⎯ environmental conditions (heat, cold, humidity);
⎯ toxicity (NDT materials, tested products, atmosphere);
⎯ radiation safety (NDT materials, products, local regulations);
2 © ISO 2006 – All rights reserved
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⎯ electrical safety (NDT equipment, lethal voltages, EMC);

⎯ potential for injury to personnel (working at height or in other dangerous environments);

⎯ personal protection equipment (clothing, radiation dosimeters).
5 Radiographic testing — Levels 1, 2 and 3

The letters E and P followed by a value indicate the educational training time and practical training time

respectively, in hours.

NOTE As specified in EN 473, direct access to the level 3 examination requires the total hours shown for level 1 and

level 2.
© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 3
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Content Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Duration Duration Duration
h h h
5.1 History E 0,5 History E 1,0 History E 1,0
Introduction to, Purpose Purpose Purpose
terminology and Terminology: Terminology: Terminology
history of, NDT electromagnetic radiation wave-length Relevant standards:
energy dose EN 1330-3
dose dose rate
dose rate intensity
dose rate constant

5.2 Properties of X- and gamma E 0,5 Properties of X- and gamma E 1,0 Properties of radiation E 1,0

P 0,5 radiation
Physical principles of radiation
the method and
associated knowledge
Relevant standards: Photon X-radiography
EN 444: General principles
Process of ionization: Gamma radiography
Straight line propagation photochemical effects; Neutron radiography
Effects of radiation biological effects; Electron radiography
Capability of penetration fluorescent effects.
Energy Process of ionization:
photochemical effects;
biological effects;
fluorescent effects.

Generation of X-radiation E 1,0 Generation of X-radiation E 1,5 Generation of X-radiation E 2,0

P 0,5
Function of X-ray tubes Function of X-ray tubes Function of X-ray tubes
Tube current I Spectrum: Spectrum:
High voltage U: intensity; intensity;
effects on dose rate and energy max. energy; max. energy;
of radiation.
effective energy; effective energy;
change of spectrum by tube change of spectrum by tube
current and tube voltage. current and tube voltage.
Characteristic radiation
Inherent filtering Inherent filtering
hardening effect
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Content Level 1 Duration Level 2 Duration Level 3 Duration
h h h

Origin of γ-radiation E 1,0 Origin of γ-radiation E 1,5 Origin of γ-radiation E 2,0

P 0,5
Radio isotope Ir 192, Co 60, Se 75 Radio nuclide Natural and artificial decay
decay series
Isotope Ir 192, Co 60, Se 75, Yb 169 Radio nuclides for NDT
Activity: Isotope Ir 192, Co 60, Se 75, Yb 169
half life; Activity A Activity A

characteristics of γ-sources; Characteristics of γ-sources: Characteristics of γ-sources:

life time; half life; half life;
energy; decay curves maximum activity; decay curves maximum activity;
activity; source size. source size.
source size. Characteristic of Gamma ray Characteristic of Gamma ray
Dose rate constant Dose rate constant
Spectrum and effective energy Spectrum and effective energy

Interaction of radiation with E 1,0 Interaction of radiation with E 3,0 Interaction of radiation with E 6,0

matter matter P 0,5 matter
Attenuation: Attenuation: Attenuation vs. energy:
absorption; photo effect; photo effect;
primary radiation; coherent scattering; coherent scattering;
scattered radiation; Compton scattering; Compton scattering;
influence of penetrated pair production. pair production.
thickness.
Type of material Attenuation coefficient Attenuation coefficient
Energy Scatter radiation Scatter radiation
Specific contrast Specific contrast
Radiation contrast Radiation contrast
Half value layer Effects of filtering Effects of filtering
Tenth value layer Beam hardening Beam hardening
Klein-Nishina law
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Content Level 1 Duration Level 2 Duration Level 3 Duration
h h h
E 2,0

Properties of film systems and E 1,0 Properties of film systems and E 2,0 Properties of film systems,

screens P 1,0 screens P 0,5 screens and digital detection
systems
Construction: Construction Additional to level 2
base, emulsion, silver bromide; Latent image information origin New detectors:
grain size and distribution. Photo process storage phosphor imaging plates;
flat panels;
X-ray intensifier;
line detector.
Processing
Properties of films: Properties of film systems:
sensitivity; characteristic curve;
granularity; film gradient, film contrast,
speed;
contrast;
influence of film processing;
optical density;
sensitivity;
film system class.
granularity;
detail perceptibility.
Classification of film systems Classification of detector system
according to EN 584-1 application
Film screens: Film screens:
type of film screens; type of screens;
intensifying effect; film screen contact;
filtering effect; inherent unsharpness;
film to screen contact. intensifying;
effect of filtering;
screens for Co 60 and Linac.
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Content Level 1 Duration Level 2 Duration Level 3 Duration
h h h

Geometry for radiographic E 1,0 Geometry for radiographic E 3,0 Geometry for radiographic E 2,0

exposures exposures exposures
P 0,5 P 1,0 P 2,0
Additional to level 2
Geometric unsharpness: Geometric unsharpness:
Method of focal spot
object to film distance; object to film distance;
measurement
focus size d; focus size d; according to EN 12543,
EN 12679
source to object distance. source to object distance.
Requirements for optimization
Source film distance Source film distance
by
Determination of the focal spot:
Geometric unsharpness, total
size of Gamma sources.
Unsharpness
Focus size, current, voltage
Source size, activity

5.3 Typical weld discontinuities E 1,0 Typical weld discontinuities E 3,0 Typical weld discontinuities E 3,0

P 3,0 P 1,0
Product knowledge
and capabilities of the
method and its
derivate techniques
Additional to level 2
Types of discontinuity according to Types of weld seam and weld seam
EN ISO 6520 preparation
Introduction to fracture
mechanics working load
Welding process origin
Materials properties
Type of discontinuity according to
EN ISO 6520
Origin of defects
Further NDT methods
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Content Level 1 Duration Level 2 Duration Level 3 Duration
h h h

Typical defects in castings E 1,0 Defects in castings E 3,0 Defects in castings E 2,0

P 1,0 P 1,0 P 2,0
Types of defect
Casting process Casting process
Types of cast imperfections and their Types of cast imperfections and their
origin origin
Structural indications Structural indications
Working load
Beam direction to detectability
Materials properties
Production caused defects
E 1,0

Influence on detectability: Influence on detectability: E 2,0 Influence on detectability: E 2,0

P 0,5
P 1,0
type of defect; beam direction; beam direction;
size; geometric dstor
i tion; geometric distortion;
orientation. increase in wall thickness. increase in wall thickness.
Imaged thickness range range e
Imaged thickness Imaged thickness rang

Number of exposures Thickness ranges for X- and γ-rays Thickness ranges for X- and γ-rays

Number of exposures Number of exposures vs. distortion
angle

5.4 Design and operation of X-ray E 1,5 Design and operation of X-ray E 2,0 Design and operation of X-ray E 2,0

machines P 1,5 machines P 1,0 machines
Equipment
Additional to level 1: Additional to level 2:
Stationary systems, mobile unit
Tubes: inherent filtering; beam opening characteristics;
glass- and metal-ceramic tube pre-filtering. X-ray flash devices;
Design of tubes: Devices for special applications: rod anode devices;
standard tube; micro-focus tubes; micro-focus devices;
rod anode tube; enlargement technique; high-voltage devices.
short anode tube. radioscopy. Line focus tubes
Cooling: gas, water, oil Linac Rotary anode tubes
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© ISO 2006 – All rights reserved 9
Content Level 1 Level 2 Level 3
Duration Duration Duration
h h h
Focal spot Construction
High voltage, max. current Field of application
Exposure time Typical dates
Diaphragm
Safety circuit
Operating instructions

Design and operation of Gamma E 1,5 Design and operation of Gamma E 2,0 Design and operation of Gamma E 2,0

ray devices: P 1,0 ray devices ray devices
container, shielding; Additional to level 1: Same as level 2
class P/M; crawler for pipelines;
type A/B (transportation);
special device for testing of
heat exchanger tubes.
source holder and source
capsule.
Enclosed radioactive material:
manipulation device;
connections accessory;
remote control;
co
...

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