Stationary source emissions - Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 2: Iron and steel industry

Determination of GHG direct and indirect emissions based on a mass balance method at each process step for the steel industry. Definition of performance indicators will be included as well as rules for consolidation of processes at site level. The objective is the determination of a methodology to evaluate and compare the emission performance over time or between sites. Field test will be organized to compare mass balance methodology and stack measurements for assessment of direct emissions.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 2: Stahl- und Eisenindustrie

Die vorliegende Norm Emissionen aus stationären Quellen — Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien — Teil 2: Eisen  und Stahlindustrie stellt eine harmonisierte Methodik zur Berechnung der Treibhausgasemissionen der Stahlindustrie bereit.
Diese Norm gilt für Werke, die die zahlreichen Produkte, welche das Ergebnis der Stahlproduktion und der nachgelagerten Verarbeitungswege sind, herstellen.
Diese Norm behandelt die spezifischen Aspekte zur Bestimmung von Treibhausgasemissionen aus diesem Sektor und die Beurteilung der emissionsbezogenen Effizienz. Sie ist in Verbindung mit der Übersichtsnorm prEN 19694 1, Emissionen aus stationären Quellen — Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien — Teil 1: Allgemeine Grundsätze anzuwenden, in der allgemeine Grundsätze behandelt sind und die ein generisches Dokument darstellt. Sie enthält allgemeine Anforderungen, Definitionen und Regeln, die für die Bestimmung der Treibhausgasemissionen aus allen energieintensiven Sektoren gelten, beschreibt gemeinsame methodische Aspekte und legt die Einzelheiten zur Anwendung dieser Regeln fest.
Gemeinsam stellen diese Normen ein harmonisiertes Verfahren bereit zur
a)   Messung, Prüfung und Quantifizierung von Treibhausgasemissionen aus sektorspezifischen Quellen;
b)   Bewertung des Treibhausgasemissionsniveaus von Produktionsprozessen im zeitlichen Verlauf an Produktionsstandorten;
c)   Erarbeitung und Bereitstellung verlässlicher, genauer und hochwertiger Informationen für die Erstellung von Berichten und für Verifizierungszwecke.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 2: Industrie sidérurgique

La présente Norme européenne fournit une méthodologie harmonisée pour calculer les émissions de GES et la performance GES dans l'industrie sidérurgique.
La présente Norme européenne s'applique aux installations qui produisent l'un des multiples produits de la chaîne de valeur de l'acier. Elle s'appuie sur un ensemble de feuilles de calcul [1].
La présente Norme européenne traite des aspects spécifiques concernant la détermination des émissions de GES provenant de la production d'acier, ainsi que l'évaluation de la performance en matière d'émission. La présente norme doit être utilisée conjointement avec le FprEN 19694-1, qui contient des exigences générales, des définitions et des règles applicables pour la détermination des émissions de GES pour les secteurs consommateurs d'énergie, en fournissant ainsi une méthodologie commune.
Les FprEN 19694-1 et FprEN 19694-2 fournissent une méthode harmonisée pour :
a)   mesurer, contrôler et quantifier les méthodes relatives à la détermination des émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) ;
b)   évaluer au fil du temps le niveau des émissions de GES des procédés de fabrication des sites de production ;
c)   établir et fournir des informations fiables, précises et de qualité à des fins de déclaration et de vérification.
De plus, la présente norme fournit une approche par étapes pour la détermination des émissions de CO2 et l'évaluation de la performance CO2 des installations de production d'acier, en détaillant un ensemble de méthodologies permettant une évaluation objective et fiable de la performance CO2 de chaque procédé individuel dans la chaîne de valeur de production d'acier.
Elle peut être assimilée à une boîte à outils qui permet de déterminer les émissions de CO2 et d'évaluer la performance CO2 des installations de production d'acier à différents niveaux de détail, en établissant un système efficace pour :
-   l'évaluation de la performance globale CO2 d'une installation de production d'acier en tenant compte de sa structure de production ;
-   l'établissement d'une base fiable pour évaluer le potentiel de réduction de CO2 dans une installation et les procédés contributifs ;
-   la définition d'une base pour une évaluation précise des nouvelles technologies.
Outre la détermination des émissions directes et indirectes de CO2 d'une installation de production d'acier, la présente norme met l'accent sur l'évaluation des performances qu'elle s'efforce d'examiner par le biais des méthodologies suivantes :
-   évaluation de l'impact CO2, y compris les émissions de procédés : cette méthodologie évalue les émissions totales de CO2 d'une installation de production d'acier, la teneur en carbone des gaz résiduaires étant imputée comme une charge de CO2 aux procédés qui les ont générés ;
-   évaluation de l'impact CO2 réel : cette méthodologie évalue les émissions totales de CO2 libérées par une installation de production d'acier, mais considère les gaz résiduaires exportés ou utilisés dans une centrale électrique comme étant équivalents au gaz naturel en termes d'émissions de CO2 ;
-   performance CO2 basée sur l'apport de carbone au niveau de l'installation : cette méthodologie génère un indicateur permettant de comparer la performance de l'installation à la meilleure pratique, sur la base de l'apport de carbone du système ;
-   évaluation de la performance CO2 au niveau des procédés : cette méthodologie fournit un ensemble d'indicateurs permettant de comparer la performance des procédés avec la meilleure pratique au niveau de l'unité de production. Ces indicateurs sont ensuite combinés en un chiffre consolidé pour l'ensemble de l'installation. Cette méthodologie fournit également une évaluation théorique de l'économie potentielle de CO2 générée par la mise en oeuvre des meilleures pratiques

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov (TGP) v energetsko intenzivnih industrijah - 2. del: Proizvodnja železa in jekla

Določevanje neposrednih in posrednih emisij toplogrednih plinov na podlagi metode masne bilance pri vsakem procesnem koraku v jeklarski industriji. Vključeni bodo definicija indikatorjev učinkovitosti in pravila za konsolidacijo postopkov na ravni mesta. Cilj je določitev metodologije za ocenjevanje in primerjavo učinkovitosti emisij v časovnem obdobju ali med mesti. Organizirani so terenski preskusi za primerjavo metode masne bilance in meritev v odvodniku za oceno neposrednih emisij.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Dec-2014
Publication Date
11-Jun-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2017
Due Date
09-Apr-2017
Completion Date
12-Jun-2017

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Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 19694-2:2017
01-julij-2017
(PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY'RORþHYDQMHHPLVLMWRSORJUHGQLKSOLQRY 7*3 Y
HQHUJHWVNRLQWHQ]LYQLKLQGXVWULMDKGHO3URL]YRGQMDåHOH]DLQMHNOD
Stationary source emissions - Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive
industries - Part 2: Iron and steel industry
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus
energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 2: Stahl- und Eisenindustrie

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans

les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 2: Industrie sidérurgique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 19694-2:2016
ICS:
13.020.40 Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad Pollution, pollution control
onesnaževanjem in and conservation
ohranjanje
13.040.40 (PLVLMHQHSUHPLþQLKYLURY Stationary source emissions
77.020 Proizvodnja kovin Production of metals
SIST EN 19694-2:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 19694-2:2017
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SIST EN 19694-2:2017
EN 19694-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.40
English Version
Stationary source emissions - Greenhouse Gas (GHG)
emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 2: Iron and
steel industry

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von

émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) dans les Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven

industries énergo-intensives - Partie 2: Industrie Industrien - Teil 2: Stahl- und Eisenindustrie

sidérurgique
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 May 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 19694-2:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 19694-2:2017
EN 19694-2:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Abbreviations ................................................................................................................................................... 8

5 Scope of reporting for the iron and steel industry .............................................................................. 9

5.1 Plants, processes and boundaries ............................................................................................................. 9

5.2 Products and by-products ......................................................................................................................... 11

5.3 Energy, utilities and other materials .................................................................................................... 12

5.4 Greenhouse gases in the steel industry ............................................................................................... 12

5.5 Processes and reference products ......................................................................................................... 12

5.6 Units .................................................................................................................................................................. 13

6 Basic principles of CO emission determination............................................................................... 13

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 13

6.2 Principle of the carbon mass balance ................................................................................................... 14

6.3 Determination of activity data ................................................................................................................ 14

6.4 Determination of emission factors ........................................................................................................ 14

7 Determination of CO emissions at facility level ............................................................................... 16

8 Assessment of CO emission performance .......................................................................................... 19

8.1 Assessment of CO impact of a facility, including process emissions ........................................ 19

8.2 Assessment of actual CO impact of a facility ..................................................................................... 19

8.3 Indicator-based assessment of CO emission performance.......................................................... 20

9 Determination of CO reference values ................................................................................................ 32

10 Assessment of data quality ....................................................................................................................... 33

10.1 Preliminery checks to detect unrealistic data ................................................................................... 33

11 Uncertainty assessment ............................................................................................................................. 35

11.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35

11.2 Uncertainty of activity data ...................................................................................................................... 35

11.3 Uncertainty of carbon content ................................................................................................................. 35

11.4 Determination of uncertainty of CO emissions for individual sources ................................... 36

11.5 Uncertainty of total direct emissions for a facility ........................................................................... 37

Annex A (informative) Definition of the technical boundaries of processes ....................................... 38

Annex B (informative) Products and by-products of the iron and steel Industry ............................. 45

Annex C (informative) Default values for emission factors and upstream data ................................ 52

Annex D (informative) Examples of application of carbon mass balance methodology ................. 55

Annex E (informative) Assessment of emission performance at facility level (carbon input

performance) ................................................................................................................................................. 60

Annex F (informative) Determination of process performance ............................................................... 64

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Annex G (informative) Description of data checks on process data ........................................................ 69

Annex H (informative) Elements on sampling, analyses and uncertainty ............................................ 73

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 80

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European foreword

This document (EN 19694-2:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air

quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate M/478 given to CEN by the European Commission

and the European Free Trade Association.

This European Standard deals with sector-specific aspects for the determination of greenhouse gas

(GHG) emissions from steel production. This standard can be used to measure, report and compare the

GHG emissions of a steel facility. It can also be used to assess the GHG performance of a steel facility or

parts of it.

EN 19694, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-

intensive industries consists of the following parts:
— Part 1: General aspects
— Part 2: Iron and steel industry
— Part 3: Cement industry
— Part 4: Aluminium industry
— Part 5: Lime industry
— Part 6: Ferroalloy industry

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

The steel industry recognizes the urgent need to take action to combat climate change. Slowing and

halting global warming will require substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emission on a global scale.

To play a part in achieving these reductions, steel production sites, recognized as major emitters of

GHG, should as a first step assess their CO emission performance relating to the production of steel

products in order to identify and quantify emission reduction opportunities.

Steel production involves complex chemical reactions, successive heating cycles, and the recycling of

various by-products. A variety of inputs, including raw materials, reactive agents, fuel and heat sources

are transformed into a wide range of steel products, by-products, waste materials and waste energy.

Steel sites manufacture a wide range of products including, among others, sheet products, plate

products, long products, pipe and tubes. In addition, some steel sites produce unique high-performance

specialty steel products, which are created by employing various sub-processes including micro-

alloying and surface treatment, thus requiring additional heat treatments. Therefore, there are no two

steel sites in the world which are the same. As a consequence, a sound assessment of performance

should be made independent of the production structure.

Regulations related to climate change require steel companies to devise methods to reduce CO

emissions from steel sites while continuing to produce steel products from these diverse and complex

steelmaking processes. To accomplish this, it is desirable to have universally common indicators for

determining the CO emission performance of a site.

It has been the usual practice to determine CO emissions at facility level, from which a CO intensity

2 2

per unit of reference product, usually “crude steel”, can be derived. ISO TC 17/SC /WG 21 has proposed

and issued a standard for the determination of CO intensity derived from the method developed by

worldsteel (the world steel association) as ISO 14404-1 and ISO 14404-2.

Although giving a valuable insight on CO emission performance, the “CO intensity” approach

2 2

suggested by the ISO 14404 standards series has some limitations as it provides only one single CO

value for any specific facility, regardless of the complexity of its structure.

With a view to better evaluating the CO performance of a facility along the steel value chain, the

European Steel Industry has, since 2005, worked to set up CO accounting rules aimed at carrying out

the CO emission performance assessment of steel production facilities while taking into account and

properly addressing potential distortions due to differing facility structure. To this end, this standard

goes beyond the mere “CO intensity” approach to determine the performance of each process and unit

that is part of the facility in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the value chain and, at a

later stage, consolidate the performance at facility level.

As stressed in Part 1 of this standard series, this standard does not prejudice the content or application

of any other standard or legal provision.
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EN 19694-2:2016 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard provides a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions and GHG

performance in the steel industry.

This European Standard applies to facilities producing any of the multiple products of the steel value

chain. It is supported by a set of worksheets [1].

This European Standard deals with the specific aspects for the determination of GHG emissions from

steel production and the assessment of emission performance. This standard is to be used in

conjunction with EN 19694-1, which contains overall requirements, definitions and rules applicable to

the determination of GHG emissions for energy-intensive sectors, thereby providing a common

methodological approach.
EN 19694-1 and EN 19694-2 provide a harmonized method for:

a) measuring, testing and quantifying methods for the determination of greenhouse gas (GHG)

emissions;

b) assessing the level of GHG emissions performance of production processes over time, at production

sites;

c) the establishment and provision of reliable and accurate information of proper quality for reporting

and verification purposes.

In addition, this standard provides a stepwise approach for the determination of CO emissions and the

assessment of CO performance of steel facilities, providing a set of methodologies allowing for a fair

and reliable assessment of the CO performance of each individual process along the steel production

value chain.

It can be seen as a toolbox which enables the determination of CO emissions and the assessment of CO

2 2

performance of steel production facilities at various levels of disaggregation, establishing a sound

system for:

— the evaluation of the global CO performance of a steel production facility taking its production

structure into account;

— setting a reliable basis for evaluation of the CO reduction potential in a facility and the contributing

processes;
— setting a basis for accurate evaluation of new technologies.

Next to the determination of the direct and indirect CO emissions of a steel facility, this standard has a

strong focus on performance assessment which it strives to address through the following aspects:

— assessment of CO impact, including process emissions: this methodology evaluates the total CO

2 2

emission of a steel facility, with the carbon content of the waste gases burdened as CO to the

processes giving rise to them;

— assessment of the actual CO impact: this methodology evaluates the total CO emissions released

2 2

by a steel facility, but considers waste gases exported or used in a power plant as equal to natural

gas in terms of CO2 emissions;
performance at facility level: this methodology delivers an indicator comparing
— carbon input CO2

the facility performance with best practice, on the basis of the carbon input to the system;

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— CO performance assessment at process level: this methodology delivers a set of indicators

comparing process performance with best practice at unit level. These indicators are then

combined as a consolidated figure for the whole facility. This methodology also provides a

theoretical assessment of the CO saving potential up to best practice.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 19694-1, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy

intensive industries — Part 1: General aspects

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3:2008, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty

in measurement (GUM:1995)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
boundaries
organizational or technical limits of a facility or plant
Note 1 to entry: The wording of “battery limits” can also be utilized.
3.2
Electric Arc Furnace facility

steel production facility based entirely or partially on the use of recycled scrap melted in an electric arc

furnace

Note 1 to entry: By extension, this type of facility can incorporate a direct reduction production unit.

3.3
integrated facility

steel production facility based on use of virgin iron ores applying the blast furnace route

3.4
net use

net use of a source stream is the amount of fuel, material or energy which is used at the reporting

boundaries during the reporting period.

Note 1 to entry: It can be calculated for the total facility from procurements, deliveries and stock variations or

at process level from external use and net generation excluding internal recycling.

3.5
processing CO emissions

CO emissions related to the transformation of upstream to downstream products incorporating direct

emissions and indirect emissions resulting from procurements

Note 1 to entry: The processing emissions do not include the indirect emissions of upstream products.

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3.6
reference CO saving potential

saving potential calculated by taking the difference between the emissions of a plant or facility and the

emissions of the corresponding reference plant or facility

Note 1 to entry: This concept is a theoretical one and does not necessarily represent the actual CO saving

potential that is technically and economically achievable.
3.7
equipment or unit
technical unit for achieving a specific operation
3.8
total CO emissions
sum of direct and indirect CO emissions
3.9
upstream energy
energy used for the production of one unit of a source stream
4 Abbreviations
ARP achievable reference performance
ASU air separation unit
BF blast furnace
BFG blast furnace gas
BOF basic oxygen furnace
BOFG basic oxygen furnace gas
CDQ coke dry quenching
COG coke oven gas
DRI direct reduced iron
EAF electric arc furnace
EF emission factor of a source stream
GHG greenhouse gases
HBI hot briquetted iron
HM hot metal
HP high pressure
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EN 19694-2:2016 (E)
IEeq indirect emission equivalent factor of a source stream
IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
LP low pressure
LPG liquefied petroleum gas
SRG smelting reduction gas
5 Scope of reporting for the iron and steel industry
5.1 Plants, processes and boundaries
5.1.1 General

The steel production route involves a number of different processes, which can be operated on site or

externalized. Also in each process, some operations can be externalized or may simply not exist so that

particular care has to be taken when defining the system boundaries. A list of the processes that can

take place in a steel production facility is given hereafter. Their technical boundaries (list of processes

or units to be included in the reporting when existing) are given in Annex A.
5.1.2 Integrated steel making
The related plants and processes are:
a) coke plant – coke making;
b) sinter plant – sintering;
c) pellet plant – pelletization;
d) blast furnace plant – blast furnace iron making;

e) BOF plant – BOF steel making including BOF converter, secondary metallurgy and casting.

5.1.3 EAF steel making

EAF steel making is a short production route since in most case, it only implements an EAF plant

including the electric arc furnace, secondary metallurgy and casting.
5.1.4 Other primary processes

Beside the blast furnace, some alternative processes have been developed to produce primary iron for

use in steel making processes:
a) gas based direct reduction plant – DRI/HBI making;
b) coal based direct reduction plant – DRI/HBI making;
c) smelting reduction plant – iron making.
5.1.5 Rolling mills

A variety of rolling mills are used to transform crude steel into commercial products and the types of

rolling mills considered in this standard are:
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a) cogging mill for primary rolling of ingots;
b) billet mills;
c) hot strip mill and compact strip mills for production of flat steel;
d) plate mills;
e) bar and rod mills;
f) section mills for production of medium and heavy profiles;
g) wire rod mills;
h) seamless tube mills.
5.1.6 Downstream processes

Downstream treatments apply only to flat rolled products which are transformed into various final

products by a succession of operations. Due to the large range of product quality that can be produced

by these processes, the operation results vary widely between different sites and, therefore, these

processes are excluded from the scope of process performance assessment. Should any operator want

to enlarge the scope of assessment, the list of processes to include is given below:

a) pickling;
b) cold rolling;
c) annealing which can be batch or continuous;
d) hot dip metallization;

e) electrolytic metallization including electro-galvanizing, tin plating, tin free plating and other metal

coating;
f) organic coating.
5.1.7 Other processes

Additional processes, which can be implemented in a steel production facility, are among others:

a) forging;
b) heat treatment (for plates, sections, tubes, forged pieces);
c) dust treatment;
d) lime production (calcining);
e) steam raising and power generation;
f) air separation;
g) flaring of excess gas;
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h) other plants including facility offices, general maintenance shops, on-site transport, central water

treatment and water networks.
5.2 Products and by-products
5.2.1 General

A product is the intended output of an activity; it can be a final product delivered to external customers

or an input for a downstream plant or process. It is the reference output of a plant or process and can be

accompanied by associated by-products or wastes. Only by-products having a noticeable impact on GHG

emissions are considered in this standard. Products can be produced on site or procured from other

operators. The full list of products and possible by-products is given in Annex B and the classification of

products is indicated below.
5.2.2 Upstream products

Upstream products include all products starting from raw materials to hot rolled products which are

the first level delivered to customers. They are:
a) coke;
b) sinter;
c) pellets;
d) direct reduced iron (DRI/HBI);
e) hot metal;
f) crude steel;
g) roughing mill semis;
h) hot rolled products.
5.2.3 Downstream products

Downstream products result from the primary transformation of hot rolled steel and are mainly

concerning flat products. They are:
a) pickled coils;
b) cold rolled coils;
c) annealed coils;
d) hot dip galvanized coils;
e) electro-galvanized coils;
f) tin plated coils;
g) tin free coils;
h) other metal coated coils;
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i) organic coated coils.
5.2.4 Other products
Other products are:
a) forged pieces;
b) heat treated products;
c) treated dust DRI/Pig iron.
5.3 Energy, utilities and other materials

The iron and steel industry uses a large number of energy sources, utilities and other material sources.

A number of these streams may have an impact on GHG emissions due to their carbon content and/or

the indirect emissions they involve. Based on experience of existing production sites, a list is given in

Annex B according to the following classification:

a) solid and liquid fuels and reducing agents: coal, coke, anthracite, heavy oil, light oil, diesel oil, LPG,

charcoal, used plastics and tires and others. Annex B gives a detailed list of solid and liquid fuels

and reducing agents considered in this standard;

b) gaseous fuels: other than the four gases generated by the steel production processes (COG, BFG,

SRG, BOFG) and listed as by-products of the corresponding processes, the steel industry uses

natural gas mainly for combustion purpose but also as a reducing agent in direct reduction furnaces

or blast furnaces. In specific locations, other gases can be used such as coal mine gas or tail gas from

treatment of process gas;
c) utilities: electricity, heat and industrial gases;

d) miscellaneous materials including iron ores, scrap, fluxes, alloys and electrodes;

e) residues which can be by-products or wastes arising from the processes are considered only when

they have an impact on GHG emissions.
5.4 Greenhouse gases in the steel industry

As demonstrated by the different field tests carried out to support this standard, CO2 is the only relevant

greenhouse gas in the steel industry.
5.5 Processes and reference products

The assessment of CO emission performance of a process requires, as a first step, the determination of

its CO emission intensity (expressed as kg of equivalent CO per tonne of reference product). The

2 2

reference products of the processes included in the scope of performance analysis are given in Table 1.

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SIST EN 19694-2:2017
EN 19694-2:2016 (E)
Table 1 — Reference products of process
Process Reference product
Coke making Total dry wharf coke discharged from coke quenching
excluding quenching breeze or CDQ dust
Sintering Equivalent bell sinter calculated as merchant sinter
production x screening ratio at blast furnace
Pelletizing Equivalent bell pellets calculated as gross pellet production
x screening ratio at blast furnace
Gas-based DRI Total amount of DRI/HBI delivered by the process
(including DRI screening fines)
Coal-based DRI Total amount of DRI after separation of coal char and fluxes
(including DRI fines)
Blast furnace iron making Total amount of liquid hot metal at tap hole
Smelting reduction iron making

BOF/EAF steel making & cogging mills Total amount of continuous casting semis for subsequent

use+ amount of ingots not used in cogging mills + amount of
cogging mill semis
Hot rolling mills Total amount of hot rolled products for subsequent use
Other process Total amount of product
Lime kilns Total amount of lime + dolime produced

In case of ingot casting, the crude steel product is not ready for hot rolling operation and a first step of rolling

(cogging) is necessary to prepare a semi-product similar to crude steel from continuous casting. Including the

cogging mill in the crude steel production step clearly highlights the interest of developing continuous casting for

reduction of GHG emissions.
5.6 Units
The units used in this standard are as follows:
a) solid materials: metr
...

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