This document specifies the safety requirements for flexible polymeric frontsheet and backsheet constructions, which are intended for use as relied upon insulation in photovoltaic (PV) modules. In accordance with the corresponding safety requirements in IEC 61730-1 on the PV module level, the test methods and specifications in this document define the specific requirements of the polymeric frontsheet or backsheet constructions on the component level and cover mechanical, electrical, visual and thermal characterization in an unexposed state and/or after ageing. A polymeric frontsheet and backsheet must pass the requirements in this standard for a PV module to pass the design requirements of IEC 61730-1. Compliance with the safety requirements for a frontsheet or backsheet on the component level does not replace the need for a safety qualification of the complete PV module, in which the frontsheet or backsheet is integrated. The appropriate requirements for testing and qualification on the PV module level are defined in IEC 61730-1 (or IEC TS 62915 in case of retesting) and IEC 61215-1, with test methods provided by IEC 61730-2 and IEC 61215-2, respectively.

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IEC 60904-2:2023 gives requirements for the classification, selection, packaging, marking, calibration and care of photovoltaic reference devices. This document applies to photovoltaic (PV) reference devices that are used to measure the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight for the purpose of quantifying the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices (cells, modules and arrays). It does not cover photovoltaic reference devices for use under concentrated sunlight. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2015. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) added calibration procedures for calibrating PV devices at maximum power by extending the respective Clauses 12 and 13; b) revised requirements for mandatory measurement of spectral responsivity, temperature coefficients and linearity, depending on usage and allowing some measurements on equivalent devices; c) revised requirements for built-in shunt resistor; d) added requirements for traceability of calibration explicitly.

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IEC 63027:2023 applies to equipment used for the detection and optionally the interruption of electric DC arcs in photovoltaic (PV) system circuits. The document covers test procedures for the detection of series arcs within PV circuits, and the response times of equipment employed to interrupt the arcs. The document defines reference scenarios according to which the testing is conducted. This document covers equipment connected to systems not exceeding a maximum PV source circuit voltage of 1 500 V DC. This document provides requirements and testing procedures for arc-fault protection devices used in PV systems to reduce the risk of igniting an electrical fire.

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IEC 62947:2019 is applicable to organizations manufacturing photovoltaic (PV) modules certified to IEC 61215 series and IEC 62108 for design qualification and type approval and IEC 61730 for safety qualification and type approval. The design qualification and type approval of PV modules depend on appropriate methods for product and process design, as well as appropriate control of materials and processes used to manufacture the product. This document lays out best practices for product design, manufacturing processes, and selection and control of materials used in the manufacture of PV modules that have met the requirements of IEC 61215 series, IEC 61730, or IEC 62108. These standards also form the basis for factory audit criteria of such sites by various certifying and auditory bodies. The object of this document is to provide a framework for the improved confidence in the ongoing consistency of performance and reliability of certified PV modules. The requirements of this document are defined with the assumption that the quality management system of the organization has already fulfilled the requirements of ISO 9001 or equivalent quality management system. This document is not intended to replace or remove any requirements of ISO9001 or equivalent quality management system. By maintaining a manufacturing system in accordance with this document, PV modules are expected to maintain their performance as determined from the test sequences in IEC 61215 series, IEC 62108, or IEC 61730.

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This part of IEC 60904 describes the preferred method for determining the equivalent cell
temperature (ECT) of PV devices (cells, modules and arrays of one type of module), for the
purposes of comparing their thermal characteristics, determining NOCT (nominal operating cell
temperature) or alternatively NMOT (nominal module operating temperature), and translating
measured I-V characteristics to other temperatures.

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IEC 60904-4:2019 is available as IEC 60904-4:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60904-4:2019 sets the requirements for calibration procedures intended to establish the traceability of photovoltaic (PV) reference devices to SI units as required by IEC 60904-2. This document applies to PV reference devices that are used to measure the irradiance of natural or simulated sunlight for the purpose of quantifying the performance of PV devices. The use of a PV reference device is required in many standards concerning PV (e.g. IEC 60904-1 and IEC 60904-3). This document has been written with single-junction PV reference devices in mind, in particular crystalline silicon, but it is sufficiently general to include other single-junction technologies. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: modification of standard title; - inclusion of working reference in traceability chain; - update of WRR with respect to SI; - revision of all methods and their uncertainties in annex - harmonization of symbols and formulae with other IEC standards.

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IEC 62109-3:2020 covers the particular safety requirements for electronic elements that are mechanically and/or electrically incorporated with photovoltaic (PV) modules or systems. Mechanically and/or electrically incorporated means that the whole combination of electronic device with the photovoltaic element is sold as one product. Nevertheless, tests provided in this document may also be used to evaluate compatibility of PV modules and electronic devices that are sold separately and are intended to be installed close to each other. The purpose of the requirements of this document is to provide additional safety-related testing requirements for the following types of integrated electronics, collectively referred to as module integrated equipment (MIE): a) Type A MIE where the PV element can be evaluated as a PV module according to IEC 61730-1 and IEC 61730‑2 independently from the electronic element; b) Type B MIE where the PV element cannot be evaluated as a PV module according to IEC 61730-1 and IEC 61730-2 independently from the electronic element.

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IEC 60904-7:2019 is available as IEC 60904-7:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 60904-7:2019 describes the procedure for correcting the spectral mismatch error introduced in the testing of a photovoltaic device, caused by the mismatch between the test spectrum and the reference spectrum (e.g. AM1.5 spectrum) and by the mismatch between the spectral responsivities (SR) of the reference device and of the device under test and therewith reduce the systematic uncertainty. This procedure is valid for single-junction devices but the principle may be extended to cover multi-junction devices. The purpose of this document is to give guidelines for the correction of the spectral mismatch error, should there be a spectral mismatch between the test spectrum and the reference spectrum as well as between the reference device SR and the device under test SR. The calculated spectral mismatch correction is only valid for the specific combination of test and reference devices measured with a particular test spectrum. This fourth edition cancels and replaces the third edition published in 2008. The main technical changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: - For better compatibility and less redundancy, the clause “Determination of test spectrum” refers to IEC 60904-9. - The spectral mismatch factor is called SMM instead of MM to enable differentiation to the angular mismatch factor AMM and spectral angular mismatch factor SAMM. - Formulae for the derivation and application of the spectral mismatch factor SMM are added. - Links to new standards are given, e.g. concerning multi-junction devices. - Corrected wording (responsivity instead of response and irradiance instead of intensity).

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Photovoltaic (PV) modules are electrical devices intended for continuous outdoor exposure during their lifetime. Existing type approval standards do not consider mechanical stresses that may occur during transportation to the PV installation destination. This part of IEC 62759 describes methods for the simulation of transportation of complete package units of modules and combined subsequent environmental impacts. This standard is designed so that its test sequence can co-ordinate with those of IEC 61215 so that a single set of samples may be used to perform both the transportation simulation and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic module design.This standard applies to flat plate photovoltaic modules.

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IEC 63202-1:2019 describes procedures for measuring the light-induced degradation (LID) of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells in simulated sunlight. The magnitude of LID in a crystalline silicon PV cell is determined by comparing maximum output power at Standard Test Conditions (STC) before, and after, exposure to simulated sunlight at a specified temperature and irradiance. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized PV cell LID information to help PV module manufacturers in minimizing the mismatch between cells within the same module, thereby maximizing power yield.

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This International Standard specifies the minimum requirements for the design qualification and type approval of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies suitable for long-term operation in general open-air climates as defined in IEC 60721-2-1. The test sequence is partially based on that specified in IEC 61215-1 for the design qualification and type approval of flat-plate terrestrial crystalline silicon PV modules. However, some changes have been made to account for the special features of CPV receivers and modules, particularly with regard to the separation of on-site and in-lab tests, effects of tracking alignment, high current density, and rapid temperature changes, which have resulted in the formulation of some new test procedures or new requirements. The object of this test standard is to determine the electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the CPV modules and assemblies and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the CPV modules and assemblies are capable of withstanding prolonged exposure in climates described in the scope. The actual life of CPV modules and assemblies so qualified will depend on their design, production, environment, and the conditions under which they are operated. This standard shall be used in conjunction with the retest guidelines described in Annex B.

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IEC 60904-3:2019 is available as IEC 60904-3:2019 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 60904-3:2019 describes basic measurement principles for determining the electrical output of PV devices. The principles given in this document are designed to relate the performance rating of PV devices to a common reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution. The reference terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distribution is given in this document in order to classify solar simulators according to the spectral performance requirements contained in IEC 60904-9. The principles contained in this standard cover testing in both natural and simulated sunlight. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) all spectral data were recalculated due to some minor calculation and rounding errors in the third edition; the global spectral irradiance returned to exactly the data of the second edition; b) the angular distribution of the irradiance was clarified.

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This document defines a test sequence that extends the thermal cycling test of IEC 61215-2. It is intended to differentiate PV modules with improved durability to thermal cycling and evaluate modules for deployment in locations most susceptible to thermal cycling type stress1. This document is based on the ability for 95 % of the modules represented by the samples submitted for this test to pass an equivalency of 500 thermal cycles, as defined in IEC 61215-2:2016, 4.11.3, with a maximum power degradation of less than 5 %. Provisions are also provided to reduce overall test time by increasing the maximum cycle temperature and/or the number of modules submitted for test. The test procedure in this document was developed based on analysis of the stress on tin-lead solder bonds on crystalline silicon solar cells in a glass superstrate type package. Changes to lead-free solder have an effect on the acceleration factors but not enough to change the overall results of this test. Monolithic type modules with integral cell interconnection do not suffer from this specific type of stress but there are still electrical connections within the module, for example between the integrated cell circuit and the module bus bars, that may be subject to wear out from thermal cycling. Flexible modules (without glass) are not stressed in the same way as those with glass superstrates or substrates, therefore use of the equivalency factor employed in this document may not be applicable to these modules.

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This International Standard lays down IEC requirements for the design qualification of power conversion equipment (PCE) suitable for long-term operation in terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) systems. 1.1 Equipment included in this scope This document covers the following items in its scope: electronic power conversion equipment intended for use in terrestrial PV applications. The term PCE refers to equipment and components for electronic power conversion of electric power into another kind of electric power with respect to voltage, current, and frequency. This standard is suitable for PCE for use in both indoor and outdoor climates as defined in IEC 60721-3-3 and IEC 60721-3-4. Such equipment may include, but is not limited to, grid-tied and off-grid DC-to-AC PCEs, DC-to-DC converters, battery charger converters, and battery charge controllers. This standard covers PCE that is connected to PV arrays that do not nominally exceed a maximum circuit voltage of 1500 V DC. The equipment may also be connected to systems not exceeding 1000 V AC at the AC mains circuits, non-main AC load circuits, and to other DC source or load circuits such as batteries. If particular ancillary parts whereby manufacturers and models are specified in the manual for use with the PCE, then those parts shall be tested with the PCE. 1.2 Equipment for which other requirements may apply This standard has not been written to address characteristics of power sources other than PV systems, such as wind turbines, fuel cells, rotating machine sources, etc. This standard has not been written with the intent of addressing the characteristics of power electronic conversion equipment fully integrated into photovoltaic modules. Separate standards exist or are in development for those types of devices. It is, however, applicable to devices where the manufacturer explicitly specifies the capability of full detachment from and subsequent reattachment to the PV module or if the input and output terminals can be accessed and a specification sheet for the PCE is available. Devices meeting these requirements may be tested as individual samples independent from the PV module. This standard does not apply to power conversion equipment with integrated (built-in) electrochemical energy storage (e.g. lead acid or lithium-ion). It is, however, applicable to equipment where the manufacturer specifies and permits complete removal of the electrochemical energy storage from the PCE so that stand-alone assessment of the PCE with the storage removed becomes possible. 1.3 Object The object of the test sequences contained herein is to establish a basic level of durability and to show, as far as it is possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the PCE is capable of maintaining this performance after prolonged exposure to the simulated environmental stresses described herein that are based on the intended use conditions specified by the manufacturer. Optional tests contained herein may be selected depending on the intended installation, market, or special environmental conditions that the PCE is anticipated to experience. The categorization imposes differentiated test sequences and test severity levels reflecting the different requirements of mechanical and electrical 56 components in different environments. PCE are grouped into categories based on size and installation environment. The actual life expectancy of components so qualified will depend on their design, their environment, and the conditions under which they are operated. Estimation of a lifetime and wear out is not generally covered by this standard.

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This document defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics (also known as I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant to these corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of PV devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1 and its relevant subparts. The PV devices include a single solar cell with or without a protective cover, a sub-assembly of solar cells, or a module. A different set of relevant parameters for I-V curve correction applies for each type of device. The determination of temperature coefficients for a module (or subassembly of cells) may be calculated from single cell measurements, but this is not the case for the internal series resistance and curve correction factor, which should be separately measured for a module or subassembly of cells. Refer to Annex A for alternative procedures for series resistance determination. The use of I-V correction parameters are valid for the PV device for which they have been measured. Variations may occur within a production lot or the type class.

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NEXT ACTION: TB ACTION BY 2021-04-23

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IEC 61853-4:2018 describes the standard reference climatic profiles used for calculating energy ratings. This standard contains an attachment in the form of zip files (climatic data sets), which are intended to be used as a complement.

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IEC 61853-3:2018 describes the calculation of PV module energy rating values. The purpose of this document is to define a methodology to determine the PV module energy output (watt-hours), and the climatic specific energy rating (dimensionless) for a complete year at maximum power operation for the reference climatic profile(s) given in IEC 61853-4. It is applied to determine a specific module output in a standard reference climatic profile for the purposes of comparison of rated modules.

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This International Standard outlines terminology, equipment, and methods for performance monitoring and analysis of photovoltaic (PV) systems. It also serves as a basis for other standards which rely upon the data collected.

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This document is applicable to low voltage Photovoltaic Earth-Fault Protection Equipment (PVEFPE) whose function is to detect, interrupt, and warn system operators of earth faults in solar photovoltaic arrays. NOTE 1 In the context of this document, the PV array may include connected wiring and equipment. The required coverage of the monitoring and protection is defined in PV installation codes and standards, including aspects such as whether or not the coverage is required to include battery circuits, the DC outputs of DC-DC converters, etc. NOTE 2 The IEC definition of low voltage is 1 000 V or less for AC systems and 1 500 V or less for DC systems. PV-EFPE may be stand-alone or integrated into other equipment such as PV power conversion equipment, a PV combiner, etc. This document specifies: - the types and levels of the monitoring and protection functions that may be provided; - the nature and timing of responses to earth faults; - test methods for validating the monitoring and protection functions provided; - requirements for functional safety and fault tolerance; - requirements for product safety including construction, environmental suitability, markings, documentation, and testing.

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IEC 61730-2:2016 is available as IEC 61730-2:2016 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition. IEC 61730-2:2016 provides the testing sequence intended to verify the safety of PV modules whose construction has been assessed by IEC 61730-1. The test sequence and pass criteria are designed to detect the potential breakdown of internal and external components of PV modules that would result in fire, electric shock, and/or personal injury. The standard defines the basic safety test requirements and additional tests that are a function of the PV module end-use applications. Test categories include general inspection, electrical shock hazard, fire hazard, mechanical stress, and environmental stress. This new edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - the test sequences have been rearranged; - various tests have been detailed or added.

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IEC 61215-2:2021 is available as IEC 61215-2:2021 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 61215-2:2021 lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. This second edition of IEC 61215-2 cancels and replaces the first edition of IEC 61215-2 issued in 2016. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a. Addition of cyclic (dynamic) mechanical load testing (MQT 20). b. Addition of a test for detection of potential-induced degradation (MQT 21). c. Addition of test methods required for bifacial PV modules. d. Addition of test methods required for flexible modules. This includes the addition of the bending test (MQT 22). e. Revision of simulator requirements to ensure uncertainty is both well-defined and minimized. f. Correction to the hot spot endurance test, where the procedure for monolithically integrated (MLI) thin film technologies (MQT 09.2) previously included two sections describing a procedure only appropriate for silicon modules. g. Selection of three diodes, rather than all, for testing in the bypass diode thermal test (MQT 18). h. Removal of the nominal module operating test (NMOT), and associated test of performance at NMOT, from the IEC 61215 series.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration. The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506. Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing. This document is intended to apply to all crystalline silicon terrestrial flat plate modules. This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration. The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506. Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1:2021. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC TS 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing. This document is intended to apply to all terrestrial flat plate module materials such as crystalline silicon module types as well as thin-film modules. It does not apply to systems that are not long-term applications, such as flexible modules installed in awnings or tenting. This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration. This document does not address the particularities of PV modules with integrated electronics. It may however be used as a basis for testing such PV modules. The objective of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design, and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506. Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film amorphous silicon (a-Si; a-Si/μc-Si) based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration. The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506. Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document lays down requirements for the design qualification of terrestrial photovoltaic modules suitable for long-term operation in open-air climates. The useful service life of modules so qualified will depend on their design, their environment and the conditions under which they are operated. Test results are not construed as a quantitative prediction of module lifetime. In climates where 98th percentile operating temperatures exceed 70 °C, users are recommended to consider testing to higher temperature test conditions as described in IEC TS 63126. Users desiring qualification of PV products with lesser lifetime expectations are recommended to consider testing designed for PV in consumer electronics, as described in IEC 63163 (under development). Users wishing to gain confidence that the characteristics tested in IEC 61215 appear consistently in a manufactured product may wish to utilize IEC 62941 regarding quality systems in PV manufacturing. This document is intended to apply to all thin-film CdTe based terrestrial flat plate modules. As such, it addresses special requirements for testing of this technology supplementing IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021 requirements for testing. This document does not apply to modules used with concentrated sunlight although it may be utilized for low concentrator modules (1 to 3 suns). For low concentration modules, all tests are performed using the irradiance, current, voltage and power levels expected at the design concentration. The object of this test sequence is to determine the electrical characteristics of the module and to show, as far as possible within reasonable constraints of cost and time, that the module is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure outdoors. Accelerated test conditions are empirically based on those necessary to reproduce selected observed field failures and are applied equally across module types. Acceleration factors may vary with product design and thus not all degradation mechanisms may manifest. Further general information on accelerated test methods including definitions of terms may be found in IEC 62506. Some long-term degradation mechanisms can only reasonably be detected via component testing, due to long times required to produce the failure and necessity of stress conditions that are expensive to produce over large areas. Component tests that have reached a sufficient level of maturity to set pass/fail criteria with high confidence are incorporated into the IEC 61215 series via addition to Table 1 in IEC 61215-1. In contrast, the tests procedures described in this series, in IEC 61215-2, are performed on modules. This document defines PV technology dependent modifications to the testing procedures and requirements per IEC 61215-1:2021 and IEC 61215-2:2021.

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This document specifies the minimum requirements for the qualification of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and Cell on Carrier (CoC) assemblies for incorporation into CPV receivers, modules and systems. The object of this qualification standard is to determine the optoelectronic, mechanical, thermal, and processing characteristics of CPV cells and CoCs to show that they are capable of withstanding assembly processes and CPV application environments. The qualification tests of this document are designed to demonstrate that cells or CoCs are suitable for typical assembly processes, and when properly assembled, are capable of passing IEC 62108. This document defines qualification testing for two levels of concentrator photovoltaic device assembly: a) cell, or bare cell; and b) cell on carrier (CoC). NOTE Note that a variety of alternate names are used within the industry, such as solar cell assembly, receiver, etc.

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IEC 62688:2017(E) describes the fundamental construction and testing requirements for Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) modules and assemblies in order to provide safe electrical and mechanical operation during their expected lifetime. Specific topics are provided to assess the prevention of electrical shock, fire hazards, and personal injury due to mechanical and environmental stresses. This document attempts to define the basic requirements for various application classes of concentrator photovoltaic modules and assemblies, but does not encompass all national and regional codes. This document is designed so that its test sequence can coordinate with those of IEC 62108, so that a single set of samples may be used to perform both the safety and performance evaluation of a CPV module and assembly.

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IEC 60904-1:2020 describes procedures for the measurement of current-voltage characteristics (I-V curves) of photovoltaic (PV) devices in natural or simulated sunlight. These procedures are applicable to a single PV solar cell, a sub-assembly of PV solar cells, or a PV module. This document is applicable to non-concentrating PV devices for use in terrestrial environments, with reference to (usually but not exclusively) the global reference spectral irradiance AM1.5 defined in IEC 60904-3. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2006. The main changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: - Updated scope to include all conditions. - Added terms and definitions. - Reorganised document to avoid unnecessary duplication. - Added data analysis clause. - Added informative annexes (area measurement, PV devices with capacitance, dark I-V curves and effect of spatial non-uniformity of irradiance).

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IEC 60904-10:2020 describes the procedures used to measure the dependence of any electrical parameter (Y) of a photovoltaic (PV) device with respect to a test parameter (X) and to determine the degree at which this dependence is close to an ideal linear (straight-line) function. It also gives guidance on how to consider deviations from the ideal linear dependence and in general on how to deal with non-linearities of PV device electrical parameters. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition published in 2009. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a. Modification of title. b. Inclusion of an Introduction explanatory of the changes and the reasoning behind them. c. Inclusion of a new Clause Terms and Definitions (Clause 3), with distinction between generic linear dependence and linear dependence of short-circuit current versus irradiance (linearity). d. Explicit definition of equivalent sample (Clause 4). e. Technical revision of the apparatus (Clause 5), of the measurement procedures (Clause 6 to Clause 8) and of the data analysis (Clause 9), with separation of the data analysis for a generic linear dependence from the data analysis specific to linearity (i.e. short-circuit current dependence on irradiance) assessment. Additionally, inclusion of impact of spectral effects on both linearity and linear dependence assessment. f. Introduction of specific data analysis for two-lamp method, making it fully quantitative. Addition of extended version called N-lamp method. g. Modification of the linearity assessment criterion with inclusion of a formula that can be used to correct the irradiance reading of a PV reference device for non-linearity of its short-circuit current versus irradiance. A linearity factor is specifically newly defined for this purpose. h. Revision of the requirements for the report (Clause 10) in order to improve clearness about what information is always necessary and what is dependent on the procedure actually followed to measure the linear dependence, including the type of dependence measured (generic or linearity).

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IEC 60904-9:2020 is applicable for solar simulators used in PV test and calibration laboratories and in manufacturing lines of solar cells and PV modules. This document define classifications of solar simulators for use in indoor measurements of terrestrial photovoltaic devices. Solar simulators are classified as A+, A, B or C based on criteria of spectral distribution match, irradiance non-uniformity in the test plane and temporal instability of irradiance. This document provides the required methodologies for determining the classification of solar simulators in each of the categories. A solar simulator which does not meet the minimum requirements of class C cannot be classified according to this document. This document is used in combination with IEC TR 60904-14, which deals with best practice recommendations for production line measurements of single-junction PV module maximum power output and reporting at standard test conditions. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition issued in 2007. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - Changed title; - Added spectral match classification in an extended wavelength range; - Introduction of new A+ class; - Definition of additional parameters for spectral irradiance evaluation; - Added apparatus sections for spectral irradiance measurement and spatial uniformity measurement; - Revised procedure for spectral match classification (minimum 4 measurement locations); - Revised measurement procedure for spatial uniformity of irradiance; - Added informative Annex for sensitivity analysis of spectral mismatch error related to solar simulator spectral irradiance.

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IEC 62790:2020 is available as IEC 62790:2020 RLV which contains the International Standard and its Redline version, showing all changes of the technical content compared to the previous edition.IEC 62790:2020 describes safety requirements, constructional requirements and tests for junction boxes up to 1 500 V DC for use on photovoltaic modules in accordance with class II of IEC 61140:2016. This document applies also to enclosures mounted on PV-modules containing electronic circuits for converting, controlling, monitoring or similar operations. Additional requirements concerning the relevant operations are applied under consideration of the environmental conditions of the PV-modules. This document does not apply to the electronic circuits of these devices, for which other IEC standards apply. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 2014. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: - Modifications in normative references and terms and definitions; - Improvement of declaration of categories for junction boxes in 4.1; - Clarification for ambient temperature in 4.1; - Addition of requirement to provide information concerning RTE/RTI or TI in 4.2; - Reference to IEC 62930 instead of EN 50618 in 4.6; - Addition of "Functional insulation" in Table 1; - Addition of "Distance through cemented joints" in Table 3; - Correction of procedure of process to categorize material groups (deletion of PTI) in 4.15.2.3; - Requirement for approval of RTE/RTI or TI for insulation parts in 4.16.1 and 4.16.2; - Change of requirements concerning electrochemical potential in 4.17.2; - Clarification for IP-test in 5.3.4.2; - Addition of test voltage for cemented joints in 5.3.6 and 5.3.16; - Addition of detailled description on how to prepare the test sample for the thermal cycle test in 5.3.9.1; - New test procedure for bypass diode thermal test (5.3.18) in accordance with MQT 18.1 of IEC 61215-2:2016; - New test procedure for reverse overload current test in 5.3.23; - New Figure 1 for thermal cycle test.

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IEC 62805-2:2017 specifies methods for measuring the transmittance and reflectance of glass used in photovoltaic (PV) modules and provides instructions on how to calculate the effective hemispherical transmittance and reflectance of this glass. This document is applicable to PV glasses used in PV modules, including ultra-clear patterned glass, anti-reflective coated (AR) glass, transparent conductive oxide coated (TCO) glass and other kinds of PV glass used in PV modules. These test methods are designed to provide reproducible data appropriate for comparison of results among laboratories or at different times by the same laboratory and for comparison of data obtained on different PV glasses.

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IEC 62805-1:2017 specifies a method for measurement and calculation of the total haze and the spectral distribution of haze of glass used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. This document is applicable to glass used in PV modules, including transparent conductive oxide coated (TCO) glass and other kinds of glass used in PV modules.

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IEC 62979:2017(E) provides a method for evaluating whether a bypass diode as mounted in the module is susceptible to thermal runaway or if there is sufficient cooling for it to survive the transition from forward bias operation to reverse bias operation without overheating. This test methodology is particularly suited for testing of Schottky barrier diodes, which have the characteristic of increasing leakage current as a function of reverse bias voltage at high temperature, making them more susceptible to thermal runaway.

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IEC 62817:2014 is a design qualification standard applicable to solar trackers for photovoltaic systems, but may be used for trackers in other solar applications. The standard defines test procedures for both key components and for the complete tracker system. In some cases, test procedures describe methods to measure and/or calculate parameters to be reported in the defined tracker specification sheet. In other cases, the test procedure results in a pass/fail criterion. This standard ensures the user of the said tracker that parameters reported in the specification sheet were measured by consistent and accepted industry procedures. The tests with pass/fail criteria are engineered with the purpose of separating tracker designs that are likely to have early failures from those designs that are sound and suitable for use as specified by the manufacturer.

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IEC 62920:2017 specifies electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements for DC to AC power conversion equipment (PCE) for use in photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The PCE covered by this document can be grid-interactive or stand-alone. It can be supplied by single or multiple photovoltaic modules grouped in various array configurations, and can be intended for use in conjunction with batteries or other forms of energy storage. This document covers not only PCE connected to a public low voltage AC mains network or other low voltage AC mains installation, but also PCE connected to a medium or high voltage AC network with or without step-down power transformers.

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IEC 61701:2020 describes test sequences useful to determine the resistance of different PV modules to corrosion from salt mist containing Cl (NaCl, MgCl2, etc.). All tests included in the sequences are fully described in IEC 61215‑2, IEC 62108, IEC 61730‑2 and IEC 60068‑2‑52. The bypass diode functionality test in this document is modified from its description in IEC 61215‑2. They are combined in this document to provide means to evaluate possible faults caused in PV modules when operating under wet atmospheres having high concentration of dissolved salt (NaCl). Depending on the specific nature of the surrounding atmosphere to which the module is exposed in real operation several testing methods can be applied, as defined in IEC 60068‑2‑52. Guidance for determining the applicability of this document and selecting an appropriate method is provided in Annex A. This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition issued in 2011. The main technical changes with respect to the previous edition are as follows: - The scope has been updated to better reflect the applicability of the Standard - Test methods and requirements have been condensed and aligned with the new editions of IEC 61215-1, IEC 61215-2, and IEC 61730-2. References to crystalline silicon versus thin film technologies have been eliminated. The old Figure 2 on the thin film test sequence has been eliminated. - The salt mist test references have been updated to harmonize with changes to IEC 60068‑2‑52. - A normative annex has been added to provide guidance on which of the test methods in IEC 60068-2-52 are applicable to different applications. This includes references to new test methods in the latest edition of IEC 60068-2-52.

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IEC 62938:2020 provides a method for determining how well a framed PV module performs mechanically under the influence of inclined non-uniform snow loads. This document is applicable for framed modules with frames protruding beyond the front glass surface on the lower edge after intended installation and as such creates an additional barrier to snow sliding down from modules. For modules with other frame constructions, such as backrails formed in frames, on the side edges, on the top edge and on the lower edge not creating an additional snow slide barrier, this document is not applicable. The test method determines the mechanical non-uniform-load limit of a framed PV module.

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IEC 60904-8-1:2017 gives guidance for the measurement of the spectral responsivity of multi-junction photovoltaic devices. It is principally intended for non-concentrating devices, but parts may be applicable also to concentrating multi-junction PV devices. The SR is required for analysis of measured current-voltage characteristics of multi-junction PV devices as described in IEC 60904-1-1.

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IEC 60904-1-1:2017 describes procedures for the measurement of the current-voltage characteristics of multi-junction photovoltaic devices in natural or simulated sunlight. It is applicable to single PV cells, sub-assemblies of such cells or entire PV modules. It is principally intended for non-concentrating devices, but parts may be applicable also to concentrating multi-junction PV devices. An essential prerequisite is the spectral responsivity of the multi-junction devices, whose measurement is covered by IEC 60904-8-1.

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IEC 62788-1-7:2020 is designed as a more rigorous qualification test, using accelerated UV exposure at elevated temperature to determine whether polymeric encapsulants can suffer loss of optical transmittance. IEC 61215-2 already includes a UV preconditioning test (MQT 10), however, the parameters for that test only represent a limited level of exposure (~weeks of UV dose). This test procedure is intended for representative coupon specimens, applying stress at a greater intensity (designed relative to Phoenix, AZ), using a radiation spectrum that is more similar to the terrestrial solar spectrum, and using a duration of exposure that is more relevant to the PV application (i.e., equivalent to several years of outdoor exposure). This test quantifies the degradation rate of encapsulants so that the risk of the materials losing optical transmittance during operation in the terrestrial environments can be managed. The quantitative correlation between climate (or location of use), a specific application (utility installation, residential-installation, roof-mount, rack-mount, use of a tracker, the system electrical configuration and its operation), and the test can be established for each specific encapsulant material, but is beyond the scope of this document.

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IEC 62446-2:2020 describes basic preventive, corrective, and performance related maintenance requirements and recommendations for grid-connected PV systems. The maintenance procedures cover: - Basic maintenance of the system components and connections for reliability, safety and fire prevention - Measures for corrective maintenance and troubleshooting - Worker safety This document also addresses maintenance activities for maximizing anticipated performance such as module cleaning and upkeep of vegetation. Special considerations unique to rooftop or ground-mounted systems are summarized.

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