This document is focused on the structural features of rivers, on geomorphological and hydrological processes, and on river continuity. It provides guidance on the features and processes to be taken into account when characterizing and assessing the hydromorphology of rivers. It is based on methods developed, tested, and compared in Europe. Its main aim is to improve the comparability of hydromorphological assessment methods, data processing and interpretation. Although it has particular importance for the WFD by providing guidance on assessing hydromorphological quality, it has considerably wider scope for other applications. In addition, while recognizing the important influence of hydromorphology on plant and animal ecology, no attempt is made to provide guidance in this area, but where the biota have an important influence on hydromorphology these influences are included.
NOTE   A case study illustrating the application of this standard is given in Gurnell and Grabowski[1].

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This document specifies general requirements for sampling, preservation, handling, transport and
storage of all water samples including those for biological analyses.
It is not applicable to water samples intended for microbiological analyses as specified in ISO 19458,
ecotoxicological assays, biological assays and passive sampling as specified in the scope of ISO 5667-23.
This document is particularly appropriate when spot or composite samples cannot be analysed on site
and have to be transported to a laboratory for analysis.

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ISO/IEC 17025:2017 specifies the general requirements for the competence, impartiality and consistent operation of laboratories.
ISO/IEC 17025:2017 is applicable to all organizations performing laboratory activities, regardless of the number of personnel.
Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities, organizations and schemes using peer-assessment, accreditation bodies, and others use ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories.

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This European Standard specifies a standardised method for sampling fish in lakes, using benthic multi-mesh gillnets. The method provides a whole-lake estimate for species occurrence, quantitative relative fish abundance and biomass expressed as Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE), and size structure of fish assemblages in temperate lakes. It also provides estimates, which are comparable over time within a lake and between lakes. This European Standard specifies routines for sampling, data handling and reporting, and provides information on applications and further treatment of data. This European Standard also provides guidance on sampling of fish with pelagic multi-mesh gillnets and sampling of fish for age and growth analyses. Selected references in support of this European Standard are given in the Bibliography.

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ISO 13528:2015 provides detailed descriptions of statistical methods for proficiency testing providers to use to design proficiency testing schemes and to analyse the data obtained from those schemes. It provides recommendations on the interpretation of proficiency testing data by participants in such schemes and by accreditation bodies. The procedures in ISO 13528:2015 can be applied to demonstrate that the measurement results obtained by laboratories, inspection bodies, and individuals meet specified criteria for acceptable performance. ISO 13528:2015 is applicable to proficiency testing where the results reported are either quantitative measurements or qualitative observations on test items.

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EN 14184 specifies a method for surveying aquatic macrophytes in running waters for the purpose of assessing ecological status, using these organisms as elements of biological quality. The information provided by this method includes the composition and abundance of the aquatic macrophyte flora. This European Standard is applicable to all kinds of surface running water bodies, like natural brooks, streams and rivers and their heavily modified equivalents, as well as to artificial water bodies like canals or run-of-river reservoirs. The general principles of the approach described in this European Standard may also be applied when monitoring water bodies in the fluvial corridor of a river, such as side channels and oxbows. It is recognized that for a complete assessment of ecological status, other elements of biological quality should also be assessed.

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EN 13946 specifies a method for the sampling and laboratory preparation of benthic diatoms for ecological status and water quality assessments. Data produced by this method are suitable for production of water quality indices based on the relative abundance of taxa.

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EN 14407 specifies methods for the identification and enumeration of relative proportions of diatom taxa on prepared slides and of data interpretation relevant to assessments of water quality in rivers and lakes. It is suitable for use with indices and assessment methods based on the relative abundance of taxa. The methods for identification and enumeration may also be applied to the study of benthic diatoms in other habitats provided that data interpretation methods appropriate to these habitats are used.

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EN 15910 specifies a standardized method for data sampling and procedures for data evaluation of fish populations in large rivers, lakes and reservoirs, using hydroacoustic equipment deployed on mobile platforms (boats and vessels). This standard covers fish population abundance estimates of pelagic and profundal waters > 15 m mean depth with the acoustic beam oriented vertically, and the inshore and surface waters of water bodies > 2 m depth with the beam oriented horizontally. The size structure of fish populations can only be determined to a relatively low degree of precision and accuracy, particularly from horizontally-deployed echosounders. As acoustic techniques are presently unable to identify species directly, other direct fish catching methods should always be used in combination. This standard provides recommendations and requirements on equipment, survey design, data acquisition, post-processing of data and results and reporting. A selected literature with references in support of this standard is given in the Bibliography.

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EN ISO 16665 provides guidelines on the quantitative collection and processing of subtidal soft-bottom macrofaunal samples in marine waters. This International Standard encompasses: a) development of the sampling programme; b) requirements for sampling equipment; c) sampling and sample treatment in the field; d) sorting and species identification; e) storage of collected and processed material.

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This International Standard describes the selection of sampling devices and methods (operation and performance characteristics) used to evaluate benthic macroinvertebrate populations in fresh waters (rivers, canals lakes and reservoirs). The devices and methods considered in this standard are suitable for sampling all major components of the benthic assemblage. They are not suitable for sampling mieofauna.

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This European Standard gives guidance on procedures for the pro-rata Multi-Habitat-Sampling (MHS) of
benthic macro-invertebrates in wadeable rivers and streams. The term "pro-rata" reflects the intention to
sample adequate proportions of riverine habitats with reference to their percentage occurrence (usually a
minimum occurrence of 5 % of the total habitat).
The Multi-Habitat-Sampling does not replace other techniques, but, among other applications, the pro-rata
Multi-Habitat-Sampling technique is a fundamental requisite of some multimetric assessment approaches to
evaluate the ecological status of running waters.
The MHS methodology is based on the Rapid Bioassessment Protocols [1], the procedures of the
Environment Agency for England and Wales [2], the Austrian Guidelines for the Assessment of the
Saprobiological Water Quality of Rivers and Streams [3], the AQEM sampling manual [4], the AQEM & STAR
site protocol [5] ISO 7828, and the Austrian Standards M 6232 and M 6119-2 [6], [7] German Standards
DIN 38410-1 [8].

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This European Standard provides guidance for sampling, preservation, storage, quantification and qualitative analysis of phytoplankton from marine waters. Guidance for quantification is limited to use of light microscopy with phase contrast and epifluorescence.
The standard comprises:
- development of the sampling programme;
- requirements for sampling equipment;
- procedures for sampling and treatment of samples in the field;
- methods for quantification;
- qualitative analysis.
The standard provides minimum requirements for environmental monitoring.

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This document is applicable to standing waters with surface areas greater than 1 ha (0,01 km2) and maximum depths (at mean water level) greater than 1 m. All types of permanent standing waters, including natural and artificial (thus including reservoirs), fresh water and brackish, except for those systems regularly connect to the sea, are included in this European Standard, though canals are excluded. Based on these criteria it can be estimated that there are at least 500 000 natural lakes across Europe, most of which are located in the glaciarised landscapes in northern and western provinces and in Scandinavia. Lakeland districts also occur locally in areas such as the Danubian and Hungarian plains and around the Alps. Elsewhere naturally occurring lakes are relatively sparse and in such areas reservoirs are the most common type of standing water.  
a)   defines the key term of hydromorphology and related terms relating to the physical characteristics of lakes and their hydrological regimes;
b)   details essential features and processes of lakes that should be characterised as part of a hydromorphological survey and thus to determine the hydromorphological condition of a lake;
c)   identifies and defines the key pressures impacting on European lakes;
d)   provides guidance on strategies for collecting hydromorphological data depending on resources available and the anticipated use of the assessment. A hierarchy of approaches is recognised spanning from the ‘overview method’ utilising existing databases, maps and remote sensing data through to recognised field-based survey techniques such as Lake Habitat Survey (LHS);
e)   offers assistance in interpreting the data;
f)   establishes guidance on data quality assurance issues.
This European Standard is designed to
a)   support environmental and conservation agencies meet the monitoring requirements of the WFD (Article 8, Annex II and Annex V);

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This European Standard provides guidance on characterizing the modifications of river hydromorphological features described in EN 14614. Both standards focus more on morphology than on hydrology and continuity, and on lateral and longitudinal continuity rather than on vertical continuity which is difficult to measure. This standard will enable consistent comparisons of hydromorphology between rivers within a country and between different countries in Europe, providing a method for broad-based characterization across a wide spectrum of hydromorphological modification of river channels, banks, riparian zones and floodplains. Its primary aim is to assess "departure from naturalness" as a result of human pressures on river hydromorphology, and it suggests suitable sources of information (see Table A.1) which may contribute to characterizing the modification of hydromorphological features. In doing so, it does not replace methods that have been developed for local assessment and reporting. Decisions on river management for individual reaches or catchments require expert local knowledge and vary according to river type.

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This International Standard specifies general requirements for the competence of providers of proficiency testing schemes and for the development and operation of proficiency testing schemes. These requirements are intended to be general for all types of proficiency testing schemes, and they can be used as a basis for specific technical requirements for particular fields of application.

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This European Standard provides guidelines for the survey/sampling, identification and basic quantification of phytobenthos (other than macrophytes) in running waters. It is applicable to rivers where benthic algae and bryophytes are the main phototrophs. This method encompasses all phytobenthic growth forms and enables biological responses to environmental events over one or more years to be monitored. In this respect it provides an alternative to methods based on benthic diatoms (EN 13946; EN 14407) and macrophytes (EN 14184). Data obtained for the phytobenthos growth forms are suitable for pilot surveys, water quality assessment and trend monitoring. This European Standard encompasses all aspects from the design of survey and sampling programmes to the identification and basic quantification of the phytobenthos.

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This guidance standard defines a method for surveying aquatic macrophytes in lakes;primarily for the purpose of assessing ecological status, using these organisms as an element of biological quality. The information provided by this method includes the composition and abundance of the aquatic macrophyte flora. For a complete assessment of ecological status, other elements of biological quality should also be assessed. The general principle of the approach described in this European Standard may also form the basis for the monitoring and assessment of macrophytes in lakes, for example, for conservation purposes.

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The standard shall provide guidance for marine biological surveys of supra-littoral, littoral and sub-littoral hard bottom for environmental impact assessment and monitoring in coastal areas. The standard encompasses surveys down to 30 m depth, which is the practical depth limit for scuba diving. For the purposes of this standard, hard bottom is defined as bedrock, stable rocks and fixed marine constructions (e.g. pipelines, quays and wharf, keys and pipelines pole). The main focus is community registrations based on taxa that can be recorded in the field (i.e. are visible to the naked eye). The standard does not include biogenic substrate as coral rief.
The guidelines can also be used for surveys of substrates comprising loose pebbles/boulders, stone blocks, coarse gravel and other loose material as well as bedrock covered with loose sediment, but in general, such substrates require specially adapted techniques. Additional methods are required for surveys in depths greater than approx. 30 metres.
The methods are limited to surveys and semi-quantitative and quantitative recording techniques that cause little destruction of the fauna and flora. In practice, this refers to direct recording in the field and photography. Sampling by scraping off organisms, use of a suction sampler etc. are not covered in this standard, but such techniques can be used as a supplement, for information on small-bodied taxa or those that live hidden.
The standard covers:
-   development of the sampling programme;
-   survey methods;
-   taxon identification;
-   storage of data and collected material
The standard specifies the minimum requirements for environmental monitoring.

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    28 pages
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The procedure described in this European Standard is based on the standard settling technique as defined by Utermöhl in 1958 [31]. It describes a general procedure for the estimation of abundance and taxonomic composition of marine and freshwater phytoplankton by using inverted light microscopy and sedimentation chambers, including the preceding steps of preservation and storage. Emphasis is placed on optimizing the procedure for the preparation of the microscopic sample. Many of the general principles of the approach described may also be applied to other techniques of enumerating algae (or other entities) using a (conventional) microscope, some of which are described in Annex E. This guidance standard does not cover field collection of samples or the analysis of picoplankton, quantitative analysis of free-floating mats of Cyanobacteria or specific preparation techniques for diatoms.

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This guidance standard specifies equipment and procedures for collecting floating pupal exuviae of Chironomidae from aquatic habitats; rivers from source to estuary, canals, ponds, lakes and sea coasts. Guidance in preparing specimens for subsequent identification is provided. These samples provide representative data on relative species abundance, suitable for numerical analysis, classification and monitoring of environmental conditions.

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This document defines methods for sampling fish and procedures for selection of methods in order to evaluate fish populations in rivers, lakes and transitional waters. A selected literature with references in support of this document is given in the bibliography. This document refers to the standards "Water quality - Sampling of fish with electricity" (EN 14011) and "Water quality - Sampling of fish with multi-mesh gillnets" (EN 14757).

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This European Standard provides procedures to be used by trained persons in evaluating fish communities in streams, rivers and littoral areas for the purpose of classification of ecological status. These procedures allow standardisation of sampling methods for descriptions of fish communities. The use of standardised methods is a critical requirement for the comparability of results.
This European Standard describes an electric fishing method to be used when catching fish for the purpose of characterising species richness, composition, abundance and age structure of a given fish community. Sampling-related issues include obtaining permissions, concerns about endangered species, protective measures of importance for the user of the sampling apparatus and co-ordination of activities with other sampling programmes.
The processing of samples covers taxonomic identification, counting, measurement of biologic parameters (length, weight etc.), and examination of fish for external anomalies.

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The procedure specified can be applied for phytoplankton in natural surface waters and for testing algal growth in bio-assays. Using appropriate sampling it can also be applied to phytobenthic communities. The principle is collection of algae by filtration, extraction of algal pigments, spectrometric determination of the chlorophyll-a concentration in the extract, evaluation of the chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment concentration from the difference of absorbance at 665 nm prior to and after acidification of the extract.

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