Natural stone - Terminology

This document defines the recommended terminology covering scientific and technical terms, test methods, products, and the classification of Natural Stones. This document does not cover roofing slate, for roofing slate see EN 12326-1 and EN 12326-2.

Naturstein - Terminologie

Dieses Dokument definiert die empfohlene Terminologie für wissenschaftliche und technische Begriffe, Prüfverfahren, Produkte und die Klassifizierung von Naturstein. Dachschiefer wird durch dieses Dokument nicht abgedeckt; zu Dachschiefer siehe EN 12326-1 und EN 12326-2.

Pierre naturelle - Terminologie

Le présent document définit une terminologie recommandée des termes scientifiques et techniques, des méthodes d’essai et des produits ainsi qu’une classification des pierres naturelles. Le présent document ne couvre pas l’ardoise de toiture ; pour celle-ci, voir les EN 12326-1 et EN 12326-2.

Naravni kamen - Terminologija

Ta evropski standard opredeljuje priporočeno terminologijo, ki zajema znanstvene in tehnične izraze, preskusne metode, izdelke ter klasifikacijo naravnih kamnov. Ta standard ne zajema skrilavca za strehe, za slednjega glej standarda EN 12326-1 in EN 12326-2.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Jun-2019
Withdrawal Date
30-Dec-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
12-Jun-2019
Due Date
19-Feb-2019
Completion Date
12-Jun-2019

Relations

Effective Date
12-Aug-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
01-september-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 12670:2002
Naravni kamen - Terminologija
Natural stone - Terminology
Naturstein - Terminologie
Pierre naturelle - Terminologie
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12670:2019
ICS:
01.040.73 Rudarstvo in rudnine Mining and minerals
(Slovarji) (Vocabularies)
01.040.91 Gradbeni materiali in gradnja Construction materials and
(Slovarji) building (Vocabularies)
73.020 Rudarstvo in kamnolomsko Mining and quarrying
izkopavanje
91.100.15 Mineralni materiali in izdelki Mineral materials and
products
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

EN 12670
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
June 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.91; 91.100.15 Supersedes EN 12670:2001
English Version
Natural stone - Terminology
Pierre naturelle - Terminologie Naturstein - Terminologie
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 15 April 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this
European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references
concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN
member.
This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, North
Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United
Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12670:2019 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

Contents Page
European foreword . 3
Introduction . 4
1 Scope . 5
2 Normative references . 5
3 Terms and definitions . 5
3.1 Geological terms . 5
3.2 Quarrying terms . 58
3.3 Processing terms . 64
3.4 Products and installation terms . 73
4 Scientific classifications . 79
4.1 Geological time scale (informative) . 79
4.2 Scientific classification charts . 80
4.2.1 Igneous Rocks Classification Charts . 80
4.2.2 Sedimentary Rocks Classification Charts . 88
4.2.3 Most common specific names of metamorphic rocks (list modified after Fettes and
Desmons, 2007) . 94
Annex A (informative) Examples of petrographical families/groups used in building . 96
Annex B (informative) Alphabetical index . 100
Bibliography . 112

European foreword
This document (EN 12670:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 246 “Natural
stones”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2019, and conflicting national standards
shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2019.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 12670:2001.
In comparison with the precious edition, the following changes have been made:
— the changes concern essentially the proper scientific definitions, terminology, and diagrams.
This document is one of a series of standards for natural stone products including denomination, test
methods and product standards.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Introduction
The term Natural Stone groups several rock types with marked geological differences. The extraction,
elaboration and commerce of Natural Stone have set a very particular vocabulary. Many of these terms
have been taken from the popular or quarrymen language, which sometimes is far from scientific
definitions. This document establishes the terminological bases for geological and petrologic definitions
of Natural Stone and its classification. References to definitions of natural stone products, defined in
other European Standards, are provided when necessary. It also incorporates most of the popular or
commercial terminology.
The terminology covers the fields of geology, mining, processing, marketing and products of Natural
Stone. The included scientific classifications allow setting the scientific name of the stone varieties. If
the stone variety is not included in this document, the rock should be classified using its three main
mineralogical components.
1 Scope
This document defines the recommended terminology covering scientific and technical terms, test
methods, products, and the classification of Natural Stones. This document does not cover roofing slate,
for roofing slate see EN 12326-1 and EN 12326-2.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 12326-1, Slate and stone for discontinuous roofing and external cladding - Part 1: Specifications for
slate and carbonate slate
EN 12326-2, Slate and stone for discontinuous roofing and external cladding - Part 2: Methods of test for
slate and carbonate slate
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1 Geological terms
3.1.1
accessory minerals
rock forming minerals that occur in such small amounts that they are not relevant in the classification
or nomenclature of the rock
3.1.2
acid rock
igneous rock that contains more than 66 % vol. of silica
3.1.3
actinolite
Ca-Mg-Fe-amphibole (see amphibole formula)
3.1.4
agate
distinctly banded variety of chalcedony
3.1.5
age
fourth order geological time unit
Note 1 to entry: See Table 2.
3.1.6
agglomerate
pyroclastic rock in which bombs (with diameters greater than 64 mm) > 75 % vol.
3.1.7
agglutinate
welded splatter, commonly of basaltic composition, deposited ballistically in strombolian or fire
fountain volcanic eruptions
3.1.8
alabaster
fine grained, compact variety of gypsum, usually white or pale coloured and translucent
3.1.9
albite
sodium plagioclase, formula Na(AlSi O ) (see plagioclase)
3 8
3.1.10
alkali feldspar
alkali rich feldspars microcline, orthoclase, sanidine, albite, with less than 5 % vol. anorthite
Note 1 to entry: See feldspar and plagioclase.
3.1.11
allochems
coarser framework grains in most mechanically deposited limestones in the basin of sedimentation
Note 1 to entry: Allochems include: intraclasts, ooids, skeletal particles, pellets (including peloids).
3.1.12
allotriomorphic
anhedral
xenomorphic
mineral which shows in thin sections no characteristic or rational faces, suggested by its crystalline
structure
3.1.13
alteration
post-formational change of the mineralogical and or chemical composition of a rock brought about by
physical, chemical, or biological means, including actions of hydrothermal solutions and weathering
processes, excluding metasomatic and metamorphic changes
3.1.14
alumina
Al O
2 3
chemical compound used in fine polishing
3.1.15
amorphous
phase that does not have a crystalline structure
3.1.16
amphibole
family of dark ferromagnesian silicate minerals, general formula A B (Si,Al) O (OH) , where A = Mg,
2-3 5 8 22 2
2+ 2+ 3+
Fe , Ca, Na; B = Mg, Fe , Fe , Al
3.1.17
amphibolite
gneissose or granofelsic metamorphic rock mainly consisting of green, brown, or black amphibole and
plagioclase
Note 1 to entry: A gneissose/granofelsic mesostructure is typical of true amphibolites, in contrast with
schistose, green amphibole-albite greenschists.
3.1.18
amygdaloidal
texture of volcanic rocks where almond-shaped vesicles are, fully or partially, filled with secondary
minerals
3.1.19
analcime
mineral, Na(AlSi O )H O of the zeolite group
2 6 2
Note 1 to entry: See zeolite, secondary minerals.
3.1.20
andalusite
mineral, Al SiO polymorphous with sillimanite and kyanite
2 5
3.1.21
andesite
volcanic rock of intermediate composition mainly composed of plagioclase (oligoclase - andesine) and
one or more of the mafic minerals amphibole, pyroxene, and biotite
Note 1 to entry: See 4.2.1.5
3.1.22
anhedral
(see allotriomorphic, 3.1.12)
3.1.23
anhydrite
mineral with CaSO formula
3.1.24
anisotropy
vectorial behaviour of physical and mechanical properties in minerals and rocks, i.e. hardness in
kyanite, thermal expansion in calcite, flexural resistance in slate
3.1.25
ankerite
mineral of dolomite group with calcium and iron
3.1.26
anorthite
calcic plagioclase, Ca (Al Si O )
2 2 8
Note 1 to entry: See plagioclase.
3.1.27
anorthoclase
sodium-rich mineral of the alkali feldspar group, formula (Na,K)AlSi O
3 8
Note 1 to entry: Its composition, in terms of the mole fraction of the orthoclase component (or) and the albite
component (ab) is or ab to or ab (see feldspar, microcline, plagioclase, orthoclase).
40 60 10 90
3.1.28
anorthosite
plutonic rock mainly composed of anorthite – rich plagioclase and little or no mafic minerals
Note 1 to entry: See 4.2.1.2.
3.1.29
antiperthite
perthitic intergrowth of plagioclase host and subsidiary K-rich feldspar
3.1.30
apatite
group of minerals, of which the formula is Ca (PO ,CO ) (F,OH,Cl)
5 4 3 3
3.1.31
aphanitic
of or relating to an igneous rock in which the crystals are so fine that individual minerals cannot be
distinguished with the naked eye
Note 1 to entry: Aphanitic rocks are extrusive rocks that cooled so quickly that crystal growth was inhibited.
3.1.32
aplite
fine grained igneous rock of granitic composition with allotriomorphic texture and, commonly,
leucogranitic composition
3.1.33
aragonite
mineral, polymorphous with calcite, of which the formula is CaCO
3.1.34
Archaean
the older eon of the Precambrian ranging from the formation of the Earth at ~4 000 Ma to 2 500 Ma
Note 1 to entry: See Table 1.
3.1.35
arenite
loose soil or consolidated sedimentary rock, mainly composed of sand size detrital lithic fragments or
mineral grains (between 1/16 mm and 2 mm)
Note 1 to entry: Usually the term is used with a prefix that refers to its composition or genesis, e.g.
quartzarenite (see 4.2.2.5).
3.1.36
argillite
layered or not-layered consolidated sedime
...

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