Water quality - Guidance on mapping of seagrasses and macroalgae in the eulittoral zone

This document provides guidance for survey design, equipment specification, survey methods, sampling and data handling of macroalgae and marine angiosperms such as Zostera in the intertidal soft bottom environment. It does not include polyeuryhaline terrestrial angiosperms that are found in saltmarshes. Ruppia is a genus of angiosperms that can be found in brackish water. This document can also be applied to the study of Ruppia in these environments.
The document comprises:
-   development of a mapping and sampling programme;
-   requirements for mapping and sampling equipment;
-   procedures for remote sensing data collection;
-   procedures for direct mapping and sampling in the field;
-   recommendations for taxon identification and biomass determination;
-   data handling.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Kartierung von Seegras und Makroalgen in der Eulitoralzone

Dieses Dokument enthält eine Anleitung für die Planung und Durchführung der Untersuchung von Makroalgen und marinen Bedecktsamern, z. B. Zostera, in Weichböden des Gezeitenbereichs, die Auflistung der Ausrüstung, die Untersuchungsverfahren, die Probenahme und die Datenverwaltung. Polyeuryhaline terrestrische Bedecktsamer der Salzmarschen sind nicht Gegenstand dieses Dokuments. Ruppia ist eine Gattung der Bedecktsamer, die in Brackwasser auftritt. Dieses Dokument kann auch für die Untersuchung von Ruppia im o. g. Bereich angewendet werden.
Das Dokument umfasst Folgendes:
- Entwicklung eines Kartierungs  und Probenahmeprogramms;
- Anforderungen an Kartierungs  und Probenahmeausrüstung;
- Verfahren für die Sammlung von Daten mittels Fernerkundung;
- Verfahren für die direkte Kartierung und Probenahme vor Ort;
- Empfehlungen für die Artbestimmung und die Ermittlung der Biomasse;
- Datenverarbeitung.

Qualité de l’eau - Recommandations relatives à la cartographie des herbiers et des macroalgues dans la zone intertidale

Le présent document fournit des recommandations relatives à la conception des études, aux spécifications des équipements, aux méthodes d’étude, { l’échantillonnage et { la manipulation des données concernant les macroalgues et les angiospermes marines telles que Zostera dans l’environnement intertidal { fond meuble. Il n’inclut pas les angiospermes terrestres polyeuryhalines présentes dans les marais salants. Ruppia est un genre d’angiospermes présent dans les eaux saumâtres. Le présent document peut également s’appliquer { l’étude de Ruppia dans ces environnements.
Le document couvre :
— le développement d’un programme de cartographie et d’échantillonnage ;
— les exigences concernant l’équipement de cartographie et d’échantillonnage ;
— les modes opératoires pour la collecte de données par sondage distant ;
— les modes opératoires pour la cartographie et l’échantillonnage directs sur le terrain ;
— des recommandations pour l’identification des taxons et la détermination de la biomasse ;
— la manipulation des données.

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za kartiranje morskih trav in makroalg v evlitoralni coni

Ta dokument podaja smernice za opazovanje, specifikacijo opreme, metode opazovanja, vzorčenje ter obdelavo podatkov za makroalge in morske kritosemenke, kot je na primer Zostera na mehkem dnu v bibavičnem pasu. Ne zajema polievrihalinih kopenskih kritosemenk, ki so prisotne v slanih močvirjih. Rupija je rod kritosemenk, ki jih je mogoče najti v somornici. Ta dokument se lahko uporablja tudi za študijo rupije v teh okoljih.
Dokument vključuje:
–   razvoj programa za preslikavo in vzorčenje;
–   zahteve glede opreme za preslikavo in vzorčenje;
–   postopke za zbiranje podatkov z daljinskim zaznavanjem;
–   postopke za neposredno preslikavo in vzorčenje na terenu;
–   priporočila za prepoznavanje taksonov in določanje biomase;
–   obdelavo podatkov.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
10-Sep-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
11-Sep-2019
Completion Date
11-Sep-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17211:2019
01-november-2019

Kakovost vode - Navodilo za kartiranje morskih trav in makroalg v evlitoralni coni

Water quality - Guidance on mapping of seagrasses and macroalgae in the eulittoral

zone

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Kartierung von Seegras und Makroalgen in der

Eulitoralzone
Qualité de l’eau - Lignes directrices pour la cartographie des herbiers et des
macroalgues dans la zone eulittorale
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17211:2019
ICS:
07.060 Geologija. Meteorologija. Geology. Meteorology.
Hidrologija Hydrology
13.060.70 Preiskava bioloških lastnosti Examination of biological
vode properties of water
SIST EN 17211:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17211:2019
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SIST EN 17211:2019
EN 17211
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 07.060; 13.060.70
English Version
Water quality - Guidance on mapping of seagrasses and
macroalgae in the eulittoral zone

Qualité de l'eau - Lignes directrices pour la Wasserbeschaffenheit - Anleitung zur Kartierung von

cartographie des herbiers et des macroalgues dans la Seegras und Makroalgen in der Eulitoralzone

zone eulittorale
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17211:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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EN 17211:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 7

5 Survey strategy ................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.1 Mapping plan .................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Timing and frequency of sampling ........................................................................................................... 8

5.3 Pilot survey ........................................................................................................................................................ 8

5.4 Baseline survey ................................................................................................................................................ 9

5.5 Temporal trend monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 10

5.6 Specialized surveys ..................................................................................................................................... 10

6 Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Field survey .................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.3 Equipment for species identification in the laboratory ................................................................. 12

6.4 Equipment for direct biomass assays ................................................................................................... 12

6.5 Aerial remote sensing surveys ................................................................................................................ 13

6.6 Visual aerial surveys ................................................................................................................................... 13

7 Chemicals ........................................................................................................................................................ 13

8 Survey procedures ....................................................................................................................................... 14

8.1 General principles ........................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2 Field mapping and sampling using quadrats ..................................................................................... 14

8.2.1 Recording ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

8.2.2 Quadrat numbers and positioning ......................................................................................................... 15

8.2.3 Determination of coverage within quadrats ...................................................................................... 16

8.2.4 In situ species determination and biomass measurements ......................................................... 17

8.2.5 Expression of result ..................................................................................................................................... 18

8.3 Taxa identification ....................................................................................................................................... 18

8.4 Biomass measurements ............................................................................................................................. 19

8.4.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19

8.4.2 Determination of wet mass ....................................................................................................................... 19

8.4.3 Determination of dry mass ....................................................................................................................... 19

8.4.4 Determination of ash-free dry mass ...................................................................................................... 19

8.4.5 Expression of results ................................................................................................................................... 20

8.5 Mapping of extent of seagrass (angiosperms) and macroalgae beds by ground

truthing ............................................................................................................................................................ 20

8.6 Cover and proportion of intertidal seagrass beds ........................................................................... 20

8.7 Aerial and satellite remote sensing imagery ..................................................................................... 20

8.8 Visual aerial surveys ................................................................................................................................... 21

8.9 Data storage and reporting ...................................................................................................................... 21

9 Quality assurance and quality control.................................................................................................. 22

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Annex A (informative) Aerial and satellite remote sensing options and resolution ........................ 23

A.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 23

Annex B (informative) Wind, weather and sea conditions ......................................................................... 25

Annex C (informative) Exposure characterization codes ............................................................................ 26

Annex D (informative) Substrate characterization codes ........................................................................... 27

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 28

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European foreword

This document (EN 17211:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water

analysis”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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Introduction

Investigation of marine angiosperms (e.g. seagrasses) and macroalgae is an important part of marine

environmental monitoring, facilitating the assessment of general ecological quality and the monitoring

of ecological status. The requirement for using marine angiosperms and macroalgae in marine

monitoring is inherent in numerous European and national directives: e.g. Marine Strategy Framework

Directive (Directive 2008/56/EC), Water Framework Directive (WFD) (Directive 2000/60/EC), Urban

Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC), Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the OSPAR and

HELCOM conventions. Extensive green macroalgal beds are considered an indicator of eutrophication.

Seagrasses and some macroalgae species are important contributors to biodiversity, as well as IUCN

threatened species and they are investigated in very similar ways. They respond to environmental

changes - primarily availability of light, nutrients, temperature and are impacted by physical

disturbance. Monitoring of extent of area, biomass and species composition may therefore in many

cases be used to characterize the environment and the degree of impacts.

The characterization of environmental conditions based on marine angiosperms and macroalgae

requires the use of quantitative and qualitative mapping methods.

WARNING — Persons using this document should be familiar with normal fieldwork practice.

This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its

use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices

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1 Scope

This document provides guidance for survey design, equipment specification, survey methods, sampling

and data handling of macroalgae and marine angiosperms such as Zostera in the intertidal soft bottom

environment. It does not include polyeuryhaline terrestrial angiosperms that are found in saltmarshes.

Ruppia is a genus of angiosperms that can be found in brackish water. This document can also be

applied to the study of Ruppia in these environments.
The document comprises:
— development of a mapping and sampling programme;
— requirements for mapping and sampling equipment;
— procedures for remote sensing data collection;
— procedures for direct mapping and sampling in the field;
— recommendations for taxon identification and biomass determination;
— data handling.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN ISO 7027-2, Water quality - Determination of turbidity - Part 2: Semi-quantitative methods for the

assessment of transparency of waters (ISO 7027-2)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
biomass
total mass of living material in an area (m )

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-3:1993, definition 12, modified – “a given body of water” has been replaced by “an

area (m )” to reflect the littoral location]
3.2
ground-truth

information that are confirmed in an actual field investigation which is done at a defined location

Note 1 to entry: Used to confirm the findings of, or to calibrate quantitative observations, from remote sensing.

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3.3
eulittoral zone
intertidal zone

marine intertidal zone which is submersed and emerged, either periodically due to tides or

aperiodically due to irregularly occurring factors, as in the enclosed seas of the Baltic or the

Mediterranean

Note 1 to entry: Biologically, this zone is defined as the zone between the upper limit of barnacles and the upper

limit of laminarians. In the Baltic where there is no tide, the eulittoral zone is the zone of short-lived annual algae.

[SOURCE: EN ISO 19493:2007, 2.7]
3.4
littoral zone
shallow marginal zone of a body of water where light penetrates to the bottom
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-3:1993, definition 40]
4 Principle

Surveys of marine angiosperms and macroalgae are undertaken using ground surveys and/or remote

sensing methods. This document gives guidance on the survey design, geographic positioning on the

ground, field data collection and sample processing for biomass determination. It does not cover the use

of specialist remote sensing software or data handling approaches beyond that of their general

application.
5 Survey strategy
5.1 Mapping plan

The mapping and sampling plan shall be defined according to the aims of the survey and the required

precision of results and their intended use before the survey is initiated. Remote and direct sampling,

methods, location and number of sampling stations on the ground, and methods for data processing will

vary between different types of studies. During development of the programme, consideration should

be given to local tidal regimes and general environmental conditions. Knowledge from previous surveys

and from local information sources is important in locating beds and in planning safe and

representative survey locations and resources. For guidance on the design of sampling programme, see

EN ISO 5667-1 [4].

The survey plan can require work to take place over a defined substrate type. This should be defined by

the survey objectives. The use of existing habitat maps or sediments maps may be used to define this

area.

Eulittoral surveys should begin at a certain time before low tide and should end accordingly after low

tide. This time will depend on the local tidal flat morphology and the tidal conditions and can vary by

2 hours or more either side of low water. Particular caution has to be paid to tidal channels and the

rising tide.
The eulittoral survey may be a:

— full field survey, where all data are collected from work on the ground; e.g. where beds are large, a

survey may not be completed during one low tide and has to be done in several stages or by using

underwater survey techniques;

— combined field and remote sensing survey, where the field data are used to validate the remote

sensing results and to collect any biomass and supporting data;
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— remote sensing survey. It is recommended that this approach is conducted by an experienced

surveyor or for pilot surveys (see 5.3) only as the results are not validated by ground- truth data.

Table 1 indicates the suitability in relation to scale of area of a number of different approaches.

However, methods are dependent on specific aims of the survey and restrictions in available survey

resources.

Table 1 — Decision matrix for the suitability of littoral/intertidal sampling methods for

macroalgae and angiosperms (H = high suitability, M = moderate suitability, L = low suitability,

N = not suitable)
Direct visual
Visual aerial Digital aerial
a a
field sampling/
Area
Aerial photo Satellite
a, b a
survey sensor
mapping only
< 0,01 H M M N N
0,01 to 1 H-M H-M H-M H N
1 to 100 M H H H M
> 100 L H H H H
Require ground validation.
Directly recorded by personnel in the field.
See Table A.1 for more information on aerial methods.
5.2 Timing and frequency of sampling

For baseline monitoring (see 5.4), sampling shall be carried out at least once in the year within the peak

vegetation period. This will vary with latitude, and thus should be based on local knowledge. At

important bird sites, consideration should be given to ensure minimum disturbance to birds. It should

be noted that the arrival of geese can lead to a reduction on bed extent (particularly seagrass) due to

grazing.

For trend monitoring (see 5.5), sampling shall be carried out at least once every two or three years. The

investigation shall include the peak vegetation period.

Aerial surveys and ground surveys shall be undertaken preferably synchronously, at least within a

restricted period of time between the two survey types. For aerial surveys where the field data are key

to validating the aerial imagery, e.g. when using multispectral imagery, aerial flights and ground

truthing surveys shall be no more than three weeks apart.

Aerial and ground surveys shall avoid quantitative surveys during the period of plant breakdown, as

highly variable results will be obtained.
5.3 Pilot survey

Initial visual surveys or predictive models may be used to locate areas of angiosperms and macroalgae

beds in order to focus a baseline mapping survey. This can also be achieved using existing aerial or

satellite images, etc. These surveys may not accurately quantify density, biomass or species

composition.

Such surveys assist the planning of the more detailed surveys and help focus remote sampling

programmes or data collection, ensuring they are cost effective. They may also be useful in confirming a

lack of significant plant cover in some locations.
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Methods appropriate to this work include:

— analysis of recent remote sensing images. The value of this will depend on the age and optical

resolution of the images;

— optical surveys of the intertidal environment e.g. using telescopes from a high point or vessel

nearby. Typically, a survey done obliquely will foreshorten the view and provide an underestimate

of extent of cover.
5.4 Baseline survey

Baseline surveys are carried out to determine the distribution, extent and density of angiosperms and

macroalgae beds.

Repeat surveys in subsequent years may be necessary to establish temporal trends in extent or density

of plants. Detailed analyses shall be carried out on mapping the
— size, shape and position of beds;

— abundance which can be represented by density (as a percentage) of cover or shoot density or

biomass (g or kg/m ) as wet weight or dry weight of macroalgae or seagrass;
— species composition;
— other environmental parameters such as epiphyte cover or sediment type, etc.

The survey provides the basis for characterizing environmental conditions in the relevant areas in

accordance with set criteria or by comparison with angiosperms or macroalgae communities in other

representative areas. The requirements for scientific documentation and replicability are relatively

high.

The surveys shall be carried out using quantitative methods. The suitability of any remote sensing

methods should be considered (see Annex A). There shall be specified requirements for numbers of

stations, which is determined in accordance with the aims of the investigation (the geographical

resolution required) and the size and variation of density and extent of cover in the area to be mapped.

The principal aim should be to obtain an appropriate number of records that adequately reflect the

variation in density and cover for the algae and angiosperms within the waterbody. Care shall also be

taken not to oversample small beds as this could lead to destruction of the bed through trampling.

The detailed survey design shall be a regular (e.g. grid, transect along a depth contour), random or

random stratified approach. Randomly stratifying the survey design in the field will allow for more

effective use of resources and produce less variability in results where density or cover of beds is

complex.

Methods shall be chosen such that the data can be used as a basis for comparison with baseline surveys

in other areas. The design of the surveys shall be appropriate to match the level of accuracy and

precision required. Validation by ground-truthing is required when remote sensing options are chosen.

Remote sensing methods should be chosen that provide suitable representative information, for

example digital aerial sensors, aerial photography or satellites. Suitable new platforms for sensors may

emerge as technology develops in this area e.g. use of unmanned aerial vehicles.

See Annex A for more information on existing remote sensing options. The resolution of the aerial

images shall match the survey objectives.
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5.5 Temporal trend monitoring

In areas where potential changes in environmental conditions are to be monitored, such as in impacted

areas or where there are activities that may cause environmental impacts, a baseline survey shall first

be carried out, and then follow-up monitoring surveys. Local knowledge may be used to add to the data

collected.

The survey data collected should allow production of a temporal description of natural variations of the

extent and abundance of the angiosperms and macroalgae beds communities and document any

gradual changes (trend monitoring). The survey shall be carried out to a specific survey design and

follow a carefully defined method.

The options for detailed survey design should follow those defined for baseline surveys.

5.6 Specialized surveys

Specialized surveys are recommended to assess the health of seagrass and macroalgal beds and any

associated impact of extensive macroalgal growth on infaunal communities. In these surveys, additional

measurements will need to be collected.

Surveys may include sediment particle size information and benthic infaunal community abundance

and species composition. For guidance on sampling soft sediment macrofauna, see EN ISO 16665 [5].

For seagrass health investigations, additional information on the extent of the protist disease causing

seagrass die-back should be considered as well as physical and environmental data. Environmental data

to consider collecting includes salinity, nutrient, turbidity, particle size, oxygen, and temperature data.

Hydromorphological data such as physical disturbance should also be considered.
6 Equipment
6.1 General

The lists in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 indicate the equipment that may be required for a field or aerial based

survey.

WARNING — Working shall be done with care. Risks associated with such work shall be managed and

all phases of the investigation should conform to current health and safety regulations. All personnel

shall be trained in safe working procedures. Appropriate protective equipment shall be available.

6.2 Field survey

At the beginning of a survey it should be checked that the equipment is in good condition, without

damage to the grids and that the weighing scales have been calibrated and are in good working

condition.

All equipment shall be operated in accordance with the relevant vendor’s instruction manual and shall

be maintained and cleaned in such a way that the equipment functions flawlessly. The equipment

should be serviced as required.

Equipment required will vary according to the type of survey methodology but may include:

6.2.1 Boat or light hovercraft, with safety equipment.

6.2.2 Global Positioning System (GPS) device or Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS)

for higher accuracy.
6.2.3 Secchi disc, according to EN ISO 7027-2.
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6.2.4 Thermometer/salt content sensor.
6.2.5 Sampling frames.
2 2
6.2.6 Quadrats, between the size range of 0,25 m and 2 m .

The area of the quadrats is dependent on the complexity and homogeneity of the beds under

investigation. When surveying a new location, the recommended minimum quadrat sizes that could be

used are given in Table 2. Once this initial data are obtained alternative size quadrats may be used if it is

proven to meet the data requirements of the survey in those beds.
Table 2 — Recommended quadrat sizes for new surveys
Patchy or mixed species beds Continuous uniform beds
1 m (subdivided into a minimum
Seagrass 0,25 m quadrat
of four 0,5 m × 0,5 m squares) quadrat
2 2
Macroalgae
0,25 m subdivided quadrat 0,25 m subdivided quadrat

6.2.7 Corer/sampling tube (minimum size: 0,01 m ), for soft substrates and sub-bottom biomass.

6.2.8 Waterproof report form.
6.2.9 Specimen bag with markings.
6.2.10 Specimen storage bottles.
6.2.11 Waterproof digital camera, with at least 3 megapixel resolution.

6.2.12 Specimen ID labels, that allow each picture to be allocated to the relevant sampling frame;

colour comparison tables or compartments.
6.2.13 Analog compass.

NOTE Directions measured by compass in the field can be wildly inaccurate due to the effect of magnetic

deflection.
6.2.14 Blade or spatula, for biomass sampling.
6.2.15 Cooler, for storage of biomass samples.
6.2.16 Sampling record.
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6.3 Equipment for species identification in the laboratory

The following equipment may be used for species identification in the laboratory:

6.3.1 Illuminated magnifier.
6.3.2 Stereo magnifier/binoculars, with a minimum of 40x magnification.
6.3.3 Cold light source.

6.3.4 Transmitted-light microscope, with a minimum of 40x magnification, a measurement

eyepiece and a lens micrometer.
6.3.5 Microphotographic equipment/microscope camera.

6.3.6 Dissecting set, for sorting botanical specimens and making microscope slides.

6.3.7 Suitable measuring equipment, for plant measurements such as measuring tape, ruler, and

measurement eyepiece.
6.3.8 Specimen storage bottles (wide-necked bottles made of clear g
...

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