Liquid petroleum products - Bio-lubricants - Recommendation for terminology and characterisation of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants

This Technical Report gives information about bio-lubricants and recommendations for bio-lubricant (and bio-based lubricant) related terminology. These recommendations are based on a discussion of commonly used terms in this field.
This Technical Report also briefly describes the current test methods in relation to the characterization of bio-lubricants. It presents recommendation for related standards in the field of biodegradability, product functionality, impact on greenhouse gas emissions and te amount of different renewable raw materials an/or different biobased contents used during manufacturing of such bio-lubricants forming one product group.
The criteria of the European Ecolabel for Lubricants ("EEL") [2] includes the terms discussed in this paper.
NOTE 1   The European Lead Market Initiative ("LMI") [3] defines the term "bio-based" as described in Table 1. It is important to mention that "bio-based" does not imply "biodegradable". In addition, "biodegradable" does not imply the use of "bio-based" material.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Technical Report, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction.

Flüssige Mineralöl-Erzeugnisse - Bio-Schmierstoffe - Empfehlungen für die Terminologie und Charakterisierung von Bio-Schmierstoffen und bio-basierten Schmierstoffen

Dieser Technische Bericht enthält Angaben zu Bio-Schmierstoffen und Empfehlungen für die Terminologie in Zusammenhang mit Bio-Schmierstoffen (und bio-basierten Schmierstoffen). Diese Empfehlungen be¬ruhen auf einer Diskussion von in diesem Feld allgemein gebräuchlichen Begriffen.
Dieser Technische Bericht beschreibt darüber hinaus kurz die derzeitigen Prüfverfahren in Zusammenhang mit der Charakterisierung von Bio-Schmierstoffen. Er enthält Empfehlungen für zugehörige Normen im Be¬reich der biologischen Abbaubarkeit, der Gebrauchstauglichkeit des Produktes, der Auswirkungen auf Treib¬haus-gasemissionen und der Menge unterschiedlicher nachwachsender Rohstoffe und/oder unter¬schied¬lichem bio-basierten Gehalt, die bei der Herstellung derartiger Bio-Schmierstoffe verwendet wer¬den, die eine Pro¬dukt-gruppe bilden.
Die Kriterien für das EU-Umweltzeichen für Schmierstoffe ("EEL", en.: European Ecolabel for Lubricants) [2] schließen die im vorliegenden Dokument diskutierten Begriffe ein.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die EU-Leitmarktinitiative (LMI, en.: Lead Market Initiative for Europe) [3] definiert den in Tabelle 1 beschriebenen Begriff "bio-basiert". Es ist zu erwähnen, dass "bio-basiert nicht "biologisch abbaubar" impliziert. "Biologisch abbaubar" impliziert auch nicht die Verwendung "bio-basierter" Stoffe.
ANMERKUNG 2   Für die Anwendung dieses Europäischen Technischen Berichtes wird der Ausdruck " % (m/m)" für den Massenanteil verwendet

Produits pétroliers liquides - Bio-lubrifiants - Recommandations pour la terminologie et la caractérisation des biolubrifiants et des lubrifiants provenant de la biomasse

Tekoči naftni proizvodi - Biomaziva - Priporočila za terminologijo in opis značilnosti biomaziv in biološko razgradljivih maziv

To tehnično poročilo podaja podatke o biomazivih in priporočila za terminologijo, ki se nanaša na biomaziva (in biološko razgradljiva maziva). Ta priporočila temeljijo na razpravi o splošno uporabljenih izrazih na tem področju. To tehnično poročilo tudi na kratko opisuje trenutne preskusne metode, ki se nanašajo na opis značilnosti biomaziv. Predstavlja priporočila za povezane standarde na področju biorazgradljivosti, funkcionalnosti proizvodov, vpliva na emisije toplogrednih plinov in količino različnih obnovljivih surovin in/ali različnih biološko razgradljivih snovi, ki se uporabljajo pri izdelavi takih biomaziv, ki tvorijo eno skupino proizvodov. Merila evropskega Znaka za okolje za maziva (»EEL«) [2] zajemajo izraze, obravnavane v tem dokumentu.

General Information

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Published
Publication Date
09-Aug-2011
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
10-Aug-2011
Completion Date
10-Aug-2011

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16227:2011
01-oktober-2011
7HNRþLQDIWQLSURL]YRGL%LRPD]LYD3ULSRURþLOD]DWHUPLQRORJLMRLQRSLV
]QDþLOQRVWLELRPD]LYLQELRORãNRUD]JUDGOMLYLKPD]LY
Liquid petroleum products - Bio-lubricants - Recommendation for terminology and
characterisation of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants

Flüssige Mineralöl-Erzeugnisse - Bio-Schmierstoffe - Empfehlungen für die Terminologie

und Charakterisierung von Bio-Schmierstoffen und bio-basierten Schmierstoffen

Produits pétroliers liquides - Bio-lubrifiants - Recommandations pour la terminologie et la

caractérisation des biolubrifiants et des lubrifiants provenant de la biomasse
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 16227:2011
ICS:
75.100 Maziva Lubricants, industrial oils and
related products
SIST-TP CEN/TR 16227:2011 en,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16227:2011
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16227:2011
TECHNICAL REPORT
CEN/TR 16227
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
August 2011
ICS 75.100; 75.120
English Version
Liquid petroleum products - Bio-lubricants - Recommendation for
terminology and characterisation of bio-lubricants and bio-based
lubricants

Produits pétroliers liquides - Bio-lubrifiants - Flüssige Mineralöl-Erzeugnisse - Bio-Schmierstoffe -

Recommandations pour la terminologie et la caractérisation Empfehlungen für die Terminologie und Charakterisierung

des biolubrifiants et des lubrifiants provenant de la von Bio-Schmierstoffen und bio-basierten Schmierstoffen

biomasse

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 14 May 2011. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 19.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 16227:2011: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

3 Public perception ...................................................................................................................................6

4 Commonly used terms ..........................................................................................................................7

4.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................7

4.2 Current situation ....................................................................................................................................8

4.3 Recommendation for terminology .................................................................................................... 10

4.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 10

4.3.2 Standard designation of the term "bio-lubricant" and "bio-based lubricant" .............................. 10

4.3.3 Minimum requirements for "bio-lubricants" and "bio-based lubricant" ....................................... 10

5 Bio-lubricants ...................................................................................................................................... 11

5.1 Bio-lubricants – base fluids ............................................................................................................... 11

5.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 11

5.1.2 Natural base oils from biomass ........................................................................................................ 12

5.1.3 Synthetic base oils derived from biomass ....................................................................................... 12

5.1.4 Biodegradable base oils from non-renewable resources .............................................................. 13

5.2 Bio-lubricants – additives .................................................................................................................. 13

5.3 Bio-lubricants – functionalities ......................................................................................................... 14

5.4 Bio-lubricants – groups of application ............................................................................................. 14

6 Standardisation needs ....................................................................................................................... 16

6.1 Standard test methods ....................................................................................................................... 16

6.2 Biodegradation .................................................................................................................................... 16

6.3 Ecotoxicity ........................................................................................................................................... 17

6.4 Renewable Raw Material (RRM) ........................................................................................................ 18

6.5 Issues in progress: sustainability, LCA, certification ..................................................................... 18

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 20

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TR 16227:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and

liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of

which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Mandate M/430 of the European Commission, addressed to CEN

for the development of European standards for bio-lubricants in relation to bio-based product aspects. It has

been prepared by CEN/TC 19/WG 33 “bio lubricants”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

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Introduction

The main reason of the recent interest in bio-lubricants is due to the origin (i.e. use of bio-based raw

materials) or to the biodegradability of the final products, needed for instance in case of leakages or

technically intended losses. The use of bio-based raw materials could be beneficial with reference to two

current problems: fossil resources depletion and climate change. Today, regarding the latter issue, we have to

manage the carbon in order to avoid its accumulation in the atmosphere. Efficient use of all available

resources and responsible utilization of renewable carbon is a way to participate in this reduction.

Lubricants are important materials which contribute significantly to environmental protection: thanks to their

tailor-made properties they reduce energy losses and wear in machines and aggregates.

The global manufacture of lubricants in all applications only uses a small part of the entire consumed mineral

oil: in Europe, it only makes up around 1 %. The major fraction (> 80 %) of the residual fossil material is used

for energy production, predominantly for transportation and heating purposes. Besides crude oil, biomass is

an additional raw material source for lubricants.

The currently available biomass is consumed in different segments: food and feed production, power and heat

generation, biofuel production and industrial applications (e. g. production of paper, fine chemicals). Due to

the limited capacity of ecosystems, the utilization efficiency of renewable resources and availability issues

have to be addressed across the whole bio-economy landscape. The eco-efficiency in this competitive use

(e. g. energetic use vs. manufacture of goods) should always be in focus.

According to various scientists [1], it would appear appropriate to use agricultural raw materials predominantly

in a cascade of uses, instead of burning them directly in furnaces or engines. That would mean, for example,

first producing a bio-lubricant from biomass: around 1 t to 2 t of bio-lubricants can be produced per hectare of

agriculture land. The bio-lubricant thereby stores CO in the form of vegetable carbon and removes it from the

atmosphere. It would be desirable to trap this CO in the lubricant for as long as possible. Finally, after

maximum utilization including recycling when achievable and appropriate, the lubricant can then be used

either as energy source or – after re-refining – as downshifted base oil – to return the bound carbon to the

natural cycle in the form of CO .

In order to ensure responsible and environmentally conscious use of natural (fossil and renewable) resources,

a clear and unambiguous terminology is of particular importance.

The approach which is published in this report is focused on the view of the customer: Are the referred criteria

for “bio-lubricants” potentially provable for the formulated product? The statement of this report is: Every

announcement with regard to biodegradability, toxicity and bio-based content should be measurable through

the final product in hands of the customer.

Finally, this approach intends to enhance the reputation of “bio-lubricants” and the confidence of the customer

in this product group, even if no official eco-label stands for the correctness of declarations.

The criteria for "bio-lubricants" published in this Technical Report are not contrary to the European Ecolabel

for Lubricants, but complementary.
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1 Scope

This Technical Report gives information about bio-lubricants and recommendations for bio-lubricant (and bio-

based lubricant) related terminology. These recommendations are based on a discussion of commonly used

terms in this field.

This Technical Report also briefly describes the current test methods in relation to the characterization of bio-

lubricants. It presents recommendations for related standards in the field of biodegradability, product

functionality, impact on greenhouse gas emissions and the amount of different renewable raw materials

and/or different bio-based contents used during manufacturing of such bio-lubricants forming one product

group.

The criteria of the European Ecolabel for Lubricants (“EEL”) [2] include the terms discussed in this paper.

NOTE 1 The European Lead Market Initiative (“LMI”) [3] defines the term “bio-based” as described in Table 1. It is

important to mention that “bio-based” does not imply “biodegradable”. In addition, “biodegradable” does not imply the use

of “bio-based” material.

NOTE 2 For the purposes of this European Technical Report, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass

fraction.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
2.1
renewable resource

resource replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to its exploitation rate

2.2
biomass

material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized

NOTE This definition refers to the well-known short-cycle of carbon, i. e. the life cycle of biological materials (e. g.

plants, algae, marine organisms, forestry, micro-organisms, animals and biological waste from households, agriculture,

animals and food/feed production).
2.3
bio-based
derived from biomass

NOTE “Biomass based”, “bio-sourced”, “biogenic” and “from renewable resource” are equivalent terms to bio-based.

2.4
bio-based product
product wholly or partly bio-based

NOTE The bio-based product is normally characterised by the biomass content. For the time being 25 % (m/m) is

recommended as a minimum content of biomass in the final product formulation.
2.5
bio-based carbon content

amount of carbon in a sample that is of recent origin, as evidenced by its C isotope content

NOTE 1 Materials contained in a sample are carbon-based compounds in which the element carbon is attached to

other carbon atoms, hydrogen, oxygen, or other elements in a chain, ring, or three-dimensional structure.

NOTE 2 The amount of bio-based carbon in the material or product is often expressed as a percentage of the mass of

the total organic carbon of the product.
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NOTE 3 For developing the market for bio-based products, there is an obvious need for ways to distinguish bio-based

products from non-bio-based products. As bio-based products can be made with a mix of bio-based and non-bio-based

(e. g. from fossil oil) components, the bio-based content criteria is of high importance. Test methods used at present for

that matter are almost always based on C measurement as specified in the US standard test method ASTM

D 6866 [12]. In Europe, such methods are currently being developed further for applications such as solid recovered fuels

(EN 15440 [24]). However, these methods have not yet been applied to the whole range of bio-based products, such as

liquids, and assembled products. A horizontal standard that can be adequately applied to measure bio-based carbon

content in all sorts of products is hence needed.
2.6
biomass content

mass fraction of bio-based material in a sample, including all molecular ingredients of biomass, besides

carbon f.e. oxygen, nitrogen or hydrogen

NOTE Claims of biomass content are difficult to verify due to lack of standards. Effectively, with ASTM D6866 [12]

only the content of C content can be measured. In contrast, no standard is actually known for the determination of the

oxygen content.
2.7
biocompatible

compatible with human, animal and vegetable tissues and interface with biological systems without having

toxic or negative physiological effects
2.8
biodegradable

high amount of the final formulated product will be biodegraded after a certain time

NOTE According to well accepted test methods (like OECD 301 or adequate ISO standards) a high amount of the

final formulated product will be biodegraded after a certain time (in case of OECD 301 more than 60 % after 28 days).

2.9
bio-based lubricant
lubricant wholly or partly bio-based
2.10
possible impact to the environment
end-of-life aspects connected with total loss or waste

NOTE 1 Especially for the end-of-life management of bio-lubricants, it is important to differentiate between total-loss

lubricants and collectable lubricants. For this reason, an indication of biodegradability via an appropriate marking is a good

contribution towards more clarity.

NOTE 2 The numbers shown in Figure 2 can give an impression of the different end-of-life scenarios of lubricants.

NOTE 3 For the time being, recycling of lubricants is focussed on mineral oil; due to relatively low volumes, vegetable

oils or ester oils within the collected used oils are tolerable, but not treated individually to get back the single component.

2.11
fit for purpose
fit for use
judged as usable in a specific application

NOTE In this sense, the term 'fit for purpose' describes the legal responsibility of the manufacturer, as well as the

responsibility of the user. In cases where specific standards are available and accepted, those criteria should be used; the

best example of this would be the International Standard ISO 15380 [14] for bio hydraulic fluids

3 Public perception

The “bio-“ prefix is often considered as a synonym of good for the environment, or in another situation, good

for health. The prefix "bio", when associated with lubricants, can be perceived as an indication of

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biodegradability by the consumers. In other words, a “bio-lubricant” is expected to biodegrade (to break down

in the environment). On the other hand, the term bio-lubricant also strongly conveys the idea of natural origin,

as “bio” is taken as an indication of the biological world. An analogy is the term “biofuel” – universally taken as

implying a fuel derived from renewable resources.

However, as we have seen before, all the different classes (Table 1) are actually present in the marketplace.

This is a cause for concern, as it can be the source of misleading information and confusion for the final

consumers.

The dissemination of confusing, ambiguous or misleading information should be prevented in order to not

jeopardize the success of such schemes as well as the credibility of industry itself. Claims of biodegradability

should be supported by appropriate standards.

In some cases, bio-lubricants refer to biocompatible lubricants that interface with biological systems having

toxic or negative physiological effects.

Often bio-lubricants are perceived as low performance lubricants. It should be recognized, that modern high

performance bio-lubricants can meet and even exceed the performance of conventional lubricants in the

market.
Table 1 — common use of the term “Bio” with regard to lubricants
Origin of material Biodegradability Example The meaning of the
prefix "bio-"
Renewable Rapidly biodegradable Rapeseed oil, Biodegradable and bio-
tri-methylol-propane- based
trioleate (TMP-O)
Non-renewable Biodegradable Di-isotridecyl-adipate Biodegradable
(DITA)
Renewable Non-biodegradable Hydrocarbons from Bio-based
process "Biomass-to-
Liquid" (BtL)
Non-renewable Non-biodegradable White oil for food grade Biocompatible
lubricants
4 Commonly used terms
4.1 General

Ecological aspects are gaining importance in our society. Bearing in mind that our environment is becoming

increasingly contaminated with all kinds of pollutants, any reduction is welcome. From an environmental point

of view and compared to a number of other chemical products, lubricants are not particularly problematic.

However, a large proportion of the lubricants is released into the environment either during or after use. This

may be technically desired (total-loss lubrication) or a result of mishaps such as leaks, emissions, spillages or

other problems.

Lubricants and functional fluids are omnipresent due to their widespread use and they thus enter the

environment in small, widely-spread amounts and rarely in large, localized quantities. The terminology used in

connection with "environmental compatibility" shall be split between subjective and objective criteria:

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a) Subjective criteria (non-measurable):
1. environmentally friendly;
2. environmentally compatible;
3. environmentally acceptable;
4. environmentally adapted;
b) Objective criteria (measurable or provable), for example:
1. biodegradability;
2. use of renewable raw materials;
3. water solubility, water pollution;
4. ecological toxicity and physiological safety;
5. performance, approvals, oil change intervals;
6. efficiency improvements, lower energy consumption, emission reduction in use;
7. environmental awards (EEL).
Additionally, criteria of Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are to be considered.

As a consequence of the current ambiguity, the same word is used to designate lubricants, products with very

different properties, where all the possible combinations are present (see Table 1).

The bio-lubricants’ base oils can be made from both biomass and fossil resources. Lubricants made from

biomass can be rapidly, slowly, or not biodegradable; their base oils can be natural (unchanged renewable

material) or synthetic (chemically modified biomass). Bio-lubricants can be a combination of both natural and

synthetic base oils.

The term bio-lubricant then identifies lubricants which are derived from organic matter constituting living

organisms and their residues [4]. Biomass is considered as a renewable resource. A renewable resource is

replenished by natural processes at a rate comparable to its exploitation rate. The carbon content of such

lubricants is derived from the so-called short carbon cycle (expected time of less than 150 years; see Figure 1,

[5]). Most industrial lubricants are presently produced starting from fossil resources which are non-renewable

as they cannot be replenished at a rate comparable to the exploitation rate (long carbon cycle, expected time

frame to convert biomass to petroleum, gas and coal: > 10 years).
4.2 Current situation

Worldwide mineral oil and its derivatives are dominating the lubricants market. But this triumphant progress is

limited to the last century. Historically, the friction and wear decreasing properties of natural oils and fats were

well known and used in many different ways. In this respect, the development in the last 30 years of

biodegradable lubricants based on natural oils is a return to traditional materials – even if the market share

today only amounts to a few percent.
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Key
Long carbon cycle (> 10 years)
Short carbon cycle (< 150 years)
Figure 1 — Global carbon cycling

The market share of “bio-lubricants” amounts to approximately 1 % in Europe. In some countries in Western

Europe (Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland, Scandinavia, Germany) the market share is significantly higher, it

is published for Germany at approximately 4.3 % [6].

It is assumed that about 40 % to 50 % of the lubricants sold in Europe are lost in the sense that they are not

collected/not collectable. The environmental impact is largely caused by this amount of lubricants which is not

properly disposed of. This figure includes total-loss applications, the residual oil in millions of oilcans and oil

filters, spillages during topping-up, leaks, drips from separated oil-line and hydraulic couplings, accident

losses and all manner of emission losses. Concawe Report No. 5/96 [7] gives an overview of the different

kinds of loss (see Figure 2).
Figure 2 — Lubricants and their different kind of losses
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4.3 Recommendation for terminology
4.3.1 General
According to Table 1, the term "bio-lubricant" covers several materials:
a) bio-based lubricants, when referring to raw material sourcing,
b) biodegradable lubricants, when referring to functionality, and

c) biocompatible lubricants, when referring to compatibility with human or animal body (non-toxic

properties).

In this document, the term "bio-lubricant" refers to both biodegradability and relevant biomass content. To

avoid ambiguity, the use of the terminology as defined in 4.3.2 is recommended.
4.3.2 Standard designation of the term "bio-lubricant" and "bio-based lubricant"

Generic terms such as bioproduct (where "product" can be substituted by e. g. lubricant) frequently appear in

everyday language, mainly as marketing tools, and lubricants are far from the only offenders – detergents and

plastic products are other examples of the widespread use of the bio- prefix. Without reference to clear and

agreed definitions, there are many unsubstantiated claims, which can be deceptive.

Ideally they should be substituted by more accurate and more informative equivalents.

Any claim using a "bio" prefix should refer to an internationally or at least European agreed standard. A clear

distinction should be made between the origin of the raw materials and their functionality. Rules should be

standardised to define when such claims are justified. This is the only way to bring transparent and non-

misleading information to consumers (as defined in EN ISO 14021 [15] on environmental self-claims).

The term “biomass-based”, founded on the test methods described by ASTM D 6866 [12] or equivalent, could

be used to indicate products that are partly or totally made from renewable raw materials (i. e. with a biological

carbon content).

The umbrella definition for all types of bio-lubricants should be properly designed to deliver lubricants for the

intended application and for the (changing) needs of the identified market outlets, preferably at minimum costs

to society. The outcome could be that a clear identification and a separate collection can be advisable to solve

this concern.

Definitions and standards forming the basis for certification are in place for the biodegradability and the toxicity

of lubricants. A similar system can be useful to avoid misleading claims on bio-based content.

For the sake of an unequivocal B2C (Business to Consumer) communication and, therefore, to avoid market-

hindering confusion, the two pieces of information (bio-based content and biodegradability/toxicity) should be

provided together.

Moreover, in order to utilize the technological potential of renewable resources, it is important to have

maximum freedom for innovations. Transparency in the market without restrictive quotas and limitation in the

raw material applications is a framework required for an efficient and environmentally conscious utilization of

resources.
4.3.3 Minimum requirements for "bio-lubricants" and "bio-based lubricant"

For this purpose and in relevant situations where a claim for "bio-lubricants" or "bio-based lubricants" is

desired or requested, a European wide standardised marking, such as the following, would be useful:

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 Renewability:

Content of renewable raw material 25 % according to ASTM D 6866 [12] (radiocarbon analysis) or equivalent

CEN version (to be developed).
 Biodegradability:

≥ 60 % according to OECD 301 B, C, D or F (or adequate ISO or EN standards) for oils;

≥ 50 % according to OECD 301 B, C, D or F (or adequate ISO or EN Standards) for lubricating greases;

 Toxicity:

Not to be labelled as "Dangerous to the environment" (Symbol N) according to CLP Directive

1272/2008/EC [8] (Classification, Labelling, and Packaging). This may be proven for the fully formulated

product by testing according to OECD test no. 201/202/203 [13]: EC50/LC50/IC50 > 100mg/l

 Performance:

"Fit for purpose" or "Fit for use" (see 2.11). The lubricant manufacturer and the customer using the product

both need to ensure that the recommended lubricant is suitable for a specific application; in other words, the

appropriate specifications have to be fulfilled, including well-accepted special test procedures for ester-based

lubricants. The most well known example for a special test for bio-lubricants is the 'Dry TOST' for bio-hydraulic

fluids.

It is suggested to relevant working groups in CEN (or national standardisation organisations) to consider in

future revisions a "green line" into the general scheme of standards for mineral oil based lubricants. For

example, the (wet) TOST (as in DIN 51524-1, -2 and -3) could be alternatively fulfilled by a 'Dry TOST’ plus a

hydrolytic stability test – such modified standards designated to mineral oil based lubricants could then be also

used for bio-lubricants.

 Any lubricant according to the present criteria of the EU Ecolabel for Lubricants (2005/360/EC [9]) is a

"Bio-lubricant" per definition.

NOTE 1 Every claim regarding biodegradability, toxicity and bio-based content should be measurable in the final

product by the customer.

NOTE 2 According to the definitions of Clause 2, especially 2.9, the criterion for renewability includes the term “bio-

based lubricant”.
5 Bio-lubricants
5.1 Bio-lubricants – base fluids
5.1.1 General

Liquid lubricants are characterized in many different ways. One of the most common ways is by the type of

base oil used. The following list mentions the most common types:
 water;
 mineral oils;
 synthetic hydrocarbons (e. g. Polyalphaolefins, PAO);
 vegetable (natural oil);
 synthetic esters;
 polyalkylene glycols (PAG);
 phosphate esters;
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 16227:2011
CEN/TR 16227:2011 (E)
 alk
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