Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter

This European Standard describes a standard method for determining the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter in ambient air by sampling the particulate matter on filters and weighing them by means of a balance.
Measurements are performed with samplers with inlet designs as specified in Annex A, operating at a nominal flow rate of 2,3 m3/h, over a nominal sampling period of 24 h. Measurement results are expressed in µg/m3, where the volume of air is the volume at ambient conditions near the inlet at the time of sampling.
The range of application of this European Standard is from approximately 1 µg/m3 (i.e. the limit of detection of the standard measurement method expressed as its uncertainty) up to 150 µg/m3 for PM10 and 120 µg/m3 for PM2,5.
NOTE 1   Although the European Standard is not validated for higher concentrations, its range of application could well be extended to ambient air concentrations up to circa 200 µg/m3 when using suitable filter materials (see 5.1.4).
This European Standard describes procedures and gives requirements for the use of so-called sequential samplers, equipped with a filter changer, suitable for extended stand-alone operation. Sequential samplers are commonly used throughout the European Union for the measurement of concentrations in ambient air of PM10 or PM2,5. However, this European Standard does not exclude the use of single-filter samplers.
This European Standard does not give procedures for the demonstration of equivalence of other sampler types, e.g. equipped with a different aerosol classifier and/or operating at different flow rates. Such procedures and requirements are given in detail in the Guide to the Demonstration of Equivalence of Ambient Air Monitoring Methods [11] and for automated continuous PM monitors (see CEN/TS 16450:2013).
The present European Standard represents an evolution of earlier European Standards (EN 12341:1998 and EN 14907:2005) through the development of the 2,3 m3/h sampler to include constraints on the filter temperature during and after sampling and the ability to monitor temperatures at critical points in the sampling system. It is recommended that when equipment is procured it complies fully with the present European Standard. However, older versions of these 2,3 m3/h samplers that do not employ sheath air cooling, the ability to cool filters after sampling, or the ability to monitor temperatures at critical points in the sampling system have a special status in terms of their use as reference samplers. Historical results obtained using these samplers will remain valid. These samplers can still be used for monitoring purposes and for equivalence trials, provided that a well justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties (see Annex B).
In addition, three specific sampling systems  - the -long nozzle - 2,3 m3/h sampler and the 68 m3/h sampler for PM10 in EN 12341:1998, and the 30 m3/h PM2,5 inlet in EN 14907:2005  - also have a special status in terms of their use as reference samplers. Historical results obtained using these samplers will remain valid. These samplers can still be used for monitoring purposes and for equivalence trials, provided that a well-justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties (see Annex B).
Other sampling systems, as described in Annex B of this European Standard, can be used provided that a well justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties as derived from equivalence tests.
NOTE 2   By evaluating existing data it has been shown that these samplers give results for PM10 and PM2,5 that are equivalent to those obtained by application of this European Standard. Results are shown in Annex B.
This European Standard also provides guidance for the selection and testing of filters with the aim of reducing the measurement uncertainty of the results obtained when applying this European Standard.

Außenluft - Gravimetrisches Standardmessverfahren für die Bestimmung der PM10- oder PM2,5-Massenkonzentration des Schwebstaubes

Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt ein Standardmessverfahren zur Bestimmung der PM10- oder PM2,5-Massenkonzentration von Schwebstaub in der Außenluft durch Probenahme des Staubes auf Filtern und Wägung der Filter mit Hilfe einer Waage.
Die Messungen werden mit Probenahmegeräten mit Probeneinlässen durchgeführt, deren Ausführung den Festlegungen in Anhang A entspricht, und die mit einem Nennvolumenstrom von 2,3 m3/h über eine Nenn-probenahmedauer von 24 h betrieben werden. Die Messergebnisse werden in μg/m3 angegeben, wobei das Luftvolumen das Volumen bei Umgebungsbedingungen in der Nähe des Probeneinlasses zum Zeitpunkt der Probenahme darstellt.
Der Anwendungsbereich dieser Europäischen Norm reicht von etwa 1 μg/m3 (d. h. der Nachweisgrenze des Standardmessverfahrens, ausgedrückt als deren Unsicherheit) bis zu 150 μg/m3 bei PM10 und 120 μg/m3 bei PM2,5.
ANMERKUNG 1   Obwohl diese Europäische Norm nicht für höhere Konzentrationen validiert ist, kann der Anwendungs¬bereich bei Verwendung von geeigneten Filtermaterialien ohne Bedenken auf Konzentrationen in der Luft von bis zu etwa 200 μg/m3 erweitert werden (siehe 5.1.4).
Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt Verfahren für und legt Anforderungen an die Anwendung sogenannter sequentieller Probenahmeeinrichtungen fest, die mit einem Filterwechsler ausgestattet und für einen längeren autonomen Betrieb geeignet sind. Automatische Filterwechsler werden üblicherweise in der gesamten Europäischen Union zur Messung von Konzentrationen von PM10 oder PM2,5 in Luft eingesetzt. Diese Europäische Norm schließt den Einsatz von Einzelfiltergeräten jedoch nicht aus.
In dieser Europäischen Norm sind keine Verfahren zum Nachweis der Gleichwertigkeit anderer Typen von Probenahmeeinrichtungen, die z. B. mit einem anderen Aerosolklassierer ausgestattet sind und/oder bei anderen Volumenströmen betrieben werden, angeführt. Derartige Verfahren und Anforderungen sind ausführlich im Leitfaden zum Nachweis der Gleichwertigkeit von Immissionsmessverfahren [11] und für automatische PM-Monitore in CEN/TS 16450:2013 angeführt.
Diese Europäische Norm stellt eine Weiterentwicklung früherer Europäischer Normen (EN 12341:1998 und EN 14907:2005) durch die Entwicklung des Probenahmegeräts für 2,3 m3/h zur Einbeziehung von Anforderungen an die Filtertemperatur während und nach der Sammlung und des Vermögens, die Temperaturen an kritischen Punkten im Probenahmesystem zu überwachen, dar. Es wird empfohlen, dass, wenn ein Gerät beschafft wird, dieses vollständig der vorliegenden Europäischen Norm entspricht. Ältere Versionen dieser Probenahmegeräte für 2,3 m3/h ohne Mantelluftkühlung, das Vermögen, die Filter nach der Probenahme zu kühlen, oder das Vermögen, Temperaturen an kritischen Punkten im Probenahmesystem zu überwachen haben jedoch einen besonderen Status hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendung als Referenzgeräte. Die in früheren Prüfungen unter Anwendung dieser Probenahmegeräte erhaltenen Ergebnisse behalten ihre Gültigkeit bei. Diese Probenahmegeräte können nach wie vor für Überwachungszwecke und Versuche zur Gleichwertigkeit eingesetzt werden, vorausgesetzt, dass die Unsicherheiten durch eine gut begründete zusätzliche Toleranz ergänzt werden (siehe Anhang B).
Außerdem haben drei spezifische Probenahmeeinrichtungen — das Probenahmegerät für 2,3 m3/h mit „langer Düse“ und das Probenahmegerät für 68 m3/h für PM10 nach EN 12341:1998 sowie der Probeneinlass für 30 m3/h für PM2,5 nach EN 14907:2005 — ebenfalls einen besonderen Status hinsichtlich ihrer Anwendung als Referenzgeräte. Die in früheren Prüfungen unter Anwendung dieser Probenahmegeräte erhaltenen Ergebnisse behalten ihre Gültigkeit bei.

Air ambiant - Méthode normalisée de mesurage gravimétrique pour la détermination de la concentration massique MP10 ou MP2,5 de matière particulaire en suspension

La présente Norme européenne décrit une méthode normalisée de détermination des concentrations massiques de MP10 ou MP2,5 de la matière particulaire en suspension dans l’air ambiant en prélevant la matière particulaire sur les filtres et en les pesant à l’aide d’une balance.
Les mesurages sont effectués avec des préleveurs dont les têtes de prélèvement sont conçues conformément aux spécifications de l’Annexe A, fonctionnant à un débit nominal de 2,3 m3/h, sur une durée d’échantillonnage nominale de 24 h. Les résultats de mesure sont exprimés en µg/m3, le volume d’air étant le volume dans les conditions ambiantes à proximité de la tête de prélèvement au moment du prélèvement.
La gamme d’application de la présente Norme européenne se situe entre environ 1 μg/m3 (c’est-à-dire, la limite de détection de la méthode de mesure normalisée exprimée sous la forme de son incertitude) et 150 μg/m3 pour MP10 et 120 μg/m3 pour MP2,5.
NOTE 1   Bien que la présente Norme européenne ne soit pas validée pour des concentrations supérieures, sa gamme d’application peut parfaitement être élargie à des concentrations dans l’air ambiant pouvant atteindre environ 200 µg/m3 en cas d’utilisation de matériaux filtrants appropriés (voir en 5.1.4).
La présente Norme européenne décrit les modes opératoires et donne les exigences d’utilisation des préleveurs dits séquentiels, équipés d’un passeur de filtres, approprié à un fonctionnement autonome prolongé. Les préleveurs séquentiels sont couramment utilisés dans toute l’Union européenne pour mesurer les concentrations dans l’air ambiant de MP10 ou MP2,5. Toutefois, la présente Norme européenne n’exclut pas l’utilisation de préleveurs à filtre unique.
La présente Norme européenne ne donne pas de modes opératoires relatifs à la démonstration d’équivalence d’autres types de préleveurs, par exemple ceux équipés d’un classificateur d’aérosols différent et/ou ceux fonctionnant à différents débits. Ces modes opératoires et ces exigences sont détaillés dans le « Guide de Démonstration d’Equivalence des Méthodes de Mesure de la Qualité de l’Air Ambiant » [11] et pour les analyseurs automatiques de MP en continu (voir la CEN/TS 16450:2013).
La présente Norme européenne représente une évolution par rapport aux Normes européennes antérieures (EN 12341:1998 et EN 14907:2005) car le préleveur à 2,3 m3/h inclut désormais des contraintes concernant la température du filtre pendant et après le prélèvement et est capable de surveiller les températures à des points critiques dans le système de prélèvement. Il est recommandé que l’équipement acheté soit parfaitement conforme à la présente Norme européenne. Toutefois, des versions antérieures de ces préleveurs 2,3 m3/h n’utilisant pas le refroidissement par l’air de gaine, incapables de refroidir les filtres après prélèvement ou de surveiller les températures à des points critiques dans le système de prélèvement ont un statut spécial lorsqu’elles sont utilisées comme préleveurs de référence. Les résultats historiques obtenus avec ces préleveurs demeurent valides. Ces préleveurs peuvent toujours être utilisés pour la surveillance et pour les essais d’équivalence, à condition qu’une tolérance supplémentaire adéquatement justifiée soit appliquée à leurs incertitudes (voir l’Annexe B).
De plus, trois systèmes de prélèvement spécifiques, le préleveur à 2,3 m3/h « à injecteur long », le préleveur à 68 m3/h pour MP10 dans l’EN 12341:1998 et la tête de prélèvement à 30 m3/h pour MP2,5 dans l’EN 14907:2005, ont également un statut spécial lorsqu’ils sont utilisés comme préleveurs de référence. Les résultats historiques obtenus avec ces préleveurs demeurent valides.

Zunanji zrak - Standardna gravimetrijska metoda za določevanje masne koncentracije frakcije lebdečih delcev PM10 ali PM2,5

EN 12341 opisuje standardno gravimetrijsko metodo za določevanje masne koncentracije frakcije lebdečih delcev PM10 ali PM2,5 v zunanjem zraku z vzorčenjem snovi v filtrih in tehtanjem z uravnoteženjem. Merjenje se izvede z vzorčniki z dovodnimi oblikami, navedenimi v Dodatku A, ki delujejo pri nazivnem pretoku 2,3 m3/h, v nazivnem obdobju vzorčenja 24 ur. Meritve so izražene v μg/m3, kjer je prostornina zraka enaki prostornini pri okoljskih pogojih poleg dovoda v času vzorčenja. Razpon uporabe tega evropskega standarda je od približno 1 μg/m3 (tj. omejitev zaznavanja standardne merilne metode, izražene kot negotove) do 150 μg/m3 za PM10 in 120 μg/m3 za PM2,5. Ta evropski standard opisuje postopke in podaja zahteve za uporabo tako imenovanih sekvenčnih vzorčnikov, opremljenih z menjalom filtra, primernim za samostojno uporabo. Sekvenčni vzorčniki se uporabljajo po vsej Evropski uniji za merjenje koncentracij PM10 ali PM2,5 v zunanjem zraku. Vendar pa ta evropski standard ne izključuje uporabe vzorčnikov z enim filtrom.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-May-2014
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
21-May-2014
Completion Date
21-May-2014

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.VQHAußenluft - Gravimetrisches Standardmessverfahren für die Bestimmung der PM10- oder PM2,5-Massenkonzentration des SchwebstaubesAir ambiant - Méthode normalisée de mesurage gravimétrique pour la détermination de la concentration massique MP10 ou MP2,5 de matière particulaire en suspensionAmbient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter13.040.20Kakovost okoljskega zrakaAmbient atmospheresICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 12341:2014SIST EN 12341:2014en,fr,de01-julij-2014SIST EN 12341:2014SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14907:2005SIST EN 12341:20001DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 12341:2014
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 12341
May 2014 ICS 13.040.20 Supersedes EN 12341:1998, EN 14907:2005
English Version

Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter

Air ambiant - Méthode normalisée de mesurage gravimétrique pour la détermination de la concentration massique MP10 ou MP2,5 de matière particulaire en suspension

Außenluft - Gravimetrisches Standardmessverfahren für die Bestimmung der PM10- oder PM2,5-Massenkonzentration des Schwebstaubes This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 April 2014.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2014 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 12341:2014 E SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 2 Contents
Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................7 2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................8 3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations .................................................................................8 3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................8 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 10 4 Principle ............................................................................................................................................... 12 4.1 Description of the standard measuring principle ............................................................................ 12 4.2 Initial use and procedures for ongoing QA/QC ............................................................................... 12 5 Equipment and facilities .................................................................................................................... 13 5.1 Sampling system components .......................................................................................................... 13 5.1.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 13 5.1.2 Standard inlet design ......................................................................................................................... 14 5.1.3 Connecting pipe work ........................................................................................................................ 15 5.1.4 Filter holder and filter ......................................................................................................................... 15 5.1.5 Flow control system ........................................................................................................................... 16 5.1.6 Sampling period .................................................................................................................................. 16 5.1.7 Leak tightness of the sampling system............................................................................................ 16 5.1.8 Storage conditions ............................................................................................................................. 17 5.2 Weighing facilities .............................................................................................................................. 17 5.2.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17 5.2.2 Weighing room .................................................................................................................................... 18 5.2.3 Balance ................................................................................................................................................ 18 6 Filter conditioning, sampling and weighing procedures ................................................................ 19 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 19 6.2 Filter conditioning and weighing prior to sampling ........................................................................ 19 6.3 Sampling procedure ........................................................................................................................... 20 6.3.1 Filter cassette loading ........................................................................................................................ 20 6.3.2 Filter sampling .................................................................................................................................... 20 6.3.3 Sample storage and transport procedures ...................................................................................... 20 6.4 Filter conditioning and weighing after sampling ............................................................................. 20 6.5 Weighing room procedures ............................................................................................................... 21 6.6 Filter blanks for ongoing quality control .......................................................................................... 21 6.6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 21 6.6.2 Weighing room blanks ....................................................................................................................... 21 6.6.3 Field blanks ......................................................................................................................................... 22 7 Ongoing quality control ..................................................................................................................... 22 7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 22 7.2 Frequency of calibrations, checks and maintenance ..................................................................... 22 7.3 Maintenance of the sampling system ............................................................................................... 23 7.4 Checks of sampler sensors ............................................................................................................... 23 7.5 Calibration of sampler sensors ......................................................................................................... 24 7.6 Checks of the sampler flow rate ........................................................................................................ 24 7.7 Calibration of the sampler flow rate.................................................................................................. 24 7.8 Leak check of the sampling system ................................................................................................. 24 7.9 Checks of weighing room sensors ................................................................................................... 24 7.10 Calibration of weighing room sensors ............................................................................................. 25 7.11 Balance ................................................................................................................................................ 25 SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 3 8 Expression of results .......................................................................................................................... 25 9 Performance characteristics of the method ..................................................................................... 25 9.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 25 9.2 GUM concept ....................................................................................................................................... 25 9.3 Individual uncertainty sources .......................................................................................................... 27 9.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 27 9.3.2 Collected particulate mass ................................................................................................................. 27 9.3.3 Time (t) .................................................................................................................................................. 30 9.3.4 Uncertainty budget .............................................................................................................................. 30 9.4 Expanded uncertainty vs. EU Data Quality Objectives ................................................................... 32 Annex A (normative)

Design drawing of standard inlet for the sampling of PM10 and PM2,5 .................... 34 Annex B (normative)

Other samplers ............................................................................................................. 35 Annex C (informative)

Scheme of PM standard sampler .............................................................................. 44 Annex D (informative)

Suitability tests for filters........................................................................................... 45 Annex E (normative)

Initial suitability testing of weighing facilities ........................................................... 47 Annex F (informative)

Results of experimental work .................................................................................... 48 Annex G (informative)

Impactor efficiency ..................................................................................................... 50 Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 52

SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 12341:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2014 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2014. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document supersedes EN 12341:1998 and EN 14907:2005. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association and supports Essential Requirements of the Council Directive 2008/50/EC [1]. EN 12341:2014 includes the following significant technical changes with respect to EN 12341:1998 and EN 14907:2005: — this document is adapted from EN 14907:2005 due to consideration of best available technology; — the three different standard reference methods for PM10 described in EN 12341:1998 and the two different standard reference methods for PM2,5 described in EN 14907:2005 are replaced in this document by only one possible standard reference method for each of PM10 or PM2,5. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 5 Introduction For air quality across the European Union to be assessed on a consistent basis, Member States need to employ standard measurement techniques and procedures. The aim of this European Standard is to present a harmonized methodology for monitoring the mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter (PM10 and PM2,5 respectively) in ambient air, following Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe [1] which sets the parameters specific to the assessment of ambient concentration levels of particulate matter. NOTE In principle, the methodology described in this European Standard may also be used for measurement of mass concentrations of other PM fractions such as PM1. However, this European Standard does not describe standardized sampling inlets for such fractions. This European Standard merges the earlier European Standards EN 12341:1998 [2] and EN 14907:2005 [3] with the aim of harmonizing the very similar procedures that are used to measure mass concentrations of both fractions of particulate matter in ambient air. The European Standard method described in this European Standard is focussed primarily on harmonization and improvement of the data quality of measurement methods used in monitoring networks, with regard to avoiding unnecessary discontinuities with historical data. It is a method that is suited for practical use in routine monitoring, but not necessarily the method with the highest metrological quality. There are no traceable reference standards for PM10 or PM2,5 measurements. Therefore, the standard method defines the measured quantity by convention, specifically by the sample inlet design and associated operational parameters covering the whole measurement process. This European Standard contains: — a description of a manual gravimetric standard measurement method for PM10 or PM2,5 using sequential samplers or single-filter samplers; — a summary of performance requirements of the method; — requirements for suitability testing of facilities and equipment on initial application of the method; — requirements for ongoing quality assurance / quality control when applying the method in the field; — the assessment of measurement uncertainty of the results of this European Standard method; — (tentative) criteria and test methods for the evaluation of the suitability of filters for application using this method. The performance characteristics and requirements described in this European Standard were partly determined in different comparative and validation trials. The trials were sponsored by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. However, for lack of appropriate criteria and protocols to test filters for fitness for purpose, considerable differences may exist between results obtained when using different filter types, and even filters of the same type. For example, differences of up to 15 % have been found when applying different brands of quartz-fibre filters in parallel measurements of PM10 for concentrations around 50 % of the daily limit value [4]. This may have implications for results produced by automated measurement systems as these are calibrated by comparison of results with those obtained using reference samplers (CEN/TS 16450:2013 [5]). In principle, the filters collected for the purpose of determining the mass concentrations of PM10 or PM2,5 can be used for further speciation, e.g. for the determination of concentrations of: — heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (see EN 14902 [6] and EN 15549 [7]) in conformity with Directive 2004/107/EC [8], SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 6 — constituents of PM2,5 (see CEN/TR 16243 [9] and CEN/TR 16269 [10]) to be used for source apportionment as required by Directive 2008/50/EC. Additional requirements might have to be considered for those purposes (e.g. blank values of chemical constituents). However, the requirements of this European Standard are targeted firstly towards obtaining optimum results for the measurement of mass concentrations of PM10 or PM2,5. SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 7 1 Scope This European Standard describes a standard method for determining the PM10 or PM2,5 mass concentrations of suspended particulate matter in ambient air by sampling the particulate matter on filters and weighing them by means of a balance. Measurements are performed with samplers with inlet designs as specified in Annex A, operating at a nominal flow rate of 2,3 m3/h, over a nominal sampling period of 24 h. Measurement results are expressed in µg/m3, where the volume of air is the volume at ambient conditions near the inlet at the time of sampling. The range of application of this European Standard is from approximately 1 µg/m3 (i.e. the limit of detection of the standard measurement method expressed as its uncertainty) up to 150 µg/m3 for PM10 and 120 µg/m3 for PM2,5. NOTE 1 Although the European Standard is not validated for higher concentrations, its range of application could well be extended to ambient air concentrations up to circa 200 µg/m3 when using suitable filter materials (see 5.1.4). This European Standard describes procedures and gives requirements for the use of so-called sequential samplers, equipped with a filter changer, suitable for extended stand-alone operation. Sequential samplers are commonly used throughout the European Union for the measurement of concentrations in ambient air of PM10 or PM2,5. However, this European Standard does not exclude the use of single-filter samplers. This European Standard does not give procedures for the demonstration of equivalence of other sampler types, e.g. equipped with a different aerosol classifier and/or operating at different flow rates. Such procedures and requirements are given in detail in the Guide to the Demonstration of Equivalence of Ambient Air Monitoring Methods [11] and for automated continuous PM monitors (see CEN/TS 16450:2013). The present European Standard represents an evolution of earlier European Standards (EN 12341:1998 and EN 14907:2005) through the development of the 2,3 m3/h sampler to include constraints on the filter temperature during and after sampling and the ability to monitor temperatures at critical points in the sampling system. It is recommended that when equipment is procured it complies fully with the present European Standard. However, older versions of these 2,3 m3/h samplers that do not employ sheath air cooling, the ability to cool filters after sampling, or the ability to monitor temperatures at critical points in the sampling system have a special status in terms of their use as reference samplers. Historical results obtained using these samplers will remain valid. These samplers can still be used for monitoring purposes and for equivalence trials, provided that a well justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties (see Annex B). In addition, three specific sampling systems – the “long nozzle” 2,3 m3/h sampler and the 68 m3/h sampler for PM10 in EN 12341:1998, and the 30 m3/h PM2,5 inlet in EN 14907:2005 – also have a special status in terms of their use as reference samplers. Historical results obtained using these samplers will remain valid. These samplers can still be used for monitoring purposes and for equivalence trials, provided that a well-justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties (see Annex B). Other sampling systems, as described in Annex B of this European Standard, can be used provided that a well justified additional allowance is made to their uncertainties as derived from equivalence tests. NOTE 2 By evaluating existing data it has been shown that these samplers give results for PM10 and PM2,5 that are equivalent to those obtained by application of this European Standard. Results are shown in Annex B. This European Standard also provides guidance for the selection and testing of filters with the aim of reducing the measurement uncertainty of the results obtained when applying this European Standard. SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 8 2 Normative references The following document, in whole or in part, is normatively referenced in this document and is indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. JCGM 100, Evaluation of measurement data — Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement 3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations 3.1 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1.1 ambient air outdoor air in the troposphere, excluding workplaces as defined by Directive 89/654/EEC [12] where provisions concerning health and safety at work apply and to which members of the public do not have regular access [SOURCE: Directive 2008/50/EC] 3.1.2 calibration operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties and, in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication [SOURCE: JCGM 200 [13]] 3.1.3 combined standard uncertainty standard uncertainty of the result of a measurement when that result is obtained from the values of a number of other quantities, equal to the positive square root of a sum of terms, the terms being the variances or covariances of these other quantities weighted according to how the measurement result varies with changes in these quantities [SOURCE: JCGM 100] 3.1.4 coverage factor numerical factor used as a multiplier of the combined standard uncertainty in order to obtain an expanded uncertainty [SOURCE: JCGM 100] 3.1.5 expanded uncertainty quantity defining an interval about the result of a measurement that may be expected to encompass a large fraction of the distribution of values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand Note 1 to entry: The fraction may be viewed as the coverage probability or level of confidence of the interval. Note 2 to entry: To associate a specific level of confidence with the interval defined by the expanded uncertainty requires explicit or implicit assumptions regarding the probability distribution characterized by the measurement result and its combined standard uncertainty. The level of confidence that may be attributed to this interval can be known only to the extent to which such assumptions may be justified. SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 9 [SOURCE: JCGM 100] 3.1.6 field blank filter that undergoes the same procedures of conditioning and weighing as a sample filter, including transport to and from, and storage in the field, but is not used for sampling air Note 1 to entry: A field blank is sometimes also called a procedure blank. 3.1.7 weighing room blank filter that undergoes the same procedures of conditioning and weighing as a sample filter, but is stored in the weighing room 3.1.8 limit value level fixed on the basis of scientific knowledge, with the aim of avoiding, preventing or reducing harmful effects on human health and/or the environment as a whole, to be attained within a given period and not to be exceeded once attained [SOURCE: 2008/50/EC] 3.1.9 monitoring station enclosure located in the field in which a sampler has been installed to measure particulate matter in such a way that its performance and operation comply with the prescribed requirements 3.1.10 parallel measurement measurements from measuring systems, sampling from the same air over the same time period 3.1.11 performance characteristic one of the parameters assigned to a sampler in order to define its performance 3.1.12 performance criterion limiting quantitative numerical value assigned to a performance characteristic, to which conformance is tested 3.1.13 period of unattended operation time period over which the sampler can be operated without requiring operator intervention 3.1.14 PMx particulate matter suspended in air which is small enough to pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at x µm aerodynamic diameter Note 1 to entry: By convention, the size-selective standard inlet designs prescribed in this European Standard – used at the prescribed flow rates – possess the required characteristics to sample the relevant PM fraction suspended in ambient air. Note 2 to entry: The efficiency of the size selectiveness of other inlets used may have a significant effect on the fraction of PM surrounding the cut-off, and, consequently on the mass concentration of PMx determined. SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 10 3.1.15 reference method RM measurement method(ology) which, by convention, gives the accepted reference value of the measurand 3.1.16 sampled air ambient air that has been sampled through the sampling inlet and sampling system 3.1.17 sampling inlet entrance to the sampling system where ambient air is collected from the atmosphere 3.1.18 standard uncertainty uncertainty of the result of a measurement expressed as a standard deviation [SOURCE: JCGM 100] 3.1.19 suspended particulate matter SPM notion of all particles surrounded by air in a given, undisturbed volume of air 3.1.20 time coverage percentage of the reference period of the relevant limit value for which valid data for aggregation have been collected 3.1.21 uncertainty (of measurement) parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand [SOURCE: JCGM 100] 3.2 Symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply. — 3 Flow rate related to standard conditions — 3a Flow rate related to ambient conditions (Ta, Pa) — ∆P mressure difference determined for the time interval ∆t (leak test) — ∆t Time interval needed for the pressure rise (leak test) — C Concentration of PM (µg/m3) at ambient conditions — k Coverage factor — m Filter mass — mc Mass of blank conditioned filter — ml Mass of sampled filter — ms Mass of sampled and conditioned filter — mu Mass of unsampled filter — P0 Pressure at t = 0 (leak test) SIST EN 12341:2014

EN 12341:2014 (E) 11 — Pa Ambient pressure — t Sampling time — Ta Ambient temperature — u Standard uncertainty — ubs Between-sampler uncertainty — uf Uncertainty of flow — umfb Uncertainty due to the effect of humidity on a blank filter — umh Uncertainty due to hysteresis effects on mass of PM — um Uncertainty of the mass of PM (ml – mu) — umb Uncertainty due to buoyancy — umba Uncertainty due to balance calibration — umc Uncertainty due to contamination — umfe Uncertainty due to lack of filter efficiency — umg Uncertainty due to the interaction with gases — umhp Uncertainty due to the effect of humidity on particulate matter — umip Uncertainty due to inlet performance — uml Uncertainty of the mass of a sampled filter — ums Uncertainty due to static charging of the filter — umtl Uncertainty due to losses of PM on transport and storage — umu Uncertainty of the mas

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