Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Air quality management in urban areas

This document provides
• information, guidance and specifications on how
o to set up an air quality and emissions management policy;
o to deploy reliable and scalable technologies to monitor air quality on a continuous or regular basis;
o to react with adequate measures;
o to specify air quality levels for triggering a scenario;
• a toolkit of parameters and data definitions that a regulator can use;
• means to measure the air quality required by relevant EU directives
• to specify use of TS Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management using C-ITS, for the purposes of geofenced controlled zones for emissions management
NOTE: In order to maximise European harmonisation, it is recommended that this specification is used in combination with a module of standardised data concepts, however, this version of this document, which is focussed on policies and procedures, does not provide these data concept specifications.

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Urbane IVS - Luftqualitätsmanagement in urbanen Gebieten

Dieses Dokument enthält Informationen, Leitlinien und Beschreibungen von Anforderungen und stellt Möglichkeiten für die Entwicklung einer Strategie zur Gesetzgebung der Luftqualität (Emissionen) sowie die Umsetzung zuverlässiger und skalierbarer Technologien zur kontinuierlichen oder regelmäßigen Überwachung der Luftqualität und zum Ergreifen geeigneter Maßnahmen bereit.
Dieses Dokument definiert die technologischen Konzepte, mit denen zuverlässige und offene Daten bereitgestellt werden können, und legt die funktionalen Anforderungen von Messgeräten fest, mit denen solche Daten generiert werden. So stehen Mittel zur Messung der von den relevanten EU-Richtlinien geforderten Luftqualität zur Verfügung.
Dieses Dokument bietet Informationen und Spezifikationen, mit denen die Luftqualitätswerte bestimmt werden können, bei denen ein bestimmtes Szenario ausgelöst wird.
Im Spezifischen stellt diese Spezifikation unterschiedliche Parameter und Datendefinitionen zur Verfügung, die eine Regulierungsbehörde verwenden kann, um z. B.:
   passende Luftqualitätsmaßnahmen festzulegen, die für eine Straße, ein Gebiet oder die gesamte Stadt geeignet sind;
   einen Fahrer vor der Einfahrt in eine Umweltzone über die Luftqualitätswerte und geltenden politischen Maßnahmen zu informieren, die zu einer bestimmten Zeit gelten, wie z. B. höhere Parkgebühren an bestimmten Orten aufgrund der schlechten Luftqualität; sowie über die Zeitfenster für die Gültigkeit der Maßnahme innerhalb der Umweltzone;
   die entsprechenden städtischen Ämter über die eingeführte Maßnahme, Luftqualitätswerte und Anzahl von eingefahrenen Fahrzeugen zu informieren.
Zur Maximierung der europäischen Harmonisierung wird empfohlen, dass diese Spezifikation in Verbindung mit einem Modul standardisierter Datenkonzepte verwendet wird, d. h. einem „Luftqualitätsmanagement-Datenwörterbuch“ (en: "air quality management data dictionary", AQMDD). Diese Version des Dokuments, die sich auf Richtlinien und Verfahren fokussiert, stellt diese Spezifikationen der Datenkonzepte jedoch nicht bereit.

Systèmes de transport intelligents - STI-urbain - Gestion de la qualité de l'air dans les zones urbaines

Inteligentni transportni sistemi - Mestni ITS - Upravljanje kakovosti zraka v mestnih območjih

Ta dokument podaja:
• informacije, navodila in specifikacije o tem, kako:
– vzpostaviti politiko kakovosti zraka in ravnanja z emisijami,
– uporabljati zanesljive in razširljive tehnologije za stalno ali redno spremljanje kakovosti zraka,
– ustrezno ukrepati,
– določiti ravni kakovosti zraka za sprožitev scenarija;
• nabor parametrov in definicij podatkov, ki jih lahko uporablja zakonodajalec;
• sredstva za merjenje kakovosti zraka, predpisane z ustreznimi direktivami EU;
• uporabo inteligentnih transportnih sistemov TS - Mestni ITS - upravljanje »nadzorovane cone« z uporabo sistema C-ITS za namene geografsko določenih nadzorovanih con za ravnanje z emisijami
OPOMBA: Za uskladitev z evropsko zakonodajo je priporočljivo, da se ta specifikacija uporablja v kombinaciji z modulom standardiziranih podatkovnih konceptov, vendar ta različica dokumenta, ki je osredotočena na politike in postopke, teh specifikacij podatkovnih konceptov ne zagotavlja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Oct-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
09-Oct-2019
Completion Date
09-Oct-2019

Buy Standard

Technical specification
-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019 - BARVE na PDF-str 16,17,19,20,49
English language
57 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
01-december-2019
Inteligentni transportni sistemi - Mestni ITS - Upravljanje kakovosti zraka v
mestnih območjih

Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Air quality management in urban areas

Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Urbane IVS - Luftqualitätsmanagement in urbanen
Gebieten

Systèmes de transport intelligents - STI-urbain - Gestion du qualité de l'air dans les

zones urbaines
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 17378:2019
ICS:
13.040.50 Emisije izpušnih plinov v Transport exhaust emissions
prometu
35.240.60 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in transport
prometu
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
October 2019
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
ICS 13.040.50; 35.240.60
English Version
Intelligent transport systems - Urban ITS - Air quality
management in urban areas

Systèmes de transport intelligents - STI-urbain - Intelligente Verkehrssysteme - Urbane IVS -

Gestion de la qualité de l'air dans les zones urbaines Luftqualitätsmanagement in urbanen Gebieten

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 12 August 2019 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to

submit their comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS

available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in

parallel to the CEN/TS) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 17378:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 5

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 7

5 Air quality (emissions) management context ....................................................................................... 8

6 Considerations towards improved air quality .................................................................................. 10

7 Means for air quality management ........................................................................................................ 12

8 Traffic burden monitoring system ......................................................................................................... 19

9 Air quality measures, actions and scenarios ...................................................................................... 29

10 Principles of air quality monitoring ...................................................................................................... 44

Annex A (informative) ASN.1 module for air quality management ........................................................ 51

Annex B (informative) Air quality policy recommendations from Mexico .......................................... 52

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 56

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (CEN/TS 17378:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 278

“Intelligent transport systems”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
Introduction

Work on Urban ITS (U-ITS) is founded in the deliverable of PT1701 published as TR 17143 [1] and on the

European Commission Decision of 12.6.2016 [2] in support of Directive 2010/40/EU [9].

As cities and urban complexes expand, and there is a significant trend from rural areas to cities around

the world, pollution in these urban areas becomes an ever more significant problem. Traffic - vehicle

movements within the urban complex - is not the only polluter, but is considered to be a major source of

pollution. Other causes are air conditioning/central heating systems, coal and wood burning heating,

factories, etc.

“Air pollution has a major impact on human health. It is associated with a range of deadly diseases including

cancer, heart disease, strokes and asthma, and is the number one environmental cause of death in the EU,

responsible for more than 430,000 early deaths in 2012 alone.” [11]

“More than one fifth of the EU urban population are exposed to air pollution which exceeds EU limit values.

As of 2013, exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value were registered in 22 EU Member States, while 19

remained in breach of limits for NO2. In theory, citizens in all those countries could go to court to demand

that action is taken. In reality, national rules and procedures often make it very difficult for them to do so.”

EU law provides citizens with some possible solutions to these difficulties, by guaranteeing them rights to

certain procedures. Domestic courts are obliged to give effect to EU law, even if this involves setting aside

incompatible national laws. Domestic courts must give effect to EU law rights by providing effective

remedies.” [12]

This document provides guidance and identifies requirements and options on how to set up a policy and

how to deploy reliable and scalable technologies to monitor air quality on continuous or regular basis

and to react with adequate measures. This provides a means to measure the air quality required by

relevant EU directives.

The most recent directive relating to ambient (outdoor) air quality is the DIRECTIVE 2008/50/EC of 21

May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (the “Directive”), which was adopted in 2008

[13], and requires member states to:
— Monitor and assess air quality to ensure that it meets these objectives;

— Report to the Commission and the public on the results of this monitoring and assessment;

— Prepare and implement air quality plans containing measures to achieve the objectives.

This specification provides a means for urban administrations to demonstrate their progress to, and

achievement of, EC required air quality.
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document provides information, guidance and specifications of requirements and options on how to

set up an air quality (emissions) management policy, and how to deploy reliable and scalable technologies

to monitor air quality on a continuous or regular basis, and to react with adequate measures.

This document defines technological concepts that provide reliable and open data, and defines the

functional requirements on measurement devices that produce such data. This provides a means to

measure the air quality required by relevant EU directives.

This document provides information and specifications enabling to specify air quality levels for triggering

a scenario.

Specifically, this specification provides a toolkit of parameters and data definitions that a regulator can

use to e.g.

— define proper air quality measures, suitable for a street, zone or the whole city

— inform a driver in advance of entry to a Controlled zone about air quality level and related policy

measures expected to be in operation at a given time, e.g. higher parking price per location due to the

adverse air quality; and of the time windows of the measure operation of the controlled zone

— inform the relevant city departments on the introduced measure, air quality levels and number of

vehicles entered.

In order to maximize European harmonization, it is recommended that this specification is used in

combination with a module of standardized data concepts, i.e. an “air quality management data

dictionary” (AQMDD), however, this version of this document, which is focussed on policies and

procedures, does not provide these data concept specifications.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CEN/TS 17380:2019 , Intelligent transport systems - Urban-ITS - 'Controlled Zone' management using C-

ITS

EN 12341, Ambient air - Standard gravimetric measurement method for the determination of the PM10 or

PM2,5 mass concentration of suspended particulate matter

EN 14211, Ambient air - Standard method for the measurement of the concentration of nitrogen dioxide

and nitrogen monoxide by chemiluminescence

EN 14662-3, Ambient air - Standard method for the measurement of benzene concentrations - Part 3:

Automated pumped sampling with in situ gas chromatography

EN 12414, Vehicle parking control equipment - Pay and display ticket machine - Technical and functional

requirements
Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: FprCEN/TS 17380
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
air quality monitoring station

equipment measuring air pollution, deployed ideally as a network, based on the reference methods for

air quality monitoring as generally defined in Exchange of Information Decision (EO/ 97/101/EC)

3.2
emission management

application of regulations and policies for enabling controlled access of selected classes of vehicles to

defined areas, and for controlled usage of such areas e.g. parking, in order to improve air quality in a given

area

Note 1 to entry: The terms “emission management” and “air quality management” are used synonymously in this

document.
3.3
fuel

combustible material in solid, liquid or gaseous form, determined by its producer for combustion to

release the energy content of the material
3.4
geofencing
creating of a virtual geographic boundary
3.5
hackathon

design sprint-like event in which computer programmers and others involved in software development,

including graphic designers, interface designers, project managers, and others, often including subject-

matter-experts, collaborate intensively on software projects with the goal to create usable software

Note 1 to entry: Also known as a hack day, hackfest or codefest.

Note 2 to entry: Hackathons tend to have a specific focus, which can include the programming language used, the

operating system, an application, an API, or the subject and the demographic group of the programmers.

3.6
particulate matter

issue with particles of solid and liquid material ranging from 1nm to 100μm, which remain for some time

in the air
3.7
polluting matter

issue with any pollutant which, by its presence in the air, has or may have harmful effects on human

health or the environment or annoys the odour
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
3.8
polluting
introduction of one or more pollutants into the air
3.9
traffic burden monitoring system

system applying traffic flow information technologies and AQMSs for providing wide area monitoring of

a zone regarding traffic burden and air quality levels in the resolution of a street

3.10
volatile organic compounds

any organic compound or mixture of organic compounds, with the exception of methane having a vapour

pressure of 0,01 kPa or more at 20 °C or a corresponding volatility under specific conditions of use

4 Symbols and abbreviations
AQMDD air quality management data dictionary
AQMS air quality monitoring station
BRT bus rapid transit
CAMe Comisión Ambiental de la Megalópolis
English: Environmental Commission for the Megalópolis
FUA functional urban area
ITS intelligent transport systems
LEZ low emission zone
NO nitric oxide
NO2 nitrogen dioxide
NOx nitrogen oxides
OBD On-board diagnostic
P+B park and bike
P+G park and go
P+R park and ride
PM particulate matter
PM10 solid particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm
PM2.5 solid particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 μm
SUMP sustainable urban mobility plan
VOC volatile organic compounds
WHO World Health Organization
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
5 Air quality (emissions) management context
5.1 Air quality
5.1.1 Background

The directive relating to ambient (outdoor) air quality 2008/50/EC of 21 May 2008 on ambient air

[3]

quality and cleaner air for Europe (the “Directive”), was adopted in 2008 . The Directive consolidated a

number of earlier directives and sets objectives for several pollutants which are harmful to human health.

It requires member states to:
— Monitor and assess air quality to ensure that it meets these objectives;

— Report to the Commission and the public on the results of this monitoring and assessment;

— Prepare and implement air quality plans containing measures to achieve the objectives.

NOTE Referenced background documents provide snap-shots behind the rational for the specifications of this

document. Many of these references are liable to change over time.
5.1.2 Crucial process problems in air quality management in EU

In addition to the requirements to achieve the requirements of the regulation, some crucial problems in

the whole process have been identified at various levels, see [19]:
— Policy level: lack of supporting action

Air quality plans often lack effective solutions, timeline and impact strategy, lack of long term vision

and strategic goals, lack of synergic planning with other initiatives.

If the air quality levels are breached there are no consecutive obligatory steps to solve the problem,

legal proceedings are delayed because legal actions can take several years to reach a conclusion.

— Information level: lack of information
The following points summarize the deficiencies in available information:
— low density of air quality monitoring stations (AQMSs) in cities,
— lack of monitoring on the most congested places,

— lack of up-to-date information, with data published a long time after breaches of limit values

have occurred

— technical presentation of the measured data with low potential of public understanding

— inconsistency between “official” air quality data and other “unofficial” data
— No “on trip” alerts given to travellers, no warnings

— No information on commitment to achieve better air quality and the regular improvement

status, lack of measures implementation and their real impacts
— Air quality levels – limit values
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)

This specification proposes specific measurements, and recommends actions that can be taken when

levels of air pollutions are rising (far before it is breached).

The strictest type of air quality objectives contained in the Directive 2008/50/EC of 21 May 2008 on

ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe [3] are known as “limit values.” Limit values are set for:

— Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
— Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)
— Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
— Lead
— Benzene
— Carbon Monoxide

Limit values are informed by guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, in the

case of PM10 and PM2.5, the limits presented in Table 1 are considerably higher (i.e. less stringent) than

the WHO recommendations.
Table 1 — Limits defined by the Air Quality Directive [3]
Pollutant Obligation Time period Compliance Permitted
deadline annual excesses
Nitrogen dioxide Hourly limit value 1 h 01/01/2010 No more than 18
(NO ) of 200 μg/m (possible
extension to latest
Annual mean limit Calendar year n/a
1/1 2015)
value of 40 μg/m
Coarse particulate Daily limit value of 24 h 01/01/2005 No more than 35
matter (PM ) 50 μg/m (possible
extension to latest
Annual mean limit Calendar year n/a
1/6 2011)
value of 40 μg/m
Annual mean limit Calendar year 1/1/2015 n/a
value of 25 μg/m
Benzene Annual mean limit Calendar year
value of 5 μg/m
5.2 Air pollution sources

Air pollution is caused by a variety of polluting matters from various sources; see Table 6. One of the main

sources of city air pollution is traffic. Traffic emits various harmful matters, not just by combustion

engines of cars and other vehicles but also so-called non-combustion pollutants including:

— particles derived by road surface abrasion,
— abrasion of tyres,
— mechanical components abrasion (braking pads, clutch lining),
— resuspension of dust laid on the road by the traffic,
— etc.
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)

It is hard to identify the source of a particular matter as it can be emitted into ambient air by various

sources. The following pollutants related to traffic are considered in this document as representatives for

air quality related to traffic that can be monitored:
— nitrogen oxides,
— benzene,
— platinum metals,
— ultrafine dust particles.

Basic matter to be monitored are nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NOx) as they are emitted to the ambient air

by all the high temperature combustion engines where fossil fuels are combusted at the temperatures

higher than 1 300°C. In the urban environment, traffic is the dominant source of the pollutants except for

areas with specific industry processes, e.g. producing Nitric acid.
The other two pollutants to be considered are dust particles and benzene.
5.3 Strategies and technologies

The introduction of new technologies brings potential for traffic management and management of air

pollution, but sensors and networks of sensors suffer from the risk of unstable or uncertain data or even

malfunction of the equipment.

Low-cost sensors enable the possibility of reliable, long term and low-cost traffic monitoring in large

scale. This means that it becomes practicable for traffic to be monitored continuously in every street,

which provides valuable data for decision making. It also provides valuable data about traffic densities,

which can then be related to noise and air quality levels. The reliability of such data can be perceived as

high and provides new possibilities to control traffic in an advanced way, to enable dedicated zones with

geofencing and parking price regulation, e.g. in the event of smog.

Open data about the traffic burden will enable and encourage the citizens themselves to seek better traffic

regulation and improved air quality.

Air quality monitoring is difficult. Low-cost electrochemical sensors can provide unstable and uncertain

values of air quality, e.g. because changes of temperature and air pressure influence the quality of

measurement significantly; see the report on real testing in the Czech Republic [21], where it was found

that these sensors were unreliable and can become a source of “data noise”, see Figure 5. Therefore,

specifically designed minimum requirements for AQMSs are necessary to enable to deploy systems that

are reliable and that provide trustful data for city operational, as well as strategic, decision making, and

to protect the public sector from buying unreliable sensor networks.
6 Considerations towards improved air quality
6.1 Introduction

The project SOLEZ [22] identified key elements of low carbon mobility policy and traffic regulation. The

following steps are found to positively influence air quality, decrease the levels of noise, reduce

congestion and achieve the goals of a 'Sustainable Mobility Plan' (SUMP).

The implementation of any or all of these recommendations is at the determination of a local jurisdiction,

or to comply to European regulations. In order to claim compliance with this European Specification,

where implemented, shall be implemented consistently in conformance to the specifications herein.

The findings can be classified as presented in 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, and 6.7.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
6.2 Policy

The consideration and the adoption of carefully thought out long term environmental goals is important.

Insufficient or wrong policy can lead to even worse conditions. Odd and even licence plate numbers days

supported buying of a second car in Athens, which worsened the situation. By comparison, the

“Amsterdam Climate Programme and Energy Strategy 2040” and tactical urbanism in Barcelona

(superblock) have produced improvements in air quality. The political commitment setting vision with

long term goals is a corner stone for air quality improvement, and, importantly, for public acceptance of

the adopted policies.

The ease of low carbon mobility tools implementation is strongly influenced by appropriate national

legislation. The setting of long term goals and deadlines, with step-by-step (year-by-year) milestones is

recommended. Policies, such as the introduction of parking zones, should be considered.

6.3 Infrastructure

The policy measures should be supported by suitable infrastructure. For example, zoning provides a

jurisdiction with clear view on where the supporting infrastructures should be situated – mainly at the

edge of the zones. The edge of the zone is a natural place for travel exchange therefore, parking facilities

(P+R, P+B and P+G), bike sharing stations, bike parking, public transport stops, logistics drop-off and

other supportive infrastructures, e.g. green corridors, are best placed there.
6.4 Technology

Reliable infrastructure should be based on multiple technologies. Single technology deployment is

commonly insufficient to fulfil the requirements of reliability.

EXAMPLE 1 Siena upgraded automatic number plate recognition enforcement with infrared readings as a back-

up technology which makes the solutions automatic and reliable.

EXAMPLE 2 Amsterdam has interconnected P+R ticket with PT ticket enforcing P+R use to distinguish the

purpose of travelling to the city centre from just parking.

Geofencing specified in CEN/TS 17380:2019 may be a means to manage controlled zones.

6.5 Alternative transport modes

The parking provisions and controls are best accepted and effective if complemented with provision of

alternative means of transport, enabling to exchange seamlessly and within one single fare. The

introduction of a traffic regulating scheme brings a great potential for development of alternative

transport modes.

EXAMPLE The Copenhagen wheel, i.e. a self-contained rear wheel electric bicycle system originally developed

at MIT’s Senseable City Lab in 2009 in partnership with the city of Copenhagen, and unveiled at the 2009 United

Nations Climate Change Conference, provides an example of how long-term low carbon strategy can have positive

impacts on local business and innovations in green economy.
6.6 Public acceptance

Public acceptance of regulating schemes is improved by communications strategies that provide

information about publicly declared long-term plans and related services. Technology can be used to

support smart parking, availability of alternative transport (access to and availability of quality public

transport, bike sharing schemes etc.), digital payment and related loyalty programmes. (Amsterdam’s

Mobility fund demonstrates that “equal” division of funding among all the transport modes gained the

Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: FprCEN/TS 17380
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)

support required for car traffic restrictions, and its P+R price motivation scheme is regarded as an innovative

benefit). Public acceptance relates strongly to data availability and continuous evaluation.

6.7 Evaluation

It is recommended that regulating schemes are supported by periodic evaluation of key performance

indicators. This could be derived from vehicle counting, people counting etc. or from measurement of air

quality. It is recommended that results of evaluation are presented to the public and may provide strong

arguments for low emission zone (LEZ) extensions.

EXAMPLE Vicenza region is evaluating the air quality in the long term view; and based on the results the region

has decided to extend the zone.
7 Means for air quality management
7.1 Two philosophies

There are two philosophies how to approach the regulation and relevant technologies for air quality

management:

— Access control and enforcement, i.e. active geofencing, may be applied as specified in CEN/TS

17380:2019 using C-ITS;

— Traffic burden monitoring may be applied as specified in this document, see 7.2.

7.2 Traffic burden monitoring as an enabler of air quality management
7.2.1 General context

Traffic burden monitoring is a conceptual and technological tool for delivering big data on traffic flows

and air quality within defined zones of a city. The general approach for the deployment is specified in the

following steps:

STEP 1: Air quality policy – vision and goals (part of SUMP and/or air quality action plan); see

7.2.2.
STEP 2: Design of potential parking zones; see 7.2.3.

STEP 3: Traffic burden monitoring architecture design and the concept deployment; see 7.2.4.

STEP 4: Big data analysis and opening of data; see 7.2.5.

STEP 5: Required organization and technical tools implementation (mobility fund, simulation

tools, hackathon, parking terminals with flexible pricing, etc.); see 7.2.6.

STEP 6: Required information tools implementation (variable message signs (VMS), web

cameras, and streets´ web pages with values, etc.); see 7.2.7.

STEP 7: Customized set of air quality measures specification (based on previous findings of a

particular city); see 7.2.8.
STEP 8: Campaign on air quality; see 7.2.9.

STEP 9: Evaluation (feedback on every component of traffic burden monitoring); see 7.2.10.

STEP 10: Investment plan (new tools and infrastructure deployment plan); see 7.2.11.

This specification briefly describes all these steps for context understanding purposes.

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST-TS CEN/TS 17378:2019
CEN/TS 17378:2019 (E)
7.2.2 STEP 1: Low Carbon Mobility Policy – vision and goals

Smart cities are usually built on a long-term vision of city development that is often expressed in num

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.