Guide for commissioning, operation and maintenance of hydraulic turbines

Establishes suitable procedures for commissioning, operating and maintaining hydraulic turbines and associated equipment. Applies to impulse and reaction turbines of all types, and especially to large turbines directly coupled to electric generators. Also applies to pump-turbines when operating as turbines, and water conduits, gates, valves, drainage pumps, cooling-water equipment, generators, etc., where they cannot be separated from the turbine and its equipment.

Guide pour la réception, l'exploitation et l'entretien des turbines hydrauliques

Etablit les modes opératoires pour la réception, l'exploitation et l'entretien des turbines hydrauliques et du matériel associé. S'applique aux turbines à action et à réaction de tous types et notamment aux turbines importantes accouplées directement aux générateurs électriques. S'applique aussi aux pompes-turbines dans leur fonctionnement en turbine ainsi qu'aux amenées d'eau, batardeaux, vannes, pompes d'exhaure, réfrigérants à eau, générateurs, etc., s'ils ne peuvent être dissociés de la turbine et de son équipement.

Vodilo za zagonske preskuse, obratovanje in vzdrževanje

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SIST IEC 60545:1999
Vodilo za zagonske preskuse, obratovanje in vzdrževanje
Guide for commissioning, operation and maintenance of hydraulic turbines
Guide pour la réception, l'exploitation et l'entretien des turbines hydrauliques
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: IEC 60545
27.140 Vodna energija Hydraulic energy engineering
SIST IEC 60545:1999 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
Première édition
First edition
réception, l'exploitation
Guide pour la
des turbines hydrauliques
et l'entretien
Guide for commissioning, operation
and maintenance of hydraulic turbines
de reproduction réservés — Copyright — all rights reserved
© CEI 1976 Droits

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun pro- any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical,

cédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et including photocopying and microfilm, without permission

les microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. in writing from the publisher.

Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale 3, rue de Varembé Genève, Suisse

Commission Electrotechnique Internationale CODE PRIX
International Electrotechnical Commission PRICE CODE
IEC ayuapoaHaR 3newrporexHHVecnas KomuconR
• Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
1. Scope and object 7
2. Terms and definitions .... 7
3. Data on operating conditions 9
4. General
5. Test co-ordinator
6. Pre-start tests
7. Initial run 15
8. Test runs
9. General 23.
10. Test service period 23
11. Commercial service 25
12. General
13. Basis for maintenance activities 29
14. Restoration to optimum condition 31
15. Re-starting 31
APPENDIX — Measurements 33
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SIST IEC 60545:1999

The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all the National

Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the

subjects dealt with.

2) They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense.

3) In order to promote international unification, the IEC expresses the wish that all National Committees should adopt the text of the IEC

national conditions will permit. Any divergence between the IEC recommendation and

recommendation for their national rules in so far as
as far as possible, be clearly indicated in the latter.
the corresponding national rules should,
dard has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 4, Hydraulic Turbines.
This stan
an maintenance of hydraulic turbines was initiated during the
Work concerning the commissioning, operation d

meeting held in Madrid in 1959. The Committee of Action confirmed that this activity fell within the scope of

Technical Committee No. 4. After the meetings held in Aix-les-Bains in 1964 and in Paris in 1966, a first draft

was prepared in 1970 and a revised draft was circulated in 1972. As a result of the meeting held in Munich in 1973,

a draft, Document «Central Office)30, was submitted to the National Committees for approval under the Six

Months' Rule in February 1974.
The following countries voted explicitly in favour of publication:
Australia Portugal
Austria Romania
Belgium South Africa (Republic of)
Canada Spain
France Sweden
Germany Switzerland
Italy Turkey
Japan Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Norway United Kingdom
Poland United States of America
Other IEC publications quoted in this standard:

Publications Nos. 41 : International Code for the Field Acceptance Tests of Hydraulic Turbines.

193 : International Code for Model Acceptance Tests of Hydraulic Turbines.
193A: First supplement to Publication 193 (1965).

308 : International Code for Testing of Speed Governing Systems for Hydraulic Turbines.

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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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1. Scope and object

The purpose of this guide is to establish, in a general way, suitable procedures for commissioning hydraulic

turbines and associated equipment, and to indicate how such turbines and equipment should be operated and


It is understood that a publication of this type will be binding only if, and to the extent that, both contracting

ies have agreed upon it.

The guide excludes matters of purely commercial interest, except those inextricably bound up with the conduct

of commissioning, operation and maintenance.

The guide applies to impulse and reaction turbines of all types, and especially to large turbines directly coupled

to electric generators. It applies also to pump-turbines when operating as turbines.

The guide is not concerned with water conduits, gates, valves, drainage pumps, cooling-water equipment,

generators, etc., except where they cannot be separated from the turbine and its equipment.

Wherever the guide specifies that documents, drawings or information shall be supplied by a m anufacturer (or

by manufacturers), each individual m anufacturer shall be required to furnish the appropriate information for his

own supply only.
2. Terms and definitions

2.1 Commissioning Testing of new equipment to check its conformity with contractual

specifications, as well as operation of the equipment until formally
accepted by the purchaser.

2.2 Operation Utilization of the equipment to produce energy, or a state of readiness

for such production.

2.3 Maintenance Activity on the equipment directed to its conservation in a state of

optimum operating condition.
2.4 Pre-start tests
Test between completion of erection of the equipment and initial run.
2.5 Initial run First movement of rotating pa rt
s after erection.
2.6 Test run
Operation to obtain one set of data for a specific test.
2.7 Test operation
Utilization of the equipment for testing purposes.

Test operation period Test period following initial run and followed by test service. It includes

no-load runs for checking power plant equipment, as well as load runs
and load rejection tests.
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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2.9. Test service Operation of the equipment for an agreed period, during which the

manufacturer is generally responsible for the way in which it is operated.

Commercial service Operation of the equipment, under the purchaser's responsibility, to

produce energy, or a state of readiness for such operation.

2.11 Commercial service period Period starting after acceptance and including service periods, as well as

periods when the equipment may be out of operation for maintenance,
inspection, repairs, etc.
Guarantee period Time, extending through an agreed pa rt of the commercial
2.12 service
period, during which the manufacturer has commercial obligations to
correct defects in his equipment in order to bring it into conformity with
the contract. For this purpose, tests in accordance with the appropriate
parts of Sub-clause 11.1.4, shall be performed.
2.13 Inspection Check on the condition of equipment.
Inspection at regular intervals, often combined with incidental repairs.
2.14 Maintenance inspection
Repair Restoration after wear or damage.
2.16 Modification Change intended to improve perform ance.
2.17 Overhaul Complete inspection with necessary repairs and/or modifications
intended to bring the unit or part of it to, or nearly to, the optimum
functioning condition.
3. Data on operating conditions

3.1 A fundamental requirement for proper operation and maintenance is a satisfactory knowledge of the turbine

and its accessories by the purchaser's personnel.

The manufacturer (manufacturers) shall deliver to the purchaser's responsible representatives all necessary

documents, instructions and information. They shall include:
- general drawings and data;
- material lists, descriptions and test certificates for main parts;
- function diagrams;

- instructions for operation, inspection and maintenance of his supply and tables of measurements as given in the

- assembly and dismantling instructions and/or exploded view of the pa rts;
- safety instructions;
- list of original spare parts, as stated in the contract.
as soon as required

These documents, even in a preliminary form, shall be given to the purchaser's representatives

and, in any case, before the initial run.
r (manufacturers) shall include the following data, some of
3.2 The documents submitted by the m anufacture
which may be amended according to experience gathered during commissioning.

1) Diagram (such as a hill diagram) relating heads, tailwater elevations, flow and output, wicket-gate openings

and operating limits; also, where applicable, runner blade or deflector position.

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SIST IEC 60545:1999

2) Statement of similitude of model and prototype, according to I EC Publication 193, International Code for

Model Acceptance Tests of Hydraulic Turbines, if appropriate;

Information on turbine inlet and outlet gates, valves and pressure relief valves.

Wicket-gate opening (or needle opening of impulse turbines) for no-load, starting and cavitation limits,

functions of head and tailwater levels also, where appropriate, runner blade or deflector position.

5) Turbine governor and servomotor characteristics.
6) Adjustment of overspeed protection device.

Characteristics of the fluids for the governing system. Filter specifications and information on pu ri

frequency and method.

8) Maximum steady-state runaway speed and maximum momentary speed and pressure variations at various

operating heads.

9) Minimum continuous operating speed for initial run (depending on design of thrust bearing and other


10) Description of lubrication systems, stating amount and characteristics of lubricants and frequency of

11) If applicable, data on jacking system for rotating pa rt
s and maximum time after shut-down before re-start
without operating the jacking system.

12) Speed limits below which operation of the thrust bearing oil injection system is necessary.

13) If applicable, maximum and minimum speeds for brake operation.
14) Intermediate oil levels and p re
ssures at which pumps and compressors should be started or alarms given;
also data for automatic signalling and
emergency devices.
15) Maximum and
minimum temperatures in bearings, seals and
in the oil or fluid pressure circuits (alarm and
shut-down values).
16) Maximum
and minimum pressures, flows and levels in oil or fluid pressure
systems and bearings, according
to control system (alarm and shut-down values).

17) Maximum and minimum pressures and flows in coolers (alarm and shut-down values).

18) Maximum water levels in drainage pits (alarm
and shut-down values).
Data on electric motors, pumps and other accessories.
Safety instructions for test and operating staff.
21) Other data of importan
ce which are considered necessary by either purchaser or m anufacturer for safe
operation of the equipment or for instruction of personnel.

3.3 The manufacturer(s) shall give appropriate instructions to the purchaser's staff and provide the information

stated in Sub-clause 3.2 on operating the equipment during the final stage of erection, initial run, test runs and

test service period, particularly for all items not previously used by the purchaser.

During the final stage of erection, the sta rt, the test runs and
test service, the purchaser shall make his staff available
to the m

anufacturer for instruction and training in order that they may be capable of operating properly the turbine

and associated equipment.

3.4 During the guarantee period, the equipment shall not be operated outside the limits stated in the contract

without agreement with the m anufacturer.
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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4. General

4.1 Commissioning occurs after first erection of a new unit. Similar procedures may also be utilized with or

without formal acceptance after repair or overhaul.

4.2 The operating requirements given in Clause 3 shall be complied with during commissioning. If the operating

conditions of the power station prevent commissioning within these requirements, the purchaser and manufacturer

shall agree on the commissioning procedure.

4.3 For correct interpretation and determination of the causes of any unexpected phenomena, it will be

advantageous to make simultaneous recordings of significant parameters on a recording instrument. Each

recording shall mention the time and date.

4.4 . It is the purchaser's responsibility to obtain from all the authorities concerned, agreements on specified

conditions (flow, grid, etc.) for test operation.
5. Test co-ordinator

A test co-ordinator shall be chosen by the purchaser, the main contractors and the manufacturers. He is in charge

of drawing up the programme of commissioning. His programme shall be checked and approved by the purchaser,

the main manufacturers and contractors before and during the tests if changes appear to be necessary. He shall

conduct the tests and check the results.

The test co-ordinator is responsible for the execution of all tests up to the beginning of the test service period.

Operating and commissioning personnel shall report to the co-ordinator on all operations performed on the

6. Pre-start tests
Prior to filling waterways
Before the turbine c asing is filled with water, the generator, as well as
auxiliary and stand-by equipment, shall

be checked. At least the following items shall be checked and results recorded by the test co-ordinator.

1) Inspection of all the turbine waterways and removal of all foreign or loose objects (these might cause damage).

If required, the measuring sections and pressure taps for future turbine acceptance tests shall be checked and

as satisfactory and dimensions recorded as appropriate.

2) Calibration of scales for wicket-gate openings and, where applicable, for runner blades, needles and deflectors,

including their cam relationships; also measurement of clear ances.

3) Operation of pressure oil units, hydraulic shut-off valves, pressure relief valves, governors, automatic and

manually-operated starting and stopping devices and signalling devices.
4) Oil levels and pressures in governor system; condition of all oil filters.
5) Protective devices, such as oil level and temperature alarms and
relays, with adjustment if needed.
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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6) Times of opening and closing of governing elements, i.e. wicket gates, runner blades of turbines with movable

blades, needles and deflectors of impulse turbines, pressure relief valves together with safety devices for pressure

relief valve malfunction and, if possible, comm and signal dead band.
7) Valve or gate opening and closing times.

8) Bearing and seal clearances. In the case of pressure-lubricated bearings, the oil injection system shall be

9) Operation of leakage an and separately-driven lubricating pumps.
d drainage pumps

10) Oil, grease and water supply to all bearings and seals requiring lubrication or cooling.

11) Operation of the braking system of the unit.
12) Proper fastening of all man-hole covers.
13) Blades of movable-blade turbines set at rest position.

After the above checks, the valves or gates shall be closed, the wicket gates of reaction turbines or the needles

of impulse turbines shall be closed (and locked, if applicable), the brakes applied and the control board energized.

When satisfied that all conditions have been met, the test co-ordinator shall give instructions for the waterways

to be filled.
After filling waterways

The tailwater valve or gate shall be opened first. Depending on the tailwater level, a check for leaks shall be made.

The whole waterway shall be filled slowly, and preferably manually either through a by-p ass or a small opening

of the gate or stoplogs. When the waterway has been sufficiently filled, the gate shall be opened or the stop-logs


If there is a turbine inlet valve, the turbine c asing shall be carefully filled, pressurized and checked before , the

main valve is opened. The operation of automatic protection devices which actuate this valve shall then be checked

and the functioning of the valve itself tested.

Automatic protection devices which actuate the intake or outlet gate or valve shall be checked, especially the

emergency gate. If the protective devices and the emergency gate work satisfactorily and no unusual leakage or

deformation has been observed, an operational test shall be carried out:
on the pressure relief valve, if any;
- on the needles of impulse turbines (with deflectors diverting);
- on the tailwater depression system of impulse turbines, if applicable.
7. Initial run
After the test co-ordinator has given permission, locking devices
and brakes are released and the turbine wicket

gates or needles are opened under manual control, according to the manufacturer's requirements, to bring the speed

up to at least the minimum stated value (see Sub-clause 3.2, Item 9).

If any noise, scraping or other abnormal phenomena is observed, or if an authorized representative of any

manufacturer so requests, the unit shall be shut down immediately. (A tendency for the unit to rotate with leakage

flow only shall be noted.)
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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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. Test runs
8.1 No-load tests

8.1.1 The unit is kept under manual control at or above the starting speed (see Sub-clause 3.2, Item 9) until bearing

temperatures are satisfactory to the manufacturers' representatives.

If any temperature is excessive or increases too rapidly, the unit shall be shut down and the causes of this

phenomenon investigated and

If all goes well, the unit speed shall be increased in pre-arranged steps up to the rated value, remaining at each

successive speed until the rate of rise of all bearing temperatures is satisfactory to the manufacturers'


8.1.2 During each speed step of the test run, at least the following measurements and/or obse rvations shall be

1) Deformation of covers and bearing suppo rts.
2) Noise or vibration in the turbine and/or generator.

3) Water supply pressure in water-lubricated bearings and packings, and cooling of shaft-sealing devices.

Operating conditions of standby, turbine safety and signal devices, in particular those which could not be

properly tested before water was admitted and the unit rotated.
5) Operating conditions for the oil pressure an
d other pumps.
6) Condition of oil in the bearings

and pressure oil systems. If water is observed in oil, the leaks shall be located

and eliminated. If oil foaming is observed, the cause shall be located
and eliminated. .

Oil pressure in pressure and lubrication systems; pressure, circulation and inlet and outlet temperature of

cooling water.
8) Levels of oil in lubricating systems of bearings
and in oil pressure systems.
Temperatures of bearings, packings and lubrication oil.

10) Shaft runout at turbine and generator bearings and axial displacement of rotating pa

rts, if possible.

At some agreed speed value, usually after the rated-speed no-load test, the action of the braking system (also

braking jets of impulse turbines) shall be checked.

8.1.3 The functioning of the governing system may be checked at this time and, with the governor operating

correctly, the turbine may be used for d ry
-out and balancing of the unit, tests on the electrical equipment, protection
and automatic devices, etc.

8.1.4 When the no-load test at rated speed is completed, the turbine speed is carefully increased, still under

manual control, for checking the action of overspeed protection devices.

The set speed for each device shall be measured and any necessary adjustments made.

After the load rejection tests, a further adjustment of the overspeed device setting may be required.

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SIST IEC 60545:1999
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8.2 Load run and load rejection tests
8.2.1 General

When the generator and switching equipment have been declared ready for operation, . the unit may be

synchronized. During the load rejection tests, all necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure that rated values

of penstock and turbine stresses will not be exceeded.

Such precautions may include setting governor timing at a slower-than-design rate.

When adjustments are made on governor or regulating devices, all tests which might be affected by the

adjustment shall be repeated.
8.2.2 Purposes
The purposes of load run and load rejection tests are:

1) to check, with an agreed accuracy, the output of the unit, compared to the documents listed in Sub-clause 3.2;

2) to check the unit for instability, vibration or cavitation in the ran

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