Soil quality - Vocabulary (ISO 11074:2015)

This International Standard defines a list of terms used in the field of soil quality. The terms are classified under several main headings: general terms - description of soil - sampling - terms related to the assessment of soils and remediation.

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Wörterbuch (ISO 11074:2015)

Qualité du sol - Vocabulaire (ISO 11074:2015)

L'ISO 11074:2015 définit une liste de termes utilisés lors de l'élaboration des normes dans le domaine de la qualité du sol. Ces termes sont classés selon les rubriques principales suivantes:
- termes et définitions généraux (termes relatifs au sol, aux matériaux du sol, aux terrains et aux sites);
- description du sol (caractéristiques du sol, eau du sol, propriétés du sol et des constituants, processus d'évolution du sol, contamination, pollution, teneur de fond);
- échantillonnage (termes généraux, types d'échantillon/type d'échantillonnage, phases d'échantillonnage, exécution de l'échantillonnage, échantillons de contrôle qualité, prétraitement des échantillons);
- termes et définitions relatifs à l'évaluation des sols (qualité, évaluation du sol et des sites eu égard au risque, à la dangerosité et à l'exposition, protection du sol);
- remédiation (termes généraux, principaux types de remédiation, méthodes de génie civil, méthodes de traitement technologiques);
- écotoxicologie du sol.

Kakovost tal - Slovar (ISO 11074:2015)

Ta mednarodni standard določa seznam izrazov, ki se uporabljajo na področju kakovosti tal. Izrazi so razvrščeni v več glavnih poglavij: splošni izrazi - opisi tal - vzorčenje - izrazi, povezani z oceno in sanacijo tal.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Oct-2013
Publication Date
10-Aug-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
08-Jul-2015
Due Date
12-Sep-2015
Completion Date
11-Aug-2015

RELATIONS

Effective Date
01-Sep-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
01-september-2015
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 11074:2006
SIST ISO 11074:2006/Cor 1:2006
Kakovost tal - Slovar (ISO 11074:2015)
Soil quality - Vocabulary (ISO 11074:2015)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Wörterbuch (ISO 11074:2015)
Qualité du sol - Vocabulaire (ISO 11074:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 11074:2015
ICS:
01.040.13 Varstvo okolja in zdravja. Environment and health
Varnost (Slovarji) protection. Safety
(Vocabularies)
13.080.01 Kakovost tal in pedologija na Soil quality and pedology in
splošno general
SIST EN ISO 11074:2015 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 11074
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2015
ICS 01.040.13; 13.080.01
English Version
Soil quality - Vocabulary (ISO 11074:2015)

Qualité du sol - Vocabulaire (ISO 11074:2015) Bodenbeschaffenheit - Wörterbuch (ISO 11074:2015)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 January 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 11074:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
EN ISO 11074:2015 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
EN ISO 11074:2015 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 11074:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 “Soil quality” in

collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 345 “Characterization of soils” the secretariat of which is held

by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn

at the latest by December 2015.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 11074:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 11074:2015 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 11074
NORME
Second edition
Deuxième édition
INTERNATIONALE 2015-05-01
Soil quality — Vocabulary
Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
Bodenbeschaffenheit —Wörterbuch
Reference number
Numéro de référence
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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iiii © ISO 2015 – All rig© ISO 2015 – All rights rhts reserveserved/Ted/Tous drous droits roits réservéservésés

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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................................ 1

2.1 Terms and definitions relating to soil ................................................................................................................................. 1

2.2 Terms and definitions relating to soil materials ........................................................................................................ 4

2.3 Terms and definitions relating to land and sites ....................................................................................................... 5

3 Description of soil ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.1 Soil characteristics ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Terms and definitions relating to soil water ................................................................................................................. 8

3.3 Terms and definitions relating to processes in soils .............................................................................................. 9

3.4 Terms and definitions relating to contamination ..................................................................................................12

3.5 Terms and definitions relating to background content ....................................................................................15

3.6 Terms and definitions relating to sampling gases .................................................................................................17

4 Sampling .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

4.1 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................18

4.2 Sample types/sampling type ...................................................................................................................................................22

4.3 Sampling stages ...................................................................................................................................................................................25

4.4 Execution of sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................27

4.5 Quality control samples ......... .......................................................................................................................................................30

4.6 Sample pretreatment ......................................................................................................................................................................32

4.7 Terms and definitions relating to geostatistics ........................................................................................................32

5 Terms and definitions relating to the assessment of soils .....................................................................................33

5.1 Terms and definitions relating to quality ......................................................................................................................33

5.2 Terms and definitions relating to assessment of soil and sites with respect to risk, hazard,

and exposure..........................................................................................................................................................................................34

5.3 Terms and definitions relating to soil protection ......... ..........................................................................................37

6 Remediation ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

6.1 General terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................................37

6.2 Principal remediation types .....................................................................................................................................................40

6.3 Engineering-based methods ....................................................................................................................................................40

6.4 Process-based treatment methods .....................................................................................................................................42

7 Soil ecotoxicology .............................................................................................................................................................................................47

7.1 Biodegradability .................................................................................................................................................................................47

7.2 Soil fauna ...................................................................................................................................................................................................49

7.3 Soil flora .....................................................................................................................................................................................................50

7.4 Soil microorganisms ........................................................................................................................................................................50

Annex A (informative) Relationships between sampling operations ..............................................................................53

Annex B (informative) Index ......................................................................................................................................................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................72

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés iii
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 1, Evaluation

of criteria, terminology and codification.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 11074:2005), which has been technically

revised.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
Soil quality — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This International Standard defines a list of terms used in the preparation of the standards in the field

of soil quality.
The terms are classified under the following main headings:
— general terms (terms relating to soil, soil materials, land, and sites);

— description of soil (soil characteristics, soil water, properties of soils and substances, processes in

soil, contamination, pollution, background content);

— sampling (general terms, sample types/sampling type, sampling stages, execution of sampling,

quality control samples, sample pretreatment);

— terms relating to the assessment of soils (quality, assessment of soil and sites with respect to risk,

hazard and exposure, soil protection);

— remediation (general terms, principal remediation types, engineering-based methods, process-

based treatment methods);
— soil ecotoxicology.
NOTE See also the ISO online browsing platform (OBP): www.iso.org/obp/ui/
2 General terms and definitions
2.1 Terms and definitions relating to soil
2.1.1
aerobic
descriptive of a condition with molecular oxygen available
2.1.2
anaerobic
descriptive of a condition with no molecular oxygen available
2.1.3
available water capacity

soil water content usable by plants based on the effective root penetration depth

Note 1 to entry: The usable field capacity in the effective root zone is expressed in mm water column.

Note 2 to entry: The available water capacity (AWC) is generally taken to be the water content between field

capacity (FC) and the permanent wilting point (PWP) or 10 kilopascals to 1 500 kilopascals. See readily available

water capacity.
2.1.4
dissolved organic carbon
DOC

concentration of organic carbon remaining in solution after filtration and/or centrifugation under

defined conditions
Note 1 to entry: It is expressed in mg/l, g/m .
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés 1
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
2.1.5
field capacity

maximum water content expressed in percent (w/w or v/v) that an unsaturated soil can retain against

gravity under undisturbed soil conditions (conventionlly stated as water content two days to three days

after full saturation with water)

Note 1 to entry: Conventionally stated as water content 48 h after saturation under conditions of free drainage.

2.1.6
humus

total of all dead plant and animal substances and their organic transformation products, as well as

organic material inserted through anthropogenic activities appearing in and on mineral soil

Note 1 to entry: Living plants and soil organisms, as well as coal, are not counted among humus but are often

methodically not separatable.
2.1.7
organic carbon

summarizing parameter including all of the carbon forms for dissolved (DOC: dissolved organic carbon

– see 2.1.4) and total organic compounds (TOC: total organic carbon- see 2.1.22)

Note 1 to entry: Organic carbon is not synonymous with organic matter content (see 2.1.8).

2.1.8
organic matter

matter consisting of plant and/or animal organic materials, and the conversion products of those

materials
EXAMPLE Humus.
2.1.9
parent material

unweathered inorganic solid or unconsolidated rock from which soil developed or originated

Note 1 to entry: It can include material from alluvial, colluvial, and aeolian origins.

2.1.10
perched groundwater
groundwater above a non-saturated zone
2.1.11
soil

upper layer of the Earth’s crust transformed by weathering and physical/chemical and biological

processes and composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms organized

in generic soil horizons

Note 1 to entry: In a broader civil engineering sense, soil includes topsoil and sub-soil; deposits such as clays, silts,

sands, gravels, cobbles, boulders, and organic matter and deposits such as peat; materials of human origin such as

wastes; ground gas and moisture; and living organisms.
2.1.12
soil characterization

determination of relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of the soil

2.1.13
soil gas
gas and vapour in the pore spaces of soils
2.1.14
soil pores
part of the soil volume, between the solid particles of the soil
2 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
2.1.15
soil quality

all current positive or negative properties with regards to soil utilization and soil functions

2.1.16
soil reaction

characterizing property of the acid base state of soils, which is determined through hydrogen ion

concentration of a soil extraction performed under defined conditions

Note 1 to entry: The pH value is stated as negative 10-logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions and

expressed in moles/l in aqueous solution.
2.1.17
soil structure

arrangement of particles and organic matter to form aggregates which produce macro structures and

micro structures in the soil
2.1.18
soil texture

relative proportions of the various particle size fractions (i.e. sand, silt, clay) in a soil, according to a soil

classification system
2.1.19
standard soil

field-collected soil or manufactured soil whose main properties (e.g. pH, texture, organic matter content)

are within a known range
EXAMPLE Euro-soils, artificial soil, LUFA standard soil.

Note 1 to entry: The properties of standards soils might differ from the test soil.

2.1.20
subsoil
natural soil material below the topsoil and overlying the parent material

Note 1 to entry: All or much of the original rock structure has usually been obliterated by pedogenic processes.

2.1.21
topsoil

upper part of a natural soil that is generally dark coloured and has a higher content of organic matter

and nutrients when compared to the (mineral) horizons below, excluding the humus layer

Note 1 to entry: For arable land, topsoil refers to the ploughed soil depth, while for grassland; it is the soil layer

with high root content.
2.1.22
total organic carbon
TOC
all carbon present in organic matter
2.1.23
wilting point

water content of the soil below which the plants are not able to uptake water with their root system

Note 1 to entry: Permanent wilting point (PWP) is the moisture content below which a sunflower seedling cannot

recover from wilt. It is generally taken to equal a suction of 1 500 kilopascals.

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés 3
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
2.2 Terms and definitions relating to soil materials
2.2.1
construction works

applications where soil materials are not required to have a direct productive use although they can

support other layers intended to have a productive use

[SOURCE: for example, earthworks (e.g. embankments), landscape engineering, road construction,

construction of waste disposal sites, and back filling of excavated sites or mines]

2.2.2
damaged land
degraded land

land which, due to natural processes or human activity, is no longer able to properly sustain an economic

function and/or the natural or near natural ecological function
2.2.3
degraded soil

soil whose natural properties and soil functions or productivity have been damaged by contamination

or physical or other processes
2.2.4
dredged material

material excavated during e.g. maintenance, construction, reconstruction, and extension measures

from waters
Note 1 to entry: Dredged material might consist of
— sediments or subhydric soils, and
— soils and their parent material beneath the surface water body.
2.2.5
earthwork
reuse of soil material for civil engineering and construction purposes

Note 1 to entry: The same word can also refer to the material accumulated during an operation of earthwork.

2.2.6
excavated soil
soil material extracted from the ground

EXAMPLE Topsoil, subsoil, altered parent rock, typically arising during construction works.

2.2.7
fill material
made ground

mixed natural soil materials (often displaced) and can contain wastes such as building rubble, timber,

and other wastes coming from urban and industrial sites
2.2.8
harm
measurable adverse effect on a receptor
2.2.9
manufactured soil

manufactured product intended to perform specified soil functions produced by blending combinations

of natural, waste, or other soil materials with the addition of nutrients or other additives, when necessary

2.2.10
natural soil material
material coming from soil that has been displaced
4 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
2.2.11
reclamation
rehabilitation
return of damaged, degraded, or derelict land to a beneficial use

Note 1 to entry: The term remediation is commonly reserved for the process of dealing with contaminated/polluted

sites.
2.2.12
reuse of soil material
useful and harmless utilization of soil materials

Note 1 to entry: Reuse can mean the transfer of soil materials to another location for use in agriculture, horticulture,

forestry, gardens, recreational areas, and construction sites.
2.2.13
sediment

solid material, both mineral and organic, that is in suspension or has been moved from its site of origin

by water or other processes
2.2.14
stockpile
temporary deposit of soil material
Note 1 to entry: Stockpiles can contain soil material.

Note 2 to entry: The soil material can be stored in a loosely dumped heap or can be lying in a predefined deposit

above or below the surface of the location, etc.
2.2.15
subhydric soils

soils formed below water or which are formed on parent material that was deposited in water or through

alluvial processes
2.2.16
treated soil
soil subject to a based ex situ or in situ process
2.2.17
treated soil material

material coming from treated soil and displaced and/or modified by human activity

2.3 Terms and definitions relating to land and sites
2.3.1
abandoned hazardous site

hazardous site left by the owner or other responsible party in unmanaged condition

2.3.2
abandoned industrial site

industrial site left by the owner or other responsible party in unmanaged condition

2.3.3
abandoned potentially hazardous site
abandoned site whose history leads to a suspicion that it can be hazardous
2.3.4
abandoned waste disposal site

waste disposal site left by the owner or other responsible party in unmanaged condition

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés 5
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
2.3.5
contaminated site
site where contamination (2.3.6) is present

Note 1 to entry: There is no assumption in this definition that harms results from the presence of contamination.

2.3.6
contamination
substance(s) or agent(s) present in the soil as a result of human activity
[SOURCE: ISO 23611-6:2012, 3.2.4]
2.3.7
derelict site

site so damaged by human activity as to be incapable of beneficial use without treatment

Note 1 to entry: Damage can be to the aesthetic, physical, engineering, environmental, or contamination aspects

of the site.
2.3.8
donor site
site from which soil material is removed for use on a target site
2.3.9
hazardous site

site which, by reason of the substances or agents present, is judged to be hazardous to human health and

safety or to the environment
2.3.10
orphan site

site for which no owner or other responsible party for pollution can be identified

2.3.11
site
defined area
2.3.12
site characterization

collection of data connected to a site providing appropriate information for the assessment in question

Note 1 to entry: In connection with risk assessment, specifically the source identification and characterization

element of the exposure assessment.
2.3.13
suspect site

site whose history or any other information leads to a suspicion that it can be hazardous for human

health or environment
2.3.14
target site
site at which soil is to be reused
2.3.15
uniformly contaminated site
site with a generally uniform concentration of a hazardous substance

Note 1 to entry: The extent of the contamination is usually large and the gradient of concentration within the site

is rather shallow.
6 © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved/Tous droits réservés
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SIST EN ISO 11074:2015
ISO 11074:2015(E/F)
3 Description of soil
3.1 Soil characteristics
3.1.1
bulk density

ratio of the mass of a quantity of material (or one phase) and the total volume occupied by this material

(including other phases)

Note 1 to entry: This is typically a volumetric mass but it is commonly named as “density”. The numerical values

are identical or divided by the volumetric mass of water (1 t.m ) at 4 °C.
3.1.2
bulk volume
volume, including the solids and pores, of an arbitrary soil mass
3.1.3
clay content
proportion of soil particles with a particle size <2 µm
3.1.4
concentration
mass of test substance per unit mass of material

Note 1 to entry: Concentration is expressed as a mass fraction, in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of dry soil.

3.1.5
maximum particle size

particle size such as 5 % of the mass of the material correspond to particles having larger size

3.1.6
particle size distribution

distribution of the soil mineral particles according to predefined classes of size

3.1.7
porosity

volume of pores in a soil sample (non-solid volume) divided by the bulk volume of the sample

3.1.8
specific surface area
the surface area of the soil or a size fraction of the soil particles

Note 1 to entry: Surface area can be measured by a variety of means that might give differing results such as

1) ratio of surface area to mass of solid particles, and
2) ratio of surface area to volume of solid particles.

Note 2 to entry: Because both definitions are in use, this term is to always be defined explicitly wherever it is used.

3.1.9
water content

mass of water evaporating from the soil when dried to a constant mass at

105 °C, expressed as the mass of water divided by the o
...

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