This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the stiffness of bituminous mixtures by alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.
The procedure is used to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of stiffness, as a guide to relative performance in the pavement, to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour in the road and to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.
As this standard does not impose a particular type of testing device the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the operating scope and working range of the device used.
For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures should be respected.
The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

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This document specifies the methods for compacting parallelepipedal specimens (slabs) of bituminous mixtures, to be used directly for subsequent testing, or from which test specimens are cut.
For a given mass of bituminous mixture, the specimens are prepared either under controlled compaction energy, or until a specified volume and therefore air voids content is obtained.
This document describes the following methods of compaction:
- method using a wheel or two wheels fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- methods using a steel roller, which includes 3 different procedures:
- steel roller;
- steel roller used on wheel fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- steel roller running on vertical sliding steel plates;
- method using a steel roller sector.
This document is applicable to bituminous mixtures manufactured in the laboratory or in a mixing plant.

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This document describes a test method for the recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures used in road, airfield or similar pavements in a form suitable for further testing. The test can be undertaken on either loose or compacted asphalt materials. The procedure is suitable for the recovery of paving grade bitumens, for which materials this European Standard is the reference method. The fractionating column procedure (see EN 12697-4) is the reference method for mixtures containing volatile matter such as cut-back bitumen.
For recovery of polymer modified bitumens, the rotary evaporator procedure is recommended.

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This European Technical Specification specifies a test method for determining the resistance to scuffing of asphalt mixtures which are used in surface layers and are loaded with high shear stresses in road or airfield pavement. These shear stresses occur in the contact area between tyre and pavement surface and can be caused by cornering of the vehicle. Due to these shear stresses, material loss will occur at the surface of these layers. The test is normally performed on asphalt layers with a high amount of air voids (e.g. porous asphalt), but can also be applied on other asphaltic mixtures. Test specimens are used either produced in a laboratory or cut from the pavement.
NOTE   The test is developed to determine the resistance to scuffing for noise reducing surface layers where raveling is the normative damage criterion. The test can also be performed on other surface mixtures with a high resistance to permanent deformation. In case a mixture has a low resistance to permanent deformation, rutting can occur during the test. This can influence the test results.

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This Technical Specification describes a test method for measuring the surface shear strength for airfield surface courses, which is a measure of the robustness of asphalt surface courses against shearing. The surface shear strength will depend on the depth of the surface course together with the properties of the surface course material. The binder course material and any bonding agent applied between the two layers may have an influence on the test result for, in particular, ultra-thin surface course.
NOTE   The test was designed for use on airfield runways and taxiways.

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This European Technical Specification specifies two sets of procedures for conditioning of bituminous mixtures in terms of oxidative ageing. Procedures A.1 and A.2 can be applied on loose bituminous mixture before compaction of specimens, procedures B.1 and B.2 on compacted specimens. Material conditioned by this European Technical Specification can be used for further testing to assess the effect of oxidative ageing on characteristics of bituminous mixtures and thus on their durability and recyclability. Alternatively, binder can be extracted from conditioned mixture to assess the effect of oxidative ageing on binder characteristics taking into account potential effects of mineral aggregates on ageing.
This European Technical Specification is applicable to bituminous mixtures manufactured in the laboratory or in a mixing plant. Procedures B.1 and B.2 is applicable to specimens from laboratory production or samples taken from the field.

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This document describes a test method to determine the ash content in natural asphalts (including lake asphalts), binders containing natural asphalts or bitumens. For the method to apply, it is essential that any mineral matter in the binder be finely divided and cannot exceed 45 % by mass.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures from pavements in a form suitable for further testing. The procedure is suitable for the recovery of paving grade bitumen and is also suitable for mixtures containing volatile matter such as cut-back bitumen but the results may be less precise. This European Standard is the reference method for mixtures containing volatile matter, but the rotary evaporator procedure (see EN 12697-3) for mixtures with paving grade bitumen.
NOTE   There is limited experience of recovery when polymer-modified bitumen is used.

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This document specifies a test method to determine the resistance of a bituminous mixture or pavement to fuels. The procedure involves initial soaking of a test specimen made in the laboratory or cored from a pavement in a fuel, followed by a brushing period with a brush test device. The material loss of the specimen is a measure of the resistance to that fuel for that bituminous mixture.

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This document specifies general requirements for common test equipment, calibration procedures and reagents for the testing of bituminous materials in the EN 12697 series of standards.
NOTE 1   This document makes use by reference of the requirements for common equipment and calibration prepared for aggregates.
NOTE 2   Bodies providing accreditation of test equipment may need to consider alternative requirements and/or calibration frequencies in order to cover the possibilities of National Health & safety, regulatory and legislative requirements.
Advice is also given on recommendations for laboratory management (Annex A), on the accuracy of measurement (Annex B) and on the rounding of values for reported results (Annex C).

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This document specifies a test method to determine the resistance of bituminous materials to de-icing fluids. The procedure determines the surface tensile strength of a specimen of asphalt which has been stored in de-icing fluid.
This document is primarily used as a test on asphalt to be laid on airfields, but it can be used for asphalt to be laid on roads or other paved areas.

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This part of this European Standard specifies a method to determine the binder drainage of a bituminous mixture. The method is stated for type testing purposes. It can be used either determining the binder drainage for different binder contents, or with a single binder content, eliminating the successive repetitions. It can also be used for factory production control. It also enables the effects of varying fine aggregate types or including any anti- draining additive to be quantified. Although a single temperature is included in the test method it could be carried out at more than one temperature.

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This document specifies requirements for the bituminous mixtures for Ultra thin layers Asphalt Concrete (UTLAC) for use on roads, airfields and other trafficked areas.
The grading curve of the bituminous mixture for UTLAC is generally gap graded and the upper sieve size of the mix is not less than 5 mm and not greater than 11 mm.
This document includes requirements for the selection of the constituent materials. It is designed to be read in conjunction with EN 13108-20 and EN 13108-21.
NOTE   Asphalt Concrete very thin layer mixtures with chemical modified binders not covered by EN 13924 are not covered by this document.
The method of bonding is out of the scope of this document.

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This document describes a test method for the recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures used in road, airfield or similar pavements in a form suitable for further testing. The test can be undertaken on either loose or compacted asphalt materials. The procedure is suitable for the recovery of paving grade bitumens, for which materials this European Standard is the reference method. The fractionating column procedure (see EN 12697-4) is the reference method for mixtures containing volatile matter such as cut-back bitumen.
For recovery of polymer modified bitumens, the rotary evaporator procedure is recommended.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the particle size distribution of the aggregates of bituminous mixtures by sieving. The test is applicable to aggregates recovered after binder extraction in accordance with EN 12697-1 or EN 12697-39.
The applicability of this European Standard is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.
NOTE   Fibres, solid (non-soluble during extraction) additives and (some) binder modifiers influence the test result.

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This document specifies the methods for compacting parallelepipedal specimens (slabs) of bituminous mixtures, to be used directly for subsequent testing, or from which test specimens are cut.
For a given mass of bituminous mixture, the specimens are prepared either under controlled compaction energy, or until a specified volume and therefore air voids content is obtained.
This document describes the following methods of compaction:
- method using a wheel or two wheels fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- methods using a steel roller, which includes 3 different procedures:
- steel roller;
- steel roller used on wheel fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- steel roller running on vertical sliding steel plates;
- method using a steel roller sector.
This document is applicable to bituminous mixtures manufactured in the laboratory or in a mixing plant.

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This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the stiffness of bituminous mixtures by alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.
The procedure is used to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of stiffness, as a guide to relative performance in the pavement, to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour in the road and to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.
As this standard does not impose a particular type of testing device the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the operating scope and working range of the device used.
For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures should be respected.
The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

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This document describes two test methods for determining the thickness of bituminous pavement. The first method describes measurements carried out on one or more cores which have been drilled from the full depth of the slab or road structure (destructive method). The second method electro-magnetic (non-destructive) measurement are used.

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This document describes a hot sand test method for determining the condition of the binder on coated chippings for use with hot rolled asphalt (HRA) surface course.

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This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the stiffness of bituminous mixtures by alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.
The procedure is used to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of stiffness, as a guide to relative performance in the pavement, to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour in the road and to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.
As this standard does not impose a particular type of testing device the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the operating scope and working range of the device used.
For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures should be respected.
The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

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This document specifies the methods for compacting parallelepipedal specimens (slabs) of bituminous mixtures, to be used directly for subsequent testing, or from which test specimens are cut.
For a given mass of bituminous mixture, the specimens are prepared either under controlled compaction energy, or until a specified volume and therefore air voids content is obtained.
This document describes the following methods of compaction:
- method using a wheel or two wheels fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- methods using a steel roller, which includes 3 different procedures:
- steel roller;
- steel roller used on wheel fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- steel roller running on vertical sliding steel plates;
- method using a steel roller sector.
This document is applicable to bituminous mixtures manufactured in the laboratory or in a mixing plant.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the mixing quality and the tendency of segregation in composition of bituminous mixtures. This test method is considered suitable for mix-design purposes and for client information.
NOTE This test method is based on hot bituminous mixtures. There is no experience for other types of bituminous mixtures, e.g. asphalt concrete with bituminous emulsions.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the bulk density of pavement mixtures using a transmission-type gamma radiation test bench.
This method applies to cylindrical specimens or parallelepipedal blocks, prepared in a laboratory or cut from a pavement. The thickness and the mass absorption coefficient, which is a function of the chemical composition, are known. The thickness of the specimen body traversed by the radiation is between 30 mm and 300 mm.
The method cannot be applied to materials containing slags, with variable metal content or chemical composition.
NOTE   Material containing metal or chemical compositions can affect the absorption of gamma rays.

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This European Standard specifies three test methods (A1, A2 and B) for determining the resistance of bituminous mixtures to permanent deformation by cyclic compression tests with confinement. The tests make it possible to rank various mixtures or to check on the acceptability of a given mixture. They do not allow making a quantitative prediction of rutting in the field to be made.
Test methods A1 and A2 describe methods for determining the creep characteristics of bituminous mixtures by means of a uniaxial cyclic compression test with some confinement present. In this test a cylindrical test specimen is subjected to a cyclic axial stress. Method A2 is preferred for mastic asphalt and Method A1 for other asphalt mixtures. To achieve a certain confinement, the diameter of the loading platen is taken smaller than that of the test specimen. In test method A1, the test specimen is loaded by block-pulses whereas in method A2 haversine loading with rest time is applied.
Test method B describes the method for determining the creep characteristics of bituminous mixtures by means of the triaxial cyclic compression test. In this test a cylindrical test specimen is subjected to a defined confining stress and a cyclic axial stress. This test is most often used for the purpose of evaluation and development of new types of mixtures.
This European Standard applies to test specimens prepared in the laboratory or cored from the road. The maximum size of the aggregates is 32 mm.
NOTE 1   Confinement of the test specimen is necessary to simulate realistic rutting behaviour, especially for gap-graded mixtures with a large stone fraction.
NOTE 2   For the purpose of Type Testing, the test conditions are given in EN 13108-20.

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This document specifies a method to determine the friction at 60 km/h after polishing during a fixed number of passes on surfaces of bituminous mixtures samples, or to follow its evolution as a function of the number of polishing passes.
The samples used are either produced in a laboratory or are cores taken from the site.

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This document specifies test methods for determining the bond strength between an asphalt layer and other newly constructed construction layers or existing substrates in road or airfield pavements. The tests can also be applied on laboratory prepared interlayers.
The normative tests described in this document are:
—   Torque Bond Test (TBT), generally applicable to any layer thicknesses;
—   Shear Bond Test (SBT), generally applicable to layer thicknesses > 15 mm;
—   Tensile Adhesion Test (TAT), generally applicable to layer thicknesses ≤ 15 mm.
NOTE   Further non normative test methods are described in informative annexes:
—   Annex A (informative) - Compressed Shear Bond Test (CSBT);
—   Annex B (informative) - Alternative Shear Bond Test (ASBT);
—   Annex C (informative) - Layer Adhesion Measuring Instrument (LAMI).

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This European Standard describes a hot sand test method for determining the condition of the binder on coated chippings for use with hot rolled asphalt (HRA) surface course.

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Both methods can be used for the determination of the thickness of a bituminous paving construction. When compliance is to be established, the method to be used and -if relevant- the position of the cores in the slab should be agreed in advance by the relevant parties.

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This European Standard specifies a method for measuring the bulk density of pavement mixtures using a transmission-type gamma radiation test bench.
The applicability of this European Standard is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.
The safety regulations applicable to the use of gamma rays should be applied.
This European Standard applies to cylindrical specimens or blocks, prepared in a laboratory or cut from a pavement, the thickness and the mass absorption coefficient which is a function of the chemical composition are known. The thickness of the specimen body traversed by the radiation shall be between 30 mm and 300 mm. The method cannot be applied to materials containing slags, with variable metal content or chemical composition which may affect the absorption of gamma rays.

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This European Standard describes a test method to determine the friction at 60 km/h after polishing during a fixed number of passes on surfaces of bituminous mixtures samples.
The samples used are either produced in a laboratory or are cores taken from the site.
NOTE   This procedure was previously known as Wehner and Schulze method (see [1]).

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This European Standard covers the determination of the tendency of segregation of hot mixtures. The tendency of segregation of bituminous mixtures is influenced by the composition of the mixtures in terms of types and amounts of aggregates and bituminous materials. Segregation in a bituminous mixture is caused by e.g. improper loading of the hopper, lorry, or finisher. Note: This method should only be adopted for mixtures having a flow time from the conical bin of less than 15 s. Gummy mixtures containing additives like polymers, fibres etc. may produce confusing results.

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This document specifies a visual method of determining the amount and components of coarse foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt. A method for determining the amount and components of finer foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt is given in Annex A. This method does not completely categorize the foreign matter that can occur in reclaimed asphalt.
NOTE For the use of reclaimed asphalt in bituminous mixtures it is important to know the components in the reclaimed asphalt and to know to what extent coarse foreign matter is present that can influence the properties of the bituminous mixture.

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This European Standard specifies a visual method of determining the amount and components of coarse foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt. A method for determining the amount and components of finer foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt is given in Annex A. This method does not completely categorise the foreign matter that can occur in asphalt.
NOTE 1   For the use of reclaimed asphalt in asphalt mixtures, it is important to know the components in the reclaimed asphalt and to what extent coarse foreign matter is present that can influence the properties of the asphalt mix.
NOTE 2   The method is not intended to categorise all foreign materials but rather to ensure that the amount of coarse foreign materials are minimised.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the dimensions of cylindrical, rectangular or non-rectangular bituminous test specimens by measurement.
The test is applicable to laboratory-made specimens, trimmed by sawing, or specimens from cores cut from the road, trimmed by sawing.

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This document describes test methods for the determination of the soluble binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures.
The test methods described are suitable for quality control purposes during the production of plant mix and for checking compliance with a product specification.
For the analysis of mixtures containing modified binders, the guidance of Annex D should be followed.

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This document specifies procedures for the determination of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen and its influence on the susceptibility of the combination to stripping. This property is intended to be of assistance to the designer for mixture design rather than as a type test. Susceptibility to stripping, as determined by these procedures, is an indirect measure of the power of a binder to adhere to various aggregates, or of various binders to adhere to a given aggregate. The procedures can also be used to evaluate the effect of moisture on a given aggregate-binder combination with or without adhesion agents including liquids, such as amines, and fillers, such as hydrated lime or cement.
In the rolling bottle method, the affinity is expressed by visual registration of the degree of bitumen coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated mineral aggregate particles after influence of mechanical stirring action in the presence of water.
NOTE 1   The rolling bottle test is a simple but subjective test and suitable for routine testing. It is not appropriate for aggregates that are highly abrasive.
In the static test method, the affinity is expressed by visual registration of the degree of bitumen coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated mineral aggregate particles after storage in water.
NOTE 2   The static test is a simple, though subjective test that is generally less precise, but that can cope with high PSV-aggregates.
In the boiling water stripping test method, the affinity is expressed by determining the degree of bitumen-coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated aggregate after immersion in boiling water under specified conditions.
NOTE 3   The boiling water stripping test is an objective test and has a high precision. However, it is a more specialist test because it requires greater skill of the operatives and uses chemicals as reagent. The latter point might also imply extra health and safety considerations.
NOTE 4   The boiling water stripping test procedure can be used for any binder-aggregate combinations in which the mineral aggregate is calcareous, silico-calcareous or siliceous by nature.

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This document describes a method to determine the in situ relative hydraulic conductivity, at specific locations, of a road surfacing that is designed to be permeable. An estimate of the average value for the surfacing is obtained from the mean value of a number of determinations on each section of road.
The test measures the ability to drain water (drainability) achieved in situ of a surfacing. As such, it can be used as a compliance check to ensure that a permeable surface course has the required properties when it is laid. The test can also be used subsequently to establish the change of drainage ability with time.
For the test to be valid, the surface of the test area should be clean and free from detritus. Measurements can be made when a road is either wet or dry, but not if it is in a frozen state.

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This document specifies test methods for determining the bulk density of a compacted bituminous specimen. The test methods are intended for use with laboratory compacted specimens or specimens from the pavement after placement and compacting, either by coring or sawing.
This document specifies the following four procedures, the choice of which is used being dependent on the estimated content and accessibility of voids in the specimen:
a)   bulk density - dry (for specimens with a very closed surface);
b)   bulk density - saturated surface dry (SSD) (for specimens with a closed surface);
c)   bulk density - sealed specimen (for specimens with an open or coarse surface);
d)   bulk density by dimensions (for specimens with a regular surface and with geometric shapes, i.e. squares, rectangles, cylinders, etc.).
NOTE   Annex A (informative) gives general guidance on selecting the appropriate procedure.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the stability, flow and the Marshall quotient values of specimens of bituminous mixtures mixed according to EN 12697-35 and prepared using the impact compactor method of test EN 12697-30. It is limited to dense graded asphalt concrete and hot rolled asphalt.

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This document describes test methods for preparing test portions for the determination of the binder, water content and grading of samples of bituminous mixtures, when the sample submitted to the laboratory has a mass greater than or equal to four times the test portion.

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This document specifies a method for determining the vertical and horizontal permeability of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures with interconnecting voids. The document applies to specimens cored out of the road, specimens from laboratory made slabs or laboratory specimens prepared with a compaction device provided the thickness of the specimen is not less than twice the nominal maximum particle size of the aggregate in the mixture. The nominal diameter of specimens should be either 100 mm or 150 mm unless the nominal maximum particle size of the aggregate size exceeds 22 mm, when the nominal diameter is 150 mm.

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This document specifies uniaxial tension tests for characterizing the resistance of an asphalt mixture against low temperature cracking. The results of the uniaxial tension tests can be used to evaluate the following:
-   tensile strength at a specified temperature, using the uniaxial tension stress test (UTST);
-   minimum temperature that the asphalt can resist before failure, using the thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST);
-   tensile strength reserve at a specified temperature (using a combination of TSRST and UTST);
-   relaxation time, using the relaxation test (RT);
-   creep curve to back calculate rheological parameters, using the tensile creep tests (TCT);
-   fatigue resistance at low temperatures due to the combination of cryogenic and mechanical loads, using the uniaxial cyclic tension stress tests (UCTST).

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This document specifies a test method for determining the depth of indentation of mastic asphalt and other asphalt, when force is applied to them via a cylindrical indentor pin with a circular flat-ended base. This document applies to aggregates of maximum nominal size less than or equal to 16 mm.

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This document describes a test method for the determination of the water content of samples of bituminous mixtures. The test method is suitable for checking conformity to a product specification, where required.

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This document specifies a test method for measuring the indentation of mastic asphalt when it is penetrated at a given temperature, load and for a fixed time period by a standardized cylindrical indentor pin with a circular flat-ended base. This document applies to mastic asphalt with aggregates of maximum nominal size less than or equal to 16 mm.

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This document describes a test method for the determination of the binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures by ignition. As such, it is an alternative to the more traditional method of extracting the binder using solvents. The method can be used for evaluation of mixture composition because the remaining aggregate can be used for determining aggregate gradation and density, provided excessive breakdown of the aggregate particles does not occur at the temperature reached. The results can be used for process control or checks on the compliance of mixtures. However, the need for calibration of a mixture, either on the complete mixture or on each of its component materials separately, before an analysis can be carried out makes this method easier to use with regularly used mixtures rather than with an extensive range of different mixtures from different aggregate sources. The test method is equally suitable for the analysis of mixtures containing unmodified or modified binders because the method has to be calibrated for each mixture being checked when calibration on mixtures is used. In case of doubt/dispute, the determination of the calibration value based on laboratory-prepared bituminous mixtures (see A.1 and A.2) is the reference method.

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This document describes test methods for determining the susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform under load. The test is applicable to mixtures with upper sieve size less than or equal to 32 mm.
The tests are applicable to specimens prepared from asphalt mixtures that have either been manufactured in a laboratory or cut from a pavement; test specimens are held in a mould with their surface flush with the upper edge of the mould.
The susceptibility of bituminous materials to deform is assessed by the rut formed by repeated passes of a loaded wheel at constant temperature. Three alternative types of device can be used according to this standard: large-size devices, extra large-size devices and small-size devices. With large-size devices and extra large-size devices, the specimens are conditioned in air during testing. With small-size devices, specimens are conditioned, in either air or water.
NOTE   Large-size and extra large-size devices are not suitable for use with cylindrical cores.

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This document specifies a test method to assess the durability of adhesion in base and binder course asphalt mixtures. The Saturation Ageing Tensile Stiffness (SATS) conditioning regime is used to age the specimens in the presence of water. A comparative test for assessing their performance before and after conditioning is also conducted.
The applicability of this test method is limited to bituminous specimens with consistent air voids contents and hard binder, in particular, to asphalt concrete mixtures with a binder content between 3,5 % and 5,5 %, air voids contents between 6 % and 10 % and 10/20 pen hard paving grade bitumen.
The test is intended to be used as a screening test for the assessment of a combination of aggregate, filler and additives with respect to the retained adhesion properties after simulated ageing in a moist atmosphere for lean/stiff base and binder course mixtures.

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This test can be used on cores out of the road which have been trimmed by sawing or on cylindrical specimens that are made in the laboratory.

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