This document specifies a test method to determine the ash content in natural asphalts (including lake asphalts), binders containing natural asphalts or bitumens. For the method to apply, it is essential that any mineral matter in the binder be finely divided and cannot exceed a mass fraction of 45 %.

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This document specifies a test method to determine the resistance of a bituminous mixture or pavement to fuels. The procedure involves initial soaking of a test specimen made in the laboratory or cored from a pavement in a fuel, followed by a brushing period with a brush test device. The material loss of the specimen is a measure of the resistance to that fuel for that bituminous mixture.

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This document specifies a method for the recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures used in road, airfield or similar pavements in a form suitable for further testing.
The method is applicable for the recovery of paving grade bitumen and is the reference method for recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures containing volatile matter such as cut-back bitumen.
The method is not applicable for recovery of polymer-modified bitumen.
NOTE   EN 12697-3 is the reference method for the recovery of paving grade bitumen and polymer-modified bitumen.

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This document specifies a test method to determine the resistance of bituminous materials to de-icing fluids. The procedure determines the surface tensile strength of a specimen of asphalt which has been stored in de-icing fluid.
This document is primarily used as a test on asphalt to be laid on airfields, but it can be used for asphalt to be laid on roads or other paved areas.

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This document describes two test methods for determining the thickness of bituminous pavement. The first method describes measurements carried out on one or more cores which have been drilled from the full depth of the slab or road structure (destructive method). The second method electro-magnetic (non-destructive) measurement are used.

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This document describes a hot sand test method for determining the condition of the binder on coated chippings for use with hot rolled asphalt (HRA) surface course.

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This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the stiffness of bituminous mixtures by alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.
The procedure is used to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of stiffness, as a guide to relative performance in the pavement, to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour in the road and to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.
As this standard does not impose a particular type of testing device the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the operating scope and working range of the device used.
For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures should be respected.
The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

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This document specifies the methods for compacting parallelepipedal specimens (slabs) of bituminous mixtures, to be used directly for subsequent testing, or from which test specimens are cut.
For a given mass of bituminous mixture, the specimens are prepared either under controlled compaction energy, or until a specified volume and therefore air voids content is obtained.
This document describes the following methods of compaction:
- method using a wheel or two wheels fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- methods using a steel roller, which includes 3 different procedures:
- steel roller;
- steel roller used on wheel fitted with pneumatic tyres;
- steel roller running on vertical sliding steel plates;
- method using a steel roller sector.
This document is applicable to bituminous mixtures manufactured in the laboratory or in a mixing plant.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the mixing quality and the tendency of segregation in composition of bituminous mixtures. This test method is considered suitable for mix-design purposes and for client information.
NOTE This test method is based on hot bituminous mixtures. There is no experience for other types of bituminous mixtures, e.g. asphalt concrete with bituminous emulsions.

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This document specifies a method for measuring the bulk density of pavement mixtures using a transmission-type gamma radiation test bench.
This method applies to cylindrical specimens or parallelepipedal blocks, prepared in a laboratory or cut from a pavement. The thickness and the mass absorption coefficient, which is a function of the chemical composition, are known. The thickness of the specimen body traversed by the radiation is between 30 mm and 300 mm.
The method cannot be applied to materials containing slags, with variable metal content or chemical composition.
NOTE   Material containing metal or chemical compositions can affect the absorption of gamma rays.

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This document specifies a method to determine the friction at 60 km/h after polishing during a fixed number of passes on surfaces of bituminous mixtures samples, or to follow its evolution as a function of the number of polishing passes.
The samples used are either produced in a laboratory or are cores taken from the site.

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This document specifies test methods for determining the bond strength between an asphalt layer and other newly constructed construction layers or existing substrates in road or airfield pavements. The tests can also be applied on laboratory prepared interlayers.
The normative tests described in this document are:
—   Torque Bond Test (TBT), generally applicable to any layer thicknesses;
—   Shear Bond Test (SBT), generally applicable to layer thicknesses > 15 mm;
—   Tensile Adhesion Test (TAT), generally applicable to layer thicknesses ≤ 15 mm.
NOTE   Further non normative test methods are described in informative annexes:
—   Annex A (informative) - Compressed Shear Bond Test (CSBT);
—   Annex B (informative) - Alternative Shear Bond Test (ASBT);
—   Annex C (informative) - Layer Adhesion Measuring Instrument (LAMI).

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This document specifies a visual method of determining the amount and components of coarse foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt. A method for determining the amount and components of finer foreign matter in reclaimed asphalt is given in Annex A. This method does not completely categorize the foreign matter that can occur in reclaimed asphalt.
NOTE For the use of reclaimed asphalt in bituminous mixtures it is important to know the components in the reclaimed asphalt and to know to what extent coarse foreign matter is present that can influence the properties of the bituminous mixture.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the dimensions of cylindrical, rectangular or non-rectangular bituminous test specimens by measurement.
The test is applicable to laboratory-made specimens, trimmed by sawing, or specimens from cores cut from the road, trimmed by sawing.

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This document describes test methods for the determination of the soluble binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures.
The test methods described are suitable for quality control purposes during the production of plant mix and for checking compliance with a product specification.
For the analysis of mixtures containing modified binders, the guidance of Annex D should be followed.

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This document specifies a test method to assess the durability of adhesion in base and binder course asphalt mixtures. The Saturation Ageing Tensile Stiffness (SATS) conditioning regime is used to age the specimens in the presence of water. A comparative test for assessing their performance before and after conditioning is also conducted.
The applicability of this test method is limited to bituminous specimens with consistent air voids contents and hard binder, in particular, to asphalt concrete mixtures with a binder content between 3,5 % and 5,5 %, air voids contents between 6 % and 10 % and 10/20 pen hard paving grade bitumen.
The test is intended to be used as a screening test for the assessment of a combination of aggregate, filler and additives with respect to the retained adhesion properties after simulated ageing in a moist atmosphere for lean/stiff base and binder course mixtures.

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This document describes a test method for the determination of the water content of samples of bituminous mixtures. The test method is suitable for checking conformity to a product specification, where required.

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This document specifies a test method for measuring the indentation of mastic asphalt when it is penetrated at a given temperature, load and for a fixed time period by a standardized cylindrical indentor pin with a circular flat-ended base. This document applies to mastic asphalt with aggregates of maximum nominal size less than or equal to 16 mm.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the stability, flow and the Marshall quotient values of specimens of bituminous mixtures mixed according to EN 12697-35 and prepared using the impact compactor method of test EN 12697-30. It is limited to dense graded asphalt concrete and hot rolled asphalt.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the depth of indentation of mastic asphalt and other asphalt, when force is applied to them via a cylindrical indentor pin with a circular flat-ended base. This document applies to aggregates of maximum nominal size less than or equal to 16 mm.

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This document describes test methods for preparing test portions for the determination of the binder, water content and grading of samples of bituminous mixtures, when the sample submitted to the laboratory has a mass greater than or equal to four times the test portion.

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This document specifies procedures for the determination of the affinity between aggregate and bitumen and its influence on the susceptibility of the combination to stripping. This property is intended to be of assistance to the designer for mixture design rather than as a type test. Susceptibility to stripping, as determined by these procedures, is an indirect measure of the power of a binder to adhere to various aggregates, or of various binders to adhere to a given aggregate. The procedures can also be used to evaluate the effect of moisture on a given aggregate-binder combination with or without adhesion agents including liquids, such as amines, and fillers, such as hydrated lime or cement.
In the rolling bottle method, the affinity is expressed by visual registration of the degree of bitumen coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated mineral aggregate particles after influence of mechanical stirring action in the presence of water.
NOTE 1   The rolling bottle test is a simple but subjective test and suitable for routine testing. It is not appropriate for aggregates that are highly abrasive.
In the static test method, the affinity is expressed by visual registration of the degree of bitumen coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated mineral aggregate particles after storage in water.
NOTE 2   The static test is a simple, though subjective test that is generally less precise, but that can cope with high PSV-aggregates.
In the boiling water stripping test method, the affinity is expressed by determining the degree of bitumen-coverage on uncompacted bitumen-coated aggregate after immersion in boiling water under specified conditions.
NOTE 3   The boiling water stripping test is an objective test and has a high precision. However, it is a more specialist test because it requires greater skill of the operatives and uses chemicals as reagent. The latter point might also imply extra health and safety considerations.
NOTE 4   The boiling water stripping test procedure can be used for any binder-aggregate combinations in which the mineral aggregate is calcareous, silico-calcareous or siliceous by nature.

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This document specifies test methods for determining the bulk density of a compacted bituminous specimen. The test methods are intended for use with laboratory compacted specimens or specimens from the pavement after placement and compacting, either by coring or sawing.
This document specifies the following four procedures, the choice of which is used being dependent on the estimated content and accessibility of voids in the specimen:
a)   bulk density - dry (for specimens with a very closed surface);
b)   bulk density - saturated surface dry (SSD) (for specimens with a closed surface);
c)   bulk density - sealed specimen (for specimens with an open or coarse surface);
d)   bulk density by dimensions (for specimens with a regular surface and with geometric shapes, i.e. squares, rectangles, cylinders, etc.).
NOTE   Annex A (informative) gives general guidance on selecting the appropriate procedure.

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This document specifies a method for determining the vertical and horizontal permeability of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures with interconnecting voids. The document applies to specimens cored out of the road, specimens from laboratory made slabs or laboratory specimens prepared with a compaction device provided the thickness of the specimen is not less than twice the nominal maximum particle size of the aggregate in the mixture. The nominal diameter of specimens should be either 100 mm or 150 mm unless the nominal maximum particle size of the aggregate size exceeds 22 mm, when the nominal diameter is 150 mm.

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This document specifies uniaxial tension tests for characterizing the resistance of an asphalt mixture against low temperature cracking. The results of the uniaxial tension tests can be used to evaluate the following:
-   tensile strength at a specified temperature, using the uniaxial tension stress test (UTST);
-   minimum temperature that the asphalt can resist before failure, using the thermal stress restrained specimen test (TSRST);
-   tensile strength reserve at a specified temperature (using a combination of TSRST and UTST);
-   relaxation time, using the relaxation test (RT);
-   creep curve to back calculate rheological parameters, using the tensile creep tests (TCT);
-   fatigue resistance at low temperatures due to the combination of cryogenic and mechanical loads, using the uniaxial cyclic tension stress tests (UCTST).

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This document describes a method to determine the in situ relative hydraulic conductivity, at specific locations, of a road surfacing that is designed to be permeable. An estimate of the average value for the surfacing is obtained from the mean value of a number of determinations on each section of road.
The test measures the ability to drain water (drainability) achieved in situ of a surfacing. As such, it can be used as a compliance check to ensure that a permeable surface course has the required properties when it is laid. The test can also be used subsequently to establish the change of drainage ability with time.
For the test to be valid, the surface of the test area should be clean and free from detritus. Measurements can be made when a road is either wet or dry, but not if it is in a frozen state.

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This document describes a test method for the determination of the binder content of samples of bituminous mixtures by ignition. As such, it is an alternative to the more traditional method of extracting the binder using solvents. The method can be used for evaluation of mixture composition because the remaining aggregate can be used for determining aggregate gradation and density, provided excessive breakdown of the aggregate particles does not occur at the temperature reached. The results can be used for process control or checks on the compliance of mixtures. However, the need for calibration of a mixture, either on the complete mixture or on each of its component materials separately, before an analysis can be carried out makes this method easier to use with regularly used mixtures rather than with an extensive range of different mixtures from different aggregate sources. The test method is equally suitable for the analysis of mixtures containing unmodified or modified binders because the method has to be calibrated for each mixture being checked when calibration on mixtures is used. In case of doubt/dispute, the determination of the calibration value based on laboratory-prepared bituminous mixtures (see A.1 and A.2) is the reference method.

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This document specifies a method for compacting cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures, to be used for subsequent testing. A given mass of bituminous mixture is compacted in a cylindrical mould by applying static compression loads on the top and the bottom of the specimen.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for plant mixtures of the mix group Asphalt concrete with bituminous emulsion for use on roads, and other trafficked areas. Asphalt concrete with bituminous emulsion is used for surface courses, binder courses, regulating courses, and bases. It is a mixture in which mechanical properties evolve over time following installation. This is not just in terms of cooling, as other asphalts, but also includes curing effects.
NOTE   Asphalt concrete with bituminous emulsion is a mixture in which mechanical properties evolve over time following installation because of curing.
Mixtures utilizing bituminous emulsion based on in situ recycling are not covered by this standard.
This European Standard includes requirements for the selection of the constituent materials. It is designed to be read in conjunction with:
-   Annex A Product Type Assessment (Normative);
-   Annex B Performance characteristic assessment (Informative);
-   Annex C Factory Production Control (Normative).

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This document specifies a method to measure the spreadability characteristics of bituminous mixtures which are able to vary with time. It can be used for the determination of the delay between manufacturing and laying. It is intended to be assistance for bituminous mixtures design rather than a type test.
This document applies to bituminous mixtures both those made up in laboratory and those resulting from work site sampling, with an upper aggregate size not larger than 31,5 mm. It is not applicable to mastic asphalt.

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This document defines three procedures to evaluate the compatibility of the constituent materials of a bituminous mixture with bitumen emulsion. These organoleptic methods can be used together to evaluate the compatibility of the constituent materials after a hand mixing procedure for given emulsion and water content:
- Method A describes a test method to determine visually the degree of coating;
- Method B describes a test method to determine the consistency;
- Method C describes a test method to determine the hydric aspect.
This document applies to mixtures prepared in the laboratory or taken from the plant.

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This document describes a series of accelerated protocols for curing of bituminous mixtures with bitumen emulsion in order to assess their properties.
The protocols are to be selected according to the type of mixture, the type of specimen, the test to be carried out and the conditions of the place of use.
This document applies to mixtures, specimens and cores, prepared in the laboratory and/or taken from the worksite.
The laboratory curing procedure is designed for bituminous mixtures containing bitumen emulsions, but it could also be used for other types of asphalt mixture that require curing in order to reach their potential strength.

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the particle size distribution of the aggregates of bituminous mixtures by sieving. The test is applicable to aggregates recovered after binder extraction in accordance with EN 12697-1 or EN 12697-39.
The applicability of this European Standard is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.
NOTE   Fibres, solid (non-soluble during extraction) additives and (some) binder modifiers influence the test result.

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This document specifies the Semi-Circular Bending (SCB) test method to determine the tensile strength or fracture toughness of an asphalt mixture for the assessment of the potential for crack propagation. The results of the test can be used to calculate:
- the maximum load that the material containing a notch (crack) can resist before failure;
- when the presence of a notch is critical.
It should be noted that the test only describes a method to determine the resistance to crack propagation of an asphalt mixture. The crack propagation phase describes the second part of failure mechanism during dynamic loading. The first phase, which is the crack initiation phase, is mainly covered by the fatigue test (EN 12697-24).

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This document specifies the method for compaction of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures using a gyratory compactor.
The method is used for:
- determination of the air voids content of a mixture for a given number of gyrations or derivation of a curve density (or void content) versus number of gyrations;
- preparation of specimens of given height and/or at a predetermined density, for subsequent testing of their mechanical properties.
Annex A and Annex B describe method of complying for the equipment.
This document applies to bituminous mixtures (both those made up in laboratory and those resulting from work site sampling), with an upper aggregate size not larger than 31,5 mm.

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This document specifies a method for the preparation of bituminous test specimens using a vibratory compaction technique.
This document is applicable to loose mixtures and cores and is used to establish a refusal density for a bituminous mixture, or to determine the ease of compaction as described in EN 12697-10.

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This document describes a procedure for calculating volumetric characteristics of a compacted bituminous specimen: the air voids content (Va), the voids content in the mineral aggregate filled with binder (VFB) and the voids content in the mineral aggregate filled with binder and additives (VFBad) for the case of mixtures containing additives in their composition.
The method is suitable for specimens which are laboratory compacted or specimens cut from the pavement after placement and compacting or from laboratory compacted slabs, either by coring or sawing.
These volumetric characteristics can be used as mix design criteria or as parameters for evaluating the mixture after placing and compacting in the road.

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This document specifies test methods for determining the maximum density of a bituminous mixture (voidless mass). It specifies a volumetric procedure, a hydrostatic procedure and a mathematical procedure.
The test methods described are intended for use with loose bituminous materials containing paving grade bitumens, modified binders or other bituminous binders used for bituminous mixes. The tests are suitable for both fresh or aged bituminous materials.
Samples may be supplied as loose material or as compacted material; it is advised to separate the latter first.
NOTE    General guidance on selection of a test procedure to determine the maximum density of a bituminous mixture is given in Annex A.

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This document specifies methods of moulding specimens from bituminous mixtures by impact compaction. Such specimens are primarily used to determine bulk density and other technological characteristics, e.g. Marshall stability and flow according to EN 12697 34.
This document applies to bituminous mixtures (both those made up in a laboratory and those resulting from work site sampling), with not more than 15 % by mass retained on the 22,4 mm sieve and none on the 31,5 mm sieve.

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This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the fatigue of bituminous mixtures using alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.
The procedure is used:
a)   to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of resistance to fatigue;
b)   as a guide to relative performance in the pavement;
c)   to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour of the road; and
d)   to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.
Because this European Standard does not impose a particular type of testing device, the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the possibilities and the working range of the device used. For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures need to be respected. The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

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This European Standard specifies three test methods for determining the effect of saturation and accelerated water conditioning:
-   method A uses the indirect tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures;
-   method B uses the compression strength of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures;
-   method C defines the bonding value for a bituminous mixture 1 h after mixing, where the bonding of bitumen and aggregate can be equated to a bonding value.
Method C is suitable for soft asphalt with bitumen of kinematic viscosity at 60 °C of 4 000 mm2/s or less.
These methods can be used to evaluate the effect of water on asphalt mixtures with or without anti-stripping additives including liquids, such as amines; and fillers, such as hydrated lime or cement.

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This document describes a test method for the recovery of soluble bitumen from bituminous mixtures used in road, airfield or similar pavements in a form suitable for further testing. The test can be undertaken on either loose or compacted asphalt materials. The procedure is suitable for the recovery of paving grade bitumens, for which materials this European Standard is the reference method. The fractionating column procedure (see EN 12697-4) is the reference method for mixtures containing volatile matter such as cut-back bitumen.
For recovery of polymer modified bitumens, the rotary evaporator procedure is recommended.

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This European Standard describes three test methods for characterizing the compactability of a bituminous mix, by the relation between its density or void content and the compaction energy applied to it, using an impact (Marshall) compactor, gyratory compactor, or a vibratory compactor.
This European Standard applies to bituminous mixtures, both those prepared in laboratory and those resulting sampled from plant produced mixtures. The results of the test method serve to supplement the results of mixture design.

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This European Standard describes a test method for measuring the temperature of asphalt mixtures after mixing and during storage, transportation and laying. This European Standard includes the contact temperature-measuring device and the non-contact temperature-measuring device (infrared-thermometer).   In cases of dispute, the refence method shall be using the contact temperature measuring device.

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This draft European Standard specifies a test method for determining the (splitting) indirect tensile strength of cylindrical specimens of bituminous mixtures.
NOTE   Determination of the water sensitivity of bituminous specimens in accordance with EN 12697-12 is based on determination of the indirect tensile strength in accordance with this test method.

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This European Technical Specification specifies a test method for determining the resistance to scuffing of asphalt mixtures which are used in surface layers and are loaded with high shear stresses in road or airfield pavement. These shear stresses occur in the contact area between tyre and pavement surface and can be caused by cornering of the vehicle. Due to these shear stresses, material loss will occur at the surface of these layers. The test is normally performed on asphalt layers with a high amount of air voids (e.g. porous asphalt), but can also be applied on other asphaltic mixtures. Test specimens are used either produced in a laboratory or cut from the pavement.
NOTE   The test is developed to determine the resistance to scuffing for noise reducing surface layers where raveling is the normative damage criterion. The test can also be performed on other surface mixtures with a high resistance to permanent deformation. In case a mixture has a low resistance to permanent deformation, rutting can occur during the test. This can influence the test results.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for mixtures of the mix group Soft Asphalt for use on low volume roads and roads with low stability. Soft Asphalt is used for surface courses, regulating courses and bases in colder climates.
The mixtures of the mix group Soft Asphalt are produced on the basis of hot bitumen. Mixtures utilizing bitumen emulsion and bituminous materials based on in situ recycling are not covered by this standard.
This European Standard includes requirements for the selection of the constituent materials. It is designed to be read in conjunction with EN 13108-20 and EN 13108-21.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for mixtures of the mix group Porous Asphalt for use on roads, airfields and other trafficked areas. Porous Asphalt is used for surface courses. Porous Asphalt can be laid in more than one layer.
The mixtures of the mix group Porous Asphalt are produced on the basis of hot bitumen. Mixtures utilizing bitumen emulsion and bituminous materials based on in situ recycling are not covered by this standard.
This European Standard includes requirements for the selection of the constituent materials. It is designed to be read in conjunction with EN 13108-20 and EN 13108-21.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the classification and description of reclaimed asphalt as a constituent material for asphalt mixtures. It is not a standard for compliance.
This European Standard only specifies reclaimed asphalt with bituminous binders, such as: paving grade bitumen, modified bitumen or hard grade bitumen. Reclaimed asphalt contaminated with coal tar or other additives or components above hazardous levels is not covered by this Standard and will need to be considered under Member State Environmental, and Health and Safety Regulations.

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This European Standard specifies the Type Testing procedure for use in Assessment and Verification of the Constancy of Performance (AVCP) of bituminous mixtures for use in roads, airfields and other trafficked areas.

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