This document specifies an analytical method for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid recovered fuels using isothermal calorimetry.
This document gives guidance on the applicability and use of the specified analytical method. It further establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid recovered fuels prior to the analysis of spontaneous heat generation.
The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample during the test. It does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed.

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  • Draft
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This document specifies methods for sample preparation to ensure representativeness of the samples throughout the preparation procedures to produce general analysis samples. Suitable test portions can be taken from the laboratory or general analysis samples and used for analysis according to the specific requirements defined in the corresponding analytical procedures.
This document specifies the correct sample preparation sequence to be applied to:
a) the composite sample, in order to produce a laboratory sample (taking into account large pieces of solid recovered fuel);
b) each sub-sampling step throughout the testing programme;
c) the laboratory sample, in order to obtain suitable test portions;
d) ensure the representativeness of the test portions that have been taken according to the sample preparation plan, prior to physical analysis, chemical analysis or both (e.g. extractions, digestion, analytical determinations).
The methods specified in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for bulk density, biomass content determination, mechanical durability, particle size distribution, moisture content, ash content, ash melting behaviour, calorific value, chemical composition, impurities and self-heating properties. The methods are not intended to be applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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This document gives guidance on basket heating tests for characterization of self-heating properties of solid recovered fuels (SRFs).
This document includes:
a) a compilation of basket heating test methods;
b) guidance on the applicability and use of basket heating tests for SRF;
c) information on the application of basket heating test data for calculations of critical conditions in storage.
Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material.
The information derived using this document is intended for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 21912.

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This document specifies the procedure for a determination of major and minor element concentrations in solid recovered fuel material by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry or wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry using a calibration with solid recovered fuel reference materials or solid recovered fuel samples with known content. A semiquantitative determination can be carried out using matrix independent standards.
This document is applicable to the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Mo, Cd, Sb, Sn, Tl and Pb. Concentration levels between approximately 0,000 1 % and 100 % can be determined depending on the element, the calibration materials used and the instrument used.
NOTE            X-ray fluorescence spectrometry can be used as a fast method for a qualitative overview of elements and impurities and after suitable calibration it is very useful for determining major elements or even minor elements (except Hg) in order to quickly identify increased concentrations of minor elements in solid recovered fuels (SRF), for example during SRF-production.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross calorific value of solid recovered fuels at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a combustion vessel calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.

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This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF), and a template containing a list of characteristics for the specification of their properties, enabling trade and use of SRF supporting the protection of the environment.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE 1    Untreated municipal solid waste as such cannot be considered SRF. Untreated municipal solid waste can however be feedstock to plants producing SRF.
NOTE 2    Chemically treated solid biofuels that do not contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material, can be defined as solid biofuels and thus be part of the standard series ISO 17225[1].

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This document specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods.
It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes dewatered sludge.

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This document specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid recovered fuels.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of moisture in a general analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use for general analysis samples in accordance with CEN/TS 15414‑1[3][1]. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.
If solid recovered fuels contain large amounts of oil-fractions the Karl-Fischer-Method (for example ISO 760) is advisable. Otherwise, a lower temperature is recommended (e.g. 50 °C ± 10 °C) and a longer drying time until constant mass is achieved.
NOTE  The term moisture content, when used with recovered materials, can be misleading since solid recovered materials, e. g. biomass, frequently contain varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining the moisture content of the general analyses sample by oven drying.
[1]   The adoption of the standard series EN 15414 as standard series ISO 21660 is planned. ISO 21660‑3 is published in parallel at CEN level as EN 21660-3.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling, treatment and storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF), prepared from non-hazardous waste, to be used for energy purposes. This document covers process stages from point of acceptance of material to point of delivery of SRF.
This document excludes fuels that are included in the scope of ISO/TC 238 Solid biofuels and ISO/TC 28 Petroleum products and related products of synthetic or biological origin.
It uses a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures are to be considered.
Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues following the loading and transport itself are not.

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This document specifies three methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid recovered fuels: the 14C content method, the selective dissolution and the manual sorting methods.

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  • Standard
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This document defines terms for solid recovered fuels to enable the user to understand the scope of the work of ISO/TC 300. Where a term and definition are required in a single standard, the term and definition will be referenced in that standard.

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This document specifies the determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in solid recovered fuels by instrumental method. Depending on the amount of test portion, micro or macro instrumental apparatus are used.
This method is applicable for concentrations on dry matter basis of C > 0,1 %, N > 0,1 %, H > 0,1 % and S > 0,05 %.

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This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of solid recovered fuels using an image analysis method. It applies to both agglomerated and non-agglomerated solid, recovered, fuel pieces exhibiting an irregular shape, such as shredded end-of-life tyres and demolition woods. It provides the determination of the maximum projected length as well as parameters such as equivalent diameter. It also gives a characterisation of the filaments protruding from the SRF pieces.

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This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of solid recovered fuels. It establishes a manual method for the determination of the maximum projected length for large dimension particles. It applies to both agglomerated and non agglomerated solid recovered fuel pieces exhibiting an irregular shape, such as shredded end-of-life tyres and demolition woods.
This document does not apply to filaments protruding from the SRF pieces.

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This European Standard specifies three methods of digestion for solid recovered fuels:
a) microwave assisted digestion with hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acid mixture;
b) hot water bath digestion of with hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acid mixture, after ashing of the SRFs
sample;
c) oven digestion with nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acid mixture.
Instrumental determination of As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se, Tl, V, Zn is performed by
Inductively Coupled Plasma with optical or mass detection or graphite furnace Atomic Absorption
Spectrometry. Hg can be analysed only after the microwave assisted procedure or, alternatively, by a direct
analysis method (Hg direct  AMA).
The effectiveness of the digestion can be verified by qualitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis on the
remaining residue. If necessary, an alternative digestion method (among those proposed) is used.
Method a) is recommended for general use, but the amount of the test portion can be very low in case of high
concentration of organic matter.
Method b) is recommended for Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) with high organic matter concentration that can
be difficult to digest with the other methods. This method is not suitable for mercury.
Method c) is recommended for Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) samples for which the other methods leave a
significant insoluble residue.
Alternative digestion methods can be applied if their performance is proved to be comparable with those of the
methods mentioned in a) to c) (see Annex C).

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This European Standard specifies the determination of particle size distribution of solid recovered fuels by a
machine or manual sieving method. It applies to particulate agglomerated and non-agglomerated fuels, such
as fluff, pellets, briquettes, pulverised solid recovered fuels.
This sieving method is not applicable to large pieces with irregular shape such as the pieces of shredded tyres
or of demolition wood. In the case, of large pieces of irregular shape, prEN 15415-2 and prEN 15415-3 are
applicable.
NOTE 1 For fine particles < 1 mm (e.g. sludges), the use of other methods could give more representative results as
e.g. an analysis with the laser diffraction method in accordance with ISO 13320.
NOTE 2 This European Standard is based on EN 15149-1 applicable to particle sizes less than 3,15 mm.

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This European Standard specifies a method to determine the current rate of aerobic microbial activity of a
solid recovered fuel. The methods indirectly estimate the potentiality of odours production, vectors attraction
etc. The current rate of biodegradation can be expressed in milligrams O2 kg dm-1 h-1.
WARNING - SRF can contain potentially pathogenic organisms. Take appropriate precautions when
handling them and those whose properties are unknown.

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This European Standard specifies three methods of digestion for solid recovered fuels:
a)   microwave assisted digestion with hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acid mixture;
b)   hot water bath digestion of with hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acid mixture, after ashing of the SRFs sample;
c)   oven digestion with nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acid mixture.
Instrumental determination of Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P, and Ti is performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry with optical detection or other suitable spectroscopic techniques such as Flame Atomic Spectroscopy.
The effectiveness of the digestion can be verified by qualitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis on the remaining residue. If necessary an alternative digestion method (among those proposed) shall be used.
XRF can be used for the analysis of Si, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, P, Ti, after ashing (550 °C) of the sample: other elements can be analysed by XRF provided that the concentration levels are above the instrumental detection limits of the XRF instrumentation and after proper preliminary testing.
Method a) is recommended for general use, but the amount of the test portion can be very low in case of high concentration of organic matter. Method b) is recommended for SRFs with high organic matter concentration that can be difficult to digest with the other methods.
Method c) is recommended for SRFs samples for which the other methods leave a significant insoluble residue.
All the listed methods are suitable for the determination of Si, provided that closed containers are used for sample dissolution. XRF is highly recommended for Si, P and Ti analysis.
Alternative digestion methods can be applied if their performance is proved to be comparable with those of the methods mentioned in a) to c) (see Annex C).

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This European Standard specifies the determination of S, Cl, F and Br in solid recovered fuels of various origin and composition after combustion in oxygen atmosphere. This method is applicable for concentrations over 0,025 g/kg, depending on the element and on the determination technique. In the case of fluorine this method is applicable for concentration over 0,015 g/kg.
Insoluble halides and sulphate present in the original sample or produced during the combustion step are not completely determined by these methods.
This European Standard provides recommendations concerning standardised methods for determination of halides and sulphate in the solution obtained after combustion.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for the quality management system for the production and trade of solid recovered fuels from the reception of waste(s) up to the delivery of solid recovered fuels
(Figure 1).
Figure 1 - Quality management systems within the solid recovered fuels chain

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  • Standard – translation
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This document specifies a test method for the determination of mechanical durability of pellets. It is intended to be applied by persons and organisations that manufacture, plan, sell, erect or use machinery, equipment, tools and entire plants related to such pellets, and that are involved in producing, purchasing, selling and utilising pellets.
The method specified is not applicable to soft pellets.

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This Technical Report describes exemplarily methods for the determination of shrinking, deformation, hemisphere and flow temperature for characterising the ash melting behaviour of all solid recovered fuels.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of particle density of irregularly shaped pieces of compressed fuels such as pellets or briquettes. It is not applicable to soft or semi-soft pellets.
NOTE 1   The term soft pellet is defined in CEN/TS 15639.
NOTE 2   Particle density is subject to variation due to the susceptibility of organic material to environmental or technical impacts such as air humidity, vibration, abrasion or biodegradation. Therefore, particle density can vary during time thus the measured values should be regarded as a momentary fuel property.
NOTE 3   At the time of preparing this document, the production of briquettes of solid recovered fuels could not be identified in the European market.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of bridging properties of solid recovered fuels using standard measuring equipment. The method is applicable to all solid recovered fuels with maximum dimensions of the particle of 100 mm.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of total moisture content of solid recovered fuels by drying a sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use for routine production control on site, e.g. if a high precision of the determination of moisture content is not required. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.
NOTE 1   The total moisture content of recovered fuels is not an absolute value and therefore standardised conditions for its determination are indispensable to enable comparative determinations.
NOTE 2   The term moisture content when used with recovered materials can be misleading since solid recovered materials, e.g. biomass, frequently contains varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining moisture content by oven drying.
NOTE 3   This Technical Specification is based on EN 14774 2 [1].

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of bulk density of solid recovered fuels using a standard measuring container. This method is applicable to all solid recovered fuels with a nominal top size of maximal 100 mm.
NOTE 1   The reason for the limitation to maximal 100 mm is the practical maximum volume of a measurement container and thus dimensions of the aperture of the container. Particle dimension should not exceed 1/3 of this value.
NOTE 2   Bulk density of solid recovered fuels is subject to variation due to several impacts such as vibration, shock, pressure, biodegradation, drying and wetting. Measured bulk density can therefore deviate from practice conditions during transportation, storage or transhipment.

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This Technical Specification specifies a method for the determination of total moisture content of solid recovered fuels by drying a sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use if a high precision of the determination of moisture content is required. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.
NOTE 1   The total moisture content of solid recovered fuels is not an absolute value and therefore standardised conditions for its determination are indispensable to enable comparative determinations.
NOTE 2   The term moisture content when used with recovered materials can be misleading since solid recovered materials, e.g. biomass, frequently contains varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining moisture content by oven drying.
NOTE 3   This Technical Specification is based on EN 14774 1 [1].

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This Technical Specification specifies two different methods for the determination of metallic aluminium in solid recovered fuels:
-   method a: dissolution of metallic aluminium and analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) or by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS);
-   method b: Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) on the solid SRF.

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This Technical Report gives a review on determination methods for exploring how different SRFs behave in different combustion systems, e.g. with respect to time for ignition, time for gas phase burning and time for char burn out, including information on technical aspects like slagging and fouling, corrosion as well as required flue gas cleaning for meeting the emission limit values induced by the Waste Incineration Directive (WID).

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This Technical Report gives an overview of the suitability of 14C-based methods for the determination of the fraction of biomass carbon in solid recovered fuels, using detection by scintillation, gas ionization and mass spectrometry.

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This Technical Report gives background information on key properties to be used for establishing a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRFs), and a proposal for the classification system and classes for SRF.

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This Technical Report considers aspects of occupational safety and health within the scope of CEN/TC 343: production and trade of solid recovered fuels.

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This document considers the relative difference between the biodegradable fraction and the biogenic fraction of solid recovered fuels prepared from non-hazardous waste for energy recovery and whether there is a need to develop two sets of standards or only one set for the determination of these fractions in order to define the biomass content of SRFs.

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This International Standard specifies methods for the determination of major and minor element concentrations in solid recovered fuels after digestion by the use of different acid mixtures and by addition of a fluxing agent for SRF ash and is applicable for major and minor/trace elements: Major elements: Aluminium (Al), Calcium (Ca), Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Phosphorus (P), Sulphur (S), Silicon (Si) and Titanium (Ti). Minor/trace elements: Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Cadmium (Cd), Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Antimony (Sb), Selenium (Se), Tin (Sn), Thallium (Tl), Vanadium (V) and Zink (Zn).

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This document specifies the determination of the share of material recovery in the case of energy recovery (i.e. co-processing) of solid recovered fuels (SRFs), for example, in a cement kiln. This share, called the recycling index (R-index), is calculated on the basis of the ash content and the ash composition.

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This document specifies an analytical method for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid recovered fuels using isothermal calorimetry.
This document gives guidance on the applicability and use of the specified analytical method. It further establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid recovered fuels prior to the analysis of spontaneous heat generation.
The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample during the test. It does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed.

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This European Standard specifies the correct sequence of operations to ensure the representativity of the test
portions that have been taken according to the sampling plan, prior to physical and/or chemical analysis (e.g.
extractions, digestion and/or analytical determinations) of solid samples.
This European Standard specifies the correct sequence of operations and treatments to be applied to the
laboratory sample in order to obtain suitable test portions in compliance with the specific requirements defined
in the corresponding analytical procedures.

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This European Standard specifies methods for reducing combined samples to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples.
The methods described in this European Standard may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for bulk density, biomass determination, durability, particle size distribution, moisture content, ash content, ash melting behaviour, calorific value, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross calorific value of solid recovered fuels at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.

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This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF) and a template for the specification of their properties.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE 1   Waste referred to in article 2(2)(a), points (i)-(v) of the Waste Incineration Directive (2000/76/EC) is not included in the scope of this document. This is covered by CEN/TC 335 "Solid biofuels". Waste wood from demolition of buildings and civil engineering installations is, however, included in the scope.
NOTE 2   Untreated municipal solid waste is not included in the scope of this document.

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  • Standard – translation
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This European Standard specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods.
It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes dewatered sludge.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid recovered fuels.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of moisture in an analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use for general analysis samples in accordance with CEN/TS 15414-1. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.
NOTE 1   The term moisture content when used with recovered materials can be misleading since solid recovered materials e.g. biomass frequently contain varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining the moisture content of the general analyses sample by oven drying.
NOTE 2   This European Standard is based on EN 14774-3.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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TC - Correction of Figures A.2 and A.3 - Chemestry

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This European Standard specifies three normative methods for the determination of the biomass fraction in solid recovered fuel, and when to use each method. The methods are the selective dissolution in a hydrogen peroxide/sulphuric acid mixture, the manual sorting method and the method based on the 14C content.

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This European Standard defines terms and definitions concerned in all standardisation work within the scope of CEN/TC 343, i.e. terms used in the field of production and trade of solid recovered fuels that are prepared from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE   Solid biofuels are covered by the scope of CEN/TC 335.
The embedding of the scope within the waste/solid recovered fuels field is given in Figure 1.
Figure 1 - Linkage between selected terms in the field of waste, recovered fuels and conversion to end-use energy
Definitions in other standards with a scope different from the scope of this European Standard can be different from the definitions in this European Standard.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of total carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents in solid recovered fuels by instrumental techniques.
This method is applicable for concentrations on dry matter basis of C over 0,1 %, N over 0,01 % and H over 0,1 %.

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