This document specifies requirements for the design, testing and classification of active fire curtains, applicable to any material, that are designed to provide fire and smoke resistance. This document gives recommendations for the application, installation and maintenance of active fire curtains. It is also intended to provide guidance and recommendations for designers, specifiers (e.g. architects, fire engineers), authorities having jurisdiction (AHJs), installers and maintainers for the following: a) creating compartmentation; b) creating protected routes for the purpose of means of escape; c) providing protection at the location of non-fire resisting elements (e.g. in front of non-fire-resisting glazing and doorsets) where required for compartmentation or protecting means of escape; d) providing fire- and smoke-resistant active fire curtains in conjunction with non-smoke rated products protecting openings to reduce leakage of smoke. This document does not apply to the following, which are intended for a different use: —   barriers made of part of the building’s structure; —   theatre/proscenium textile curtains; —   smoke barriers according to ISO 21927-1; —   door and shutter assemblies according to ISO 3008‑1. NOTE 1   Smoke barriers used solely for smoke control are covered by ISO 21927‑1. Such smoke barriers are not considered to be active fire curtains. NOTE 2   Requirements of fire doors are given in ISO 3008-1. Requirements for leakage are given in ISO 5925‑1 and further information is given in ISO/TR 5925‑2.

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    114 pages
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This document describes a method of determining the resistance to jet fires of passive fire protection materials and systems. It gives an indication of how passive fire protection materials behave in a jet fire and provides performance data under the specified conditions. It does not include an assessment of other properties of the passive fire protection material such as weathering, ageing, shock resistance, impact or explosion resistance, or smoke production. Complete I-beams and columns cannot be tested to this document due to disruption of the characteristics of the jet.

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    43 pages
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    43 pages
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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance of fire dampers to heat, and for the evaluation of their ability to prevent fire and smoke from spreading from one fire compartment to another through an air distribution system. This document describes the test requirements related to intumescent fire dampers. It is intended for intumescent fire dampers that are expected to be classified as EI dampers. Without the addition of a mechanical damper, they are unable to achieve the “S” classification, which includes a leakage limit imposed at ambient temperature. This document is not intended to be used for dampers used only in smoke control systems, for testing fire protection devices which only deal with air transfer applications, or for dampers used in suspended ceilings, as the installation of the damper and duct can have an adverse effect on the performance of the suspended ceiling, requiring other methods of evaluation. NOTE      "Air transfer" is a low-pressure application through a fire separation door (or wall, floor) without any connection to an air duct.

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    44 pages
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This document provides guidance for the specification of design fires for use in fire safety engineering analysis of building and structures in the built environment. The design fire is intended to be used in an engineering analysis to determine consequences in fire safety engineering (FSE) analyses.

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    52 pages
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  • Technical specification
    60 pages
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This document specifies a method for determining the kinetics and yields of gaseous emissions from a specimen exposed to radiant heat in a cone calorimeter. Gas yields are determined by exposing small representative specimens to an external heat flux with or without spark ignition. The concentrations of specific gases in the effluent (smoke) are measured. In combination with calculated masses of gases, their yields from the specimen mass, mass loss or mass loss rate can be determined. This document uses Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as described in ISO 19702, with additional information on the test apparatus and gas analyser suitable for this specific application.

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    12 pages
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This document specifies a standard test methodology and resulting field of direct application which are applicable to linear joint fire seal materials used to seal around fire door sets which have been tested in accordance with ISO 3008‑1. The test methodology described in this document uses a smaller-scale fire resistance furnace than that prescribed in ISO 3008‑1.

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    11 pages
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This document assesses the utility of physical fire models that have been standardized, are commonly used, and/or are cited in national or international standards, for generating fire effluent toxicity data of known accuracy. This is achieved by using the criteria established in ISO 16312-1 and the guidelines established in ISO 19706. The aspects of the models that are considered are: the intended application of the model, the combustion principles it manifests, the fire stage(s) that the model attempts to replicate, the types of data generated, the nature and appropriateness of the combustion conditions to which test specimens are exposed, and the degree of validity established for the model.

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    45 pages
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This document describes a protocol for the verification and validation of building fire evacuation models. This document mostly addresses evacuation model components as they are in microscopic (agent-based) models. Nevertheless, it can be adopted (entirely or partially) for macroscopic models if the model is able to represent the components under consideration. The area of application of the evacuation models discussed in this document includes performance-based design of buildings and the review of the effectiveness of evacuation planning and procedures. The evacuation process is represented with evacuation models in which people's movement and their interaction with the environment make use of human behaviour in fire theories and empirical observations[5]. The simulation of evacuation is represented using mathematical models and/or agent‑to‑agent and agent-to-environment rules. The area of application of this document relates to buildings. This document is not intended to cover aspects of transportation systems in motion (e.g. trains, ships) since specific ad-hoc additional tests may be required for addressing the simulation of human behaviour during evacuation in these types of systems[6]. This document includes a list of components for verification and validation testing as well as a methodology for the analysis and assessment of accuracy associated with evacuation models. The procedure for the analysis of acceptance criteria is also included. A comprehensive list of components for testing is presented in this document, since the scope of the testing has not been artificially restricted to a set of straightforward applications. Nevertheless, the application of evacuation models as a design tool can be affected by the numbers of variables affecting human behaviour under consideration. A high number of influences can hamper the acceptance of the results obtained given the level of complexity associated with the results. Simpler calculation methods, such as macroscopic models, capacity analyses or flow calculations, are affected to a lower extent by the need to aim at high fidelity modelling. In contrast, more sophisticated calculation methods (i.e. agent-based models) rely more on the ability to demonstrate that the simulation is able to represent different emergent behaviours. For this reason, the components for testing are divided into different categories, enabling the evacuation model tester to test an evacuation model both in relation to the degree of sophistication embedded in the model as well as the specific scope of the model application. In Annex A, a reporting template is provided to provide guidance to users regarding a format for presenting test results and exemplary application of verification and validation tests are presented in Annex B.

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    69 pages
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This document specifies a test method for evaluating the reaction-to-fire performance of thermal insulating sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on or within the thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance. This document is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting and frame-supported thermal insulating sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

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    16 pages
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Data collection is of prime importance in fire safety, for several reasons: assessing the effect of any regulation, providing probability and gravity data to fire risk analysis, and the selection of scenarios for examples in fire safety engineering. Statistical data collection of fires is nevertheless collected and analysed from local or national perspectives at the time of publication of this document, making any comparison difficult. A first step identified in the need for harmonization is the issue of terminology. This document defines terminology relating to fire statistical data, in order to supplement ISO 13943 for this specific field of application.

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    15 pages
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This document specifies a test method for determining the non-combustibility performance, under specified conditions, of homogeneous products and substantial components of non-homogeneous products. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex A.

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    31 pages
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    32 pages
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This document specifies the apparatus and procedure for measuring reaction to fire behaviour under reduced oxygen atmospheres. Continuous measurements are made to calculate heat release rates, smoke and specific gas production rates, and mass loss rates. Ignition time measurements are also made and ignition behaviour is obtained. Pyrolysis parameters of specimens exposed to controlled levels of irradiance and controlled levels of oxygen supply can be determined as well. Different reduced oxygen atmospheres in the test environment are achieved by controlling the oxygen volume concentration of input gas fed into the chamber (vitiation) or by controlling the total volume of atmosphere fed into the chamber (ventilation). Ranges of oxygen volume concentration below 20,95 % of oxygen can be studied. The apparatus is not intended to control enriched oxygen conditions above atmospheric 20,95 % oxygen concentration. The measurement system prescribed in this document is based on the cone calorimeter apparatus described in ISO 5660-1. Therefore, this document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 5660-1.

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    23 pages
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This document provides a complete example to illustrate ISO 23932-1. The example is a dry-cleaning store, for which the fire safety objective is life safety, for both people located inside or outside the shop, in the event of a fire within the shop. NOTE Generally, an FSE study is not needed for such a small shop. However, this example was chosen to demonstrate the application of ISO 23932-1 in detail while keeping the documentation provided sufficiently brief.

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    43 pages
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This document identifies test methods already in existence and provides guidance on those that need to be developed to characterize the thermo-physical and mechanical properties of structural materials at elevated temperatures for use in fire safety engineering calculations. It is applicable to materials used in load-bearing construction in which structural and thermal calculations might be required to assess the performance of elements or systems exposed to either standard fire tests, real or design fire heating conditions.

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This document specifies a method of test for determining the ignitability of products by direct small flame impingement under zero impressed irradiance using vertically oriented test specimens. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex A (informative). Information on testing not essentially flat end-use products is given in Annex B (normative). Information on testing perforated end-use products is given in Annex C (normative).

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    27 pages
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This document describes tools and gives guidance concerning interlaboratory trials related to fire effluent analyses. It explains the relative contributions from the physical fire model and analytical techniques to evaluate trueness and fidelity. It also explains the difficulties involved with the interpretation of round-robin data and with the evaluation of trueness in fire effluent analyses. This document complements ISO 12828-1, which deals with limits of quantification and detection and ISO 12828-2, which deals with interlaboratory validation of analytical methods. It is a toolbox useful in the framework of ISO/IEC 17025 assessment of any fire laboratory. Examples of existing standards where the information contained in this document can be used are the analytical chemical methods in ISO 19701[2], ISO 19702[3], ISO 5660-1[4], and the chemical measurements in the methods discussed in ISO/TR 16312-2, ISO 16405[6], ISO/TS 19021[7], or their application to fire toxicity assessment using ISO 13571[1] and ISO 13344[8].

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    11 pages
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This document provides principles for characterizing the measured production of toxic gases from a laboratory fire test and provides bases for comparing the results between different types and scales of such tests. It also includes consideration of the uncertainties in the gas determinations. The combined uncertainty is a key factor in the ability to establish similarity or difference of test results. The sufficiency of the agreement between a bench-scale test and a real-scale test depends on the precision needed in the fire hazard or risk assessment, which is not covered by this document. This document defines the relevance and significance of toxic gas data from measurements in different fire tests. With such a definition it is possible to provide generic guidance on how such data can be compared between different sizes and types of fire tests. The combustion conditions represented by the fire test, other specific characteristics of the test and the test specimen, the sampling strategy of the fire effluents, and the analysis technique for the toxic gas species are the most important factors when defining the significance of the toxic gas data. This document is intended to serve as a tool for the a) definition of the relevance and significance of toxic gas data from fire tests, b) comparison of toxic gas data from fire tests of different scales and characteristics, and c) prediction of toxic gas data from a large-scale test based on small-scale data or vice versa. This document gives general guidance regarding comparison of toxic gas data between physical fire models of different scales, but is principally developed for the gases listed in ISO 13571, i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen halides (HCl, HBr, HF), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2), formaldehyde (CH2O) and acrolein (C3H4O). This document is not applicable to characterization and comparisons of the toxicity of the effluents from fire tests.

  • Standard
    19 pages
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    21 pages
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  • Standard
    2 pages
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    2 pages
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This document gives guidelines whose primary focus is the assessment of the adverse environmental impact of fire effluents, including those from fires occurring in commercial and domestic premises, unenclosed commercial sites, industrial and agricultural sites, as well as those involving road, rail and maritime transport systems. It is not applicable to direct acute toxicity issues or wildland fires, which are covered by other existing ISO standards. It is intended to serve as a tool for the development of standard protocols for a) the assessment of local and remote adverse environmental impacts of fires, and the definition of appropriate preventive measures, b) post-fire analyses to identify the nature and extent of the adverse environmental impacts of fires, and c) the collection of relevant data for use in environmental fire hazard assessments. This document is intended as an umbrella document to set the scene concerning what should be considered when determining the environmental impact of fires. It is not a comprehensive catalogue of methods and models defining how to determine the environmental impact of fires, intended to be addressed by other parts of ISO 26367. This document is principally intended for use by firefighters and investigators, building owners and managers, storage facility operators, materials and product manufacturers, insurance providers, environmental regulatory authorities, civil defence organizations and public health authorities.

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    21 pages
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    22 pages
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This document establishes general principles for measuring the uniformity of furnace exposure of samples tested in accordance with the requirements of ISO 834‑1. This document specifies the type and location of instrumentation used to measure the temperature, velocity and oxygen content near the surface of simulated test samples. The surface of the simulated sample facing the furnace is gypsum board secured to cold-formed steel supports. This document does not include requirements for furnace performance. An intended use of data generated by the application of this document and the rational for the instrumentation described in this document are contained in the informative Annex A.

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    14 pages
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This document gives guidelines on the applicability of the existing reaction to fire tests to fire safety engineering and fire modelling. It also gives general guidance on the type of data needed for fire safety engineering calculations and for fire modelling.

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    33 pages
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This document specifies a test and assessment method for determining the contribution made by fire protection systems to the fire resistance of structural steel beams, I and H sections, in the horizontal plane containing openings in the web which may affect the structural performance of the beam. It is applicable to beams subjected to three or four sided fire exposure. For any cellular beam with a single web opening or where the web openings are considered to be of small diameter in relation to the web depth the applicability of this document is intended to be determined by a structural engineer This document adopts the principle of establishing ratios of temperatures between and around openings in the web of a beam with the temperatures of a solid portion of that beam. This is with the intention that these data can be utilised within a structural model to derive the value and location of the associated limiting temperature of the beam at the fire limit state. The limiting temperature is then used in conjunction with data for the fire protection material determined from ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11 to determine the necessary thickness of fire protection material for beams with web openings. This document applies to fire protection materials that have already been tested and assessed in accordance with ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11 and is not intended to be used in isolation. It covers fire protection systems that include both passive and reactive materials which follow the section profile as defined in this document. This document includes the use of a multi-temperature analysis (MTA) derived from ISO 834-11 as the basis for determining the thickness of fire protection for beams with web openings. This document contains an assessment method, which prescribes how the analysis of the test data should be made and gives guidance on the procedures that could be undertaken. The assessment procedure can be used to establish: a) The thermal response of the fire protection system on cellular beams, (the thermal performance) on the basis of the temperature data derived from testing unloaded steel sections. b) The temperature ratio between the web post and the web reference temperature, which will vary depending on the web post width. c) The temperature ratio between points around the web openings and the web reference area. d) A structural model that can be used to derive limiting temperatures for cellular beams.

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    29 pages
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This document specifies a test and assessment method for determining the contribution of fire protection systems to the fire resistance of circular and rectangular solid steel bar. ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11 cover other section shapes such as angles, channels and flats. This document is not intended to be used for twisted wire or for cold or hot rolled steel bar which is primarily used for the reinforcement of concrete. This document is applicable for the protection of solid bar up to a maximum diameter of 130 mm and in the case of rectangular bar the maximum side length shall be limited to 130 mm with a maximum aspect ratio of 2:1 against the shorter length side. Beyond these limits, the solid steel bars are covered in ISO 834-10 and ISO 834-11. This document is intended to be used with any applied fire protection system, including multi-layered systems, that have demonstrated their integrity/stickability when tested on floor beams and hollow sections under load, and assessed in accordance with ISO 834-11. This document does not incorporate results from a loaded test on a tension member. Guidance for conducting a fire test on a steel bar under a tensile load is provided in Annex C. This document contains the fire test methodology to provide data on the thermal characteristics of the fire protection system when exposed to the standard temperature/time curve specified in ISO 834-1. It also contains an assessment method for the analysis of the test data. The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested. The assessment procedure is used to establish: — on the basis of temperature data derived from testing steel bars, any practical constraints on the use of the fire protection system under fire test conditions, (the physical performance); — on the basis of the temperature data derived from testing steel bars, the thermal properties of the fire protection system, (the thermal performance). The limits of applicability of the results of the assessment arising from the fire test are defined together with permitted direct application of the results to different steel types and sizes of steel bar over the range of thicknesses of the applied fire protection system tested. This document describes testing in both the vertical and horizontal orientations at the discretion of the sponsor.

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    22 pages
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The requirements in this document govern the application of a set of explicit algebraic formulae for the calculation of specific characteristics of radiation heat flux from an open pool fire. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving a set of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to the algebraic formulae is provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; and e) domain of applicability of the calculation method. Examples of sets of algebraic formulae meeting the requirements of this document are provided in Annexes A and B. Annex A contains a set of algebraic formulae for radiation heat fluxes from a circular or near-circular open pool fire. Annex B contains formulae for configuration factors of a flame to a target.

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    40 pages
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    42 pages
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This document provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formulae sets to the calculation of fire phenomena. This document is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. This document is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) Requirements governing description of physical phenomena; b) Requirements governing calculation process; c) Requirements governing limitations; d) Requirements governing input parameters; e) Requirements governing domain of applicability.

  • Standard
    4 pages
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    4 pages
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This document provides a methodology for assessing the performance of structures in the built environment when exposed to a real fire. This document, which follows the principles outlined in ISO 23932-1, provides a performance-based methodology for engineers to assess the level of fire safety of new or existing structures. NOTE The fire safety of structures is evaluated through an engineering approach based on the quantification of the behaviour of a structure for the purpose of meeting fire safety objectives and can cover the entire time history of a real fire (including the cooling phase), and its consequences related to fire safety objectives such as life safety, property protection and/or environmental protection.

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    28 pages
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    31 pages
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This document addresses the impact of wildland fires and firefighting activities on the environment (air, water, soil, wildlife and vegetation). It further addresses the impact of wildland fire effluents on exposed human population, including firefighters, as well as food production, land, sea and air traffic, and the built environment. It also describes the environmental impacts of firefighting activities. This document also provides requirements and recommendations to quantify such impacts of wildland fires and to establish post-fire mitigation measures. The wildland fires covered include both natural wildland fires and man-initiated fires, including prescribed burning and agricultural fires, but not peat fires nor coal seam fires. This document is intended to serve as a tool for the development of standard protocols for: — the assessment of local and remote adverse environmental impacts of wildland fires; — the assessment of the effects of smoke and gas exposure on firefighters and exposed human populations. It provides guidance for incident commanders and other responsible or affected parties when decisions regarding firefighting strategies, tactics, and restoration are made. It is intended principally for use by firefighters and investigators, insurance providers, environmental regulatory authorities, civil defence organisations, public health authorities and land owners. This document does not include specific instruction on compiling and reporting the information needed to assess environmental damage caused by a fire incident, nor does it include specific sampling methodologies and analysis requirements. These topics are the focus of documents in the ISO 26367 series. This document does not address either fire damage to the built environment, direct acute toxicity issues, which are covered by other ISO standards, nor does it address economic impact, although the impact of climate change is discussed in Annex D.

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    22 pages
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This document, used in conjunction with ISO 834-1, specifies a method for determining the fire resistance of door and shutter assemblies designed primarily for installation within openings incorporated in vertical separating elements, such as — hinged and pivoted doors, — horizontally sliding and vertically sliding doors, including articulated sliding doors and sectional doors, — steel single-skin folding shutters (un-insulated), — other sliding, folding doors, — tilting doors, — rolling shutter doors, — removable panels in walls, — self-closing openable windows. Requirements are included for mechanical pre-conditioning, e.g. "cycling" of door and shutter assemblies prior to the conduct of the fire-resistance test.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the resistance of fire dampers to heat, and for the evaluation of their ability to prevent fire and smoke spreading from one fire compartment to another through an air distribution system. It is applicable to mechanical fire dampers. It is not intended to be used for dampers used only in smoke control systems, for testing fire protection devices which only deal with air transfer applications, or for dampers used in suspended ceilings, as the installation of the damper and duct can have an adverse effect on the performance of the suspended ceiling, requiring other methods of evaluation. NOTE "Air transfer" is a low-pressure application through a fire separation door (or wall, floor) without any connection to an air duct.

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    39 pages
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This document specifies a test method for determining the fire resistance of pressure vessels with a fire protection system when subjected to standard fire exposure conditions. It does not address vessels cooled by water deluge or water monitor. The test data thus obtained permits subsequent classification on the basis of the duration for which the performance of the pressure vessel under these conditions satisfies specified criteria. The design of the pressure vessel is not covered in this document.

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    36 pages
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This document provides general principles and requirements for FSE, and is intended to be used by professionals involved in 1) performance-based fire safety design (of both new and existing built environments), 2) implementation for fire safety design plans, and 3) fire safety management. This document is not intended as a detailed technical design guide, but does provide the key elements necessary for addressing the different steps and their linkages in the fire safety design process. This document also provides key elements linked to the implementation of fire safety design plans and fire safety management. This document is intended not only to be used on its own, but also in conjunction with a consistent set of FSE documents covering methods in performance-based fire safety design, implementation and management. FSOs covered by this document include: — safety of life; — property protection; — continuity of operations; — protection of the environment; — preservation of heritage. The general principles and requirements of FSE can be applied to all configurations of the built environment, i.e. buildings or other structures (e.g. off-shore platforms; civil engineering works, such as tunnels, bridges and mines; and means of transportation, such as motor vehicles and marine vessels), but may not be applicable for construction sites. Because prescriptive regulations covering fire safety design commonly co-exist with performance-based design, this document acknowledges that fire safety designs conforming to prescriptive regulations can become the basis for comparison of engineered designs of built environments.

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    26 pages
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  • Standard
    28 pages
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This document provides definitions and equations for the calculation of toxic product yields and the fire conditions under which they have been derived in terms of equivalence ratio and combustion efficiency. Sample calculations for practical cases are provided. The methods are intended to be used to produce either instantaneous or averaged values for those experimental fires in which time-resolved data are available. This document is intended to provide guidance to fire researchers for — recording appropriate experimental fire data, — calculating average yields of gases and smoke in fire effluents in fire tests and fire-like combustion in reduced scale apparatus, — characterizing burning behaviour in experimental fires in terms of equivalence ratio and combustion efficiency using oxygen consumption and product generation data. This document does not provide guidance on the operating procedure of any particular piece of apparatus or interpretation of data obtained therein (e.g. toxicological significance of results).

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    33 pages
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    36 pages
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This document specifies a test method suitable to analyse effluents produced during pyrolysis and combustion of samples and products tested according to ISO 5659-2. The specified test method is based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy described in ISO 19702, with additional information on the test apparatus and analyser calibration suitable for its application to this physical fire model. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 5659-2 and ISO 19702. The test method provides time-resolved gas concentrations during the whole of an ISO 5659-2 test. This document does not address the accuracy of this fire model for any product application, nor does it address the accuracy of the gas concentrations relative to any real-scale fire tests or fire scenarios. For future conversion of this document into an International Standard, an interlaboratory trial is intended to be conducted to replace Annex B. This document does not include any toxicity assessment or provide input data for fire safety engineering. As combustion conditions vary depending on the oxygen consumption rate in the enclosure during the ISO 5659-2 test, this physical fire model is not recognised as being representative of any specific fire scenario. Therefore, it is difficult to compare test results with real-scale fire conditions. As a consequence, if this test method is used for comparison among materials or products, it is intended to be done in combination with other fire tests.

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    23 pages
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This document specifies a method for the determination of the gross heat of combustion (QPCS) of products at constant volume in a bomb calorimeter. This method is intended to be applied to solid products. NOTE Liquids can be tested with similar equipment and using conditions described in ASTM D240[1], as described in IEC 61039[2] using ISO 1928[3] test equipment. Annex A specifies the calculation of the net heat of combustion, QPCI, when required. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex B.

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    30 pages
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    32 pages
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ISO 20902-1:2018 specifies a test procedure for determining the fire resistance of divisional elements with a fire protection system, when exposed to cellulosic or hydrocarbon-pool type fire conditions. It is applicable to divisional elements intended for non-marine applications but suitable for offshore fixed and mobile installations. The test data obtained, when used in conjunction with published fire test standards, permit subsequent classification of the divisional elements based on the duration of their performance against specified criteria.

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    30 pages
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  • Standard
    30 pages
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ISO/TR 24679-6:2017 provides an example of fire safety engineering design in the application of ISO 24679‑1 to an office building. In ISO/TR 24679-6:2017, an overall structural analysis of a building is undertaken. It consists in a numerical assessment of the structural performance of an eight-storey concrete building when subjected to a fire. This analysis is performed in order to demonstrate that the fire safety objectives, for the relevant design fire scenarios, due to structural behaviour of building in the event of fire, are met with the trial plan for the safety of structure. With regards to this, a fully developed fire was studied. The purpose of this document is to assess the performance of an office building which is fully accessible to public in case of fire, using ISO 24679‑1. In this respect, a critical design fire was identified and analysed using detailed fire modelling. A more detailed analysis was then performed for critical design fire using the finite element model. The advanced model provided all the comprehensive information necessary for analysing the given built environment with respect to fire safety. It is to be noted that this document only addresses the fire safety objectives related to the structural performance during fire. The analysis within this document is therefore only part of the overall building fire safety strategy.

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    48 pages
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This document explains a methodology to determine the applicability of the results of fire resistance tests to actual applications. It is applicable to those loadbearing and simple vertical and horizontal separating elements for which there is an ISO standard test procedure based upon the ISO 834 series for determining the fire resistance of a representative sample of the construction proposed for use in a specific building or just for general use. These elements are: —   loadbearing elements; —   non-loadbearing elements: —   partitions: —   stud construction partitions; —   composite panel/SIPS partitions; —   ceiling membranes (horizontal partitions): —   jointed ceilings; —   composite panel ceilings. Direct and extended applications of test results are the two possible ways to ensure that a modified element has an acceptable probability of obtaining the same fire rating as that of the original tested specimen. In both cases, these applications generally refer only to the fire rating that the building element can expect to reach if it, or a representative sample of it, were to be tested in a furnace according to the standard fire test conditions used in the reference test. One of the most common variations is in respect of the size of the element in use. Fire resistance testing furnaces have size restrictions and as a consequence, there is little confidence that the result obtained on an element of construction tested in accordance with the standard methods will behave in a similar manner when installed in the final building. This document does not provide guidance on the application and extension of results arising from testing carried out on door and window assemblies, linear gaps or service penetration seals, which is covered in ISO/TR 12470-2. For some, but not all of the critical parameters, a summary of the possible influences is incorporated in the given examples.

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ISO/TR 12470-2:2017 explains a methodology to determine the applicability of the results of fire resistance tests to actual applications. ISO/TR 12470-2:2017 is applicable to those non-loadbearing elements for which there is an ISO standard test procedure based upon the ISO 834 series for determining the fire resistance of a representative sample of the construction proposed for use in a specific building or just for general use. These elements are: - fire resisting door assemblies (excluding lift landing doorsets): - timber; - steel; - fire resisting vertical glazing ? metal framed: NOTE The rheology of glass is such that gravity has a disproportional influence on fire glass when it is heated to high temperatures and as a consequence, it is not possible to provide generic guidance on the extended application of horizontal glazed elements. - timber framed; - linear gap sealing; - service penetration sealing. Fire resistance testing furnaces have fairly restricted size limitations and as a consequence, there is little confidence that the result obtained on an element of construction tested in accordance with the standard methods will behave in a similar manner when installed in the final building. Direct and extended applications of test results are the two possible ways to ensure that an element that is not identical to the tested construction will have an acceptable probability of obtaining the same fire rating as that of the original tested specimen. In both cases, these applications generally refer only to the fire rating that the building element can expect to reach if it, or a representative sample of it, were to be tested in a furnace according to the standard fire test conditions used in the reference test. The criteria and methodology used in evaluating ductwork and dampers is significantly different from those used to evaluate conventional separating elements and for this reason, these forms of construction are not included in the scope of this document. It is planned that a subsequent part of this document may include guidance on these elements.

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ISO/TR 24679-4:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to the fire resistance assessment of a fifteen-storey steel framed building following the methodology given in ISO 24679-1. This document describes the adopted process which follows the same step by step procedure as that provided in ISO 24679-1. The annexes of this document present the detailed assessment results obtained for the most severe fire scenarios on the basis of the outcome of this specific fire safety engineering procedure for the building. The fire safety engineering applied in this example to the office building with respect to its fire resistance considers specific design fire scenarios as well as the corresponding fire development. It takes into account fully-developed compartment fires. In realistic situations, activation of fire suppression systems and/or intervention of fire brigade are expected, but their beneficial effects are not taken into account. It should be noted that these severe fire scenarios have been selected for fire resistance purposes. Global structural behaviour is not explicitly considered, but implicitly included in the calculation formulae. Since the building of the example is located in a seismic region, principal structural elements are rigidly connected to each other. Load redistribution from heated elements to cold surrounding elements exists, but it's not taken into account in the design calculations. By this approach, design is conservative, while the process of safety checking is greatly simplified and clear. As a result, all the calculations were carried out by explicit algebraic formulae.

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ISO 13943:2017 defines terminology relating to fire safety as used in ISO and IEC fire standards.

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ISO 26367-2:2017 specifies a methodology for compiling the information needed to assess the environmental damage caused by a fire incident. This includes conducting a site reconnaissance, establishing data quality objectives and designing sampling programmes. This document also provides a standardized method for reporting the results of the compilation and findings of the analyses, for use in contingency planning or for the assessment of the potential adverse environmental impact of a specific fire incident. This document does not include specific instruction on sampling and analysis of fire effluents. Sampling and analysis are the focus of a future document in the ISO 26367 series. ISO 26367-2:2017 is applicable to uncontrolled fires, including fires in commercial and domestic premises, unenclosed commercial sites, agricultural storage sites, wildland and forest fires, as well as fires involving road, rail and maritime transport systems. ISO 26367-2:2017 focuses on the fire effluents that are environmentally significant, including pollutants causing short-term effects (e.g. pollutants causing biotope damage and components of smog) and long-term effects (e.g. persistent organic pollutants, POP). Since it is not possible to treat all potential pollutants that could be found in fire effluents in a single document, a list of those pollutants specifically addressed in this document is given below: a) pollutants with short-term effects: halogenated acids (HX), metals, nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulates, and sulfur oxides (SOx); b) pollutants with long-term effects: metals, particulates, perfluorinated compounds (PFC), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polyhalogenated dioxins and furans (PXDD/PXDF). The reporting template provided in Annex D proposes additional potential pollutants and indicators for inclusion in the compilation. Not all of the pollutants and indicators listed in Table D.1 are relevant to every fire site, and others not mentioned in the table can apply. ISO 26367-2:2017 does not include direct acute toxicity issues on humans, which are covered by other standards, such as ISO 13344 and ISO 13571.

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ISO/TR 24672-2:2017 provides a fire engineering application relative to fire resistance assessment of an airport terminal structure according to the methodology given in ISO 24679‑1. It follows step by step the procedure given by ISO 24679‑1. Some requirements relative to Chinese building regulation are taken into account concerning the fire scenarios. The fire safety engineering applied to an airport terminal takes into account the real fire data based in fire tests. It is important to note that the intervention of fire service brigade dedicated to this airport, located approximately 1 km away, has been taken into account in definition of fire scenarios. For the fire modelling, both fire extinguishing system and the smoke extraction are not considered but the fire fighter intervention has been taken into account 10 min after the starting of fire.

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ISO/TR 16576:2017 compiles examples of fire safety design objectives, functional requirements and safety criteria from Japan, France and New Zealand.

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ISO 3008-2:2017 specifies the method of test for determining the fire-resistance of lift landing door assemblies which can be exposed to a fire from the landing side. The procedure is applicable to all types of lift landing door assemblies used as a means of access to lifts in buildings and which are intended to provide a fire barrier to the spread of fire via the lift well. The procedure allows for the measurement of integrity and, if required, the measurement of radiation and thermal insulation. No requirements other than the verification that the specimen is operational are included for the mechanical conditioning before the test.

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ISO/TS 5660-4:2016 specifies a method for evaluating materials and products that produce low levels of heat release when exposed to high irradiance levels typical of fully developed fires. It differs from ISO 5660‑1 by prescribing items such as specific specimen size, specimen holder, specimen orientation, volumetric flow rate for O2 analyses and irradiance levels at which testing is conducted. The test method described in this document is intended for use on products and materials that contain only small amounts of combustible elements, e.g. test specimens that yield a total heat release of 0,75 MJ/m2 to 15 MJ/m2.

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ISO 12828-2:2016 describes tools and techniques for use in validating the analysis of fire gases when an analytical method is developed in a laboratory. It complements ISO 12828‑1, which deals with limits of quantification and detection. The tools and techniques described can be applied to the measurement of quantities, concentrations (molar and mass), volume fractions, and concentration or volume fraction versus time analyses. Fire effluents are often a complex matrix of chemical species, strongly dependent on the materials involved in the fire, but also dependent on fire scenario parameters (see ISO 19706). With such a wide variety of conditions, the analytical techniques available will differ in terms of the influence of the matrix on the methods and on the concentration ranges which can be measured. The analytical techniques available are likely to differ significantly in several respects, such as their sensitivity to the matrix and the range of concentrations/volume fractions which can be reliably measured. For these reasons, a unique reference analytical technique for every fire effluent of interest is, in practical terms, difficult or impossible to achieve. The tools in this document allow verification of the reliable measurement ranges and conditions for the analysis of fire effluents, thereby enabling a comparison among various analytical techniques. Examples of existing International Standards where the information contained in this document can be used are the analytical chemical methods in ISO 19701, ISO 19702, ISO 5660‑1, and the chemical measurements in the methods discussed in ISO/TR 16312‑2, ISO 16405, or their application to fire toxicity assessment using ISO 13571 and ISO 13344. NOTE 1 The variable "concentration" is used throughout this document, but it can be replaced in all places with "volume fraction" without altering the meaning. This does not apply to the Annexes. NOTE 2 Concentration can be calculated from volume fraction by multiplying by the density of the relevant gas at the relevant temperature and pressure.

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ISO 16312-1:2016 provides technical criteria and guidance for evaluating physical fire models (i.e. laboratory combustion devices and operating protocols) used in effluent toxicity studies for obtaining data on the effluent from products and materials under fire conditions relevant to life safety.[9] Relevant analytical methods, calculation methods, bioassay procedures and prediction of the toxic effects of fire effluents can be referenced in ISO 19701, ISO 19702, ISO 19703, ISO 19706 and ISO 13344. Comparisons are detailed in ISO 29903. Prediction of the toxic effects of fire effluents can be referenced in ISO 13571 and ISO/TR 13571‑2.

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ISO/TS 19700:2016 describes a steady-state tube furnace (SSTF) method for the generation of fire effluent for the identification and measurement of its constituent combustion products, in particular, the yields of toxicants under a range of fire decomposition conditions. It uses a moving test specimen and a tube furnace at different temperatures and airflow rates as the fire model. The interlaboratory reproducibility has been assessed with selected homogenous thermoplastic materials and this document is therefore limited in applicability to such materials. The method is validated for testing homogeneous thermoplastic materials that produce yields of a defined consistency. See limitations in Clause 12.

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ISO 24678-6:2016 provides requirements to govern the application of explicit algebraic formula sets to the calculation of flashover-related phenomena. It is an implementation of the general requirements provided in ISO 16730‑1 for the case of fire dynamics calculations involving sets of explicit algebraic formulae. ISO 24678-6:2016 is arranged in the form of a template, where specific information relevant to algebraic flashover formulae are provided to satisfy the following types of general requirements: a) description of physical phenomena addressed by the calculation method; b) documentation of the calculation procedure and its scientific basis; c) limitations of the calculation method; d) input parameters for the calculation method; e) domain of applicability of the calculation method.

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ISO/TR 13571-2:2016 describes the practical application of ISO 13571 as a tool to evaluate effects of fire effluents on people. The method of application, performance criteria and evaluation of the impact are explained and illustrated by two families of examples: application to real-scale tests (Annex A and Annex B) and application to Fire Safety Engineering (Annex C, D and E).

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