This document describes methods for determining air speed and flow direction, CO, NO and NO2 concentrations and visibility in road tunnels using direct-reading instruments. This document specifically excludes requirements relating to instrument conformance testing.

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This document specifies a method using scanning electron microscopy for determination of the concentration of inorganic fibrous particles in the air. The method specifies the use of gold-coated, capillary-pore, track-etched membrane filters, through which a known volume of air has been drawn. Using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, the method can discriminate between fibres with compositions consistent with those of the asbestos varieties (e.g. serpentine and amphibole), gypsum, and other inorganic fibres. Annex C provides a summary of fibre types which can be measured. This document is applicable to the measurement of the concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in ambient air. The method is also applicable for determining the numerical concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in the interior atmospheres of buildings, for example to determine the concentration of airborne inorganic fibrous particles remaining after the removal of asbestos-containing products. The range of concentrations for fibres with lengths greater than 5 µm, in the range of widths which can be detected under standard measurement conditions (see 7.2), is approximately 3 fibres to 200 fibres per square millimetre of filter area. The air concentrations, in fibres per cubic metre, represented by these values are a function of the volume of air sampled. The ability of the method to detect and classify fibres with widths lower than 0,2 µm is limited. If airborne fibres in the atmosphere being sampled are predominantly [8] can be used to determine the smaller fibres.

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This document specifies a reference method using transmission electron microscopy for the determination of airborne asbestos fibres and structures in in a wide range of ambient air situations, including the interior atmospheres of buildings, and for a detailed evaluation for asbestos structures in any atmosphere. The method allows determination of the type(s) of asbestos fibres present and also includes measurement of the lengths, widths and aspect ratios of the asbestos structures. The method cannot discriminate between individual fibres of asbestos and elongate fragments (cleavage fragments and acicular particles) from non-asbestos analogues of the same amphibole mineral[13].

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This document specifies a reference method using transmission electron microscopy for the determination of airborne asbestos fibres and structures in in a wide range of ambient air situations, including the interior atmospheres of buildings, and for a detailed evaluation for asbestos structures in any atmosphere. The specimen preparation procedure incorporates ashing and dispersion of the collected particulate, so that all asbestos is measured, including the asbestos originally incorporated in particle aggregates or particles of composite materials. The lengths, widths and aspect ratios of the asbestos fibres and bundles are measured, and these, together with the density of the type of asbestos, also allow the total mass concentration of airborne asbestos to be calculated. The method allows determination of the type(s) of asbestos fibres present. The method cannot discriminate between individual fibres of the asbestos and elongate fragments (cleavage fragments and acicular particles) from non-asbestos analogues of the same amphibole mineral[12].

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ISO/TS 20593:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the airborne concentration (μg/m3), mass concentration (μg/g) and mass fraction (%) of tyre and road wear particles (TRWP) in ambient particulate matter (PM) samples. ISO/TS 20593:2017 establishes principles for air sample collection, the generation of pyrolysis fragments from the sample, and the quantification of the generated polymer fragments. The quantified polymer mass is used to calculate the fraction of tyre tread in PM and concentration of tyre tread in air. These quantities are expressed on a TRWP basis, which includes the mass of tyre tread and mass of road wear encrustations, and can also be expressed on a tyre rubber polymer or tyre tread basis. Air sample collection is on quartz fibre filters with size-selective input in a range of PM2,5 or PM10. The method is suitable for the determination of TRWP in indoor or outdoor atmospheres.

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ISO 22262-3:2016 is primarily intended for quantitative analysis of samples in which asbestos has been identified at estimated mass fractions lower than approximately 5 % by weight. ISO 22262-3:2016 extends the applicability and limit of detection of quantitative analysis by the use of simple procedures of ashing and/or acid treatment prior to XRD quantification. ISO 22262-3:2016 is applicable to the asbestos-containing materials identified in ISO 22262‑1. The following are examples of sample matrices: a) any building materials in which asbestos was detected by the analysis in ISO 22262‑1; b) resilient floor tiles, asphaltic materials, roofing felts and any other materials in which asbestos is embedded in an organic matrix and in which asbestos was detected when using ISO 22262‑1; c) wall and ceiling plasters, with or without aggregate, in which asbestos was detected when using ISO 22262‑1. If non-asbestiform serpentine or non-asbestiform amphibole minerals are included in the matrix, the XRD peaks that are assumed to be "possible peaks of asbestos" will represent these minerals. This method is not for application to natural minerals that may contain asbestos or any products that incorporate such natural minerals. This method is intended only for application to building material samples that contain deliberately added commercial grade asbestos including tremolite asbestos. ISO 22262-3:2016 is intended for use by analysts who are familiar with X-ray diffraction methods and the other analytical procedures specified in the References [5] and [6]. It is not the intention of this part of ISO 22262 to provide basic instruction in the fundamental analytical procedures.

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ISO 22262-2:2014 specifies procedures for quantification of asbestos mass fractions below approximately 5 %, and quantitative determination of asbestos in vermiculite, other industrial minerals and commercial products that incorporate these minerals. ISO 22262-2:2014 is applicable to the quantitative analysis of: a) any material for which the estimate of asbestos mass fraction obtained using ISO 22262-1 is deemed to be of insufficient precision to reliably classify the regulatory status of the material, or for which it is considered necessary to obtain further evidence to demonstrate the absence of asbestos; b) resilient floor tiles, asphaltic materials, roofing felts and any other materials in which asbestos is embedded in an organic matrix; c) wall and ceiling plasters, with or without aggregate; d) mineral products such as wollastonite, dolomite, calcite, talc or vermiculite, and commercial products containing these minerals. It is not the intent of ISO 22262 to provide instruction in the fundamental microscopical and analytical techniques.

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ISO 16000-27:2014 specifies a method giving an index for the numerical concentration of fibrous structures with fibres equal or greater than 0,2 µm in diameter in settled dust on surfaces and their classification into specific substance groups (e.g. chrysotile, amphibole asbestos, other inorganic fibres). It is primarily applicable to indoor areas, but it is also suitable for certain outdoor situations. A sampling technique for collection of settled dust using adhesive tape is described. The method incorporates an analytical method for evaluation of the collected samples by scanning electron microscopy. The result can be specified in asbestos structures per unit area and/or classified into four different loading classes. The analytical sensitivity depends on the area examined and can be as low as 10 structures/cm2. For the purpose of ISO 16000-27:2014, an asbestos or fibrous structure is defined as an asbestos or (other inorganic/organic) fibre-containing particle regardless of its diameter. The use of the sampling method described is limited, depending on the structure and type of the surface (minor roughness and curvature) and the thickness of dust layer. If the dust layer is too thick, the dust layer can be sampled by other means and eventually analysed as powder sample. It is assumed that the settled dust has particle diameters mostly below 1 mm.

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This part of ISO 22262 specifies methods for sampling bulk materials and identification of asbestos in commercial bulk materials. This part of ISO 22262 specifies appropriate sample preparation procedures and describes in detail the procedure for identification of asbestos by polarized light microscopy and dispersion staining. This part of ISO 22262 also specifies simple procedures for separation of asbestos fibres from matrix materials such as asphalt, cement, and plastics products. Optionally, identification of asbestos can be carried out using scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Information is also provided on common analytical problems, interferences and other types of fibre that may be encountered in the analysis. This part of ISO 22262 is applicable to qualitative identification of asbestos in specific types of manufactured asbestos-containing products and commercial minerals. This part of ISO 22262 is applicable to the analysis of fireproofing, thermal insulation, and other manufactured products or minerals in which asbestos fibres can readily be separated from matrix materials for identification. NOTE This part of ISO 22262 is intended for use by microscopists who are familiar with polarized light microscopy methods and the other analytical procedures specified (References [16]?[19]). It is not the intention of this part of ISO 22262 to provide instruction in the fundamental analytical techniques.

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ISO 15337:2009 specifies the gas phase titration (GPT) method for the calibration of ambient air ozone (O3) analysers. The method is applicable to the calibration of O3 concentrations in the range 10 µg m−3 (5 nmol mol−1 mole fraction) to 2 000 µg m−3 (1 000 nmol mol−1 mole fraction). ISO 15337:2009 uses the reference conditions of 25 °C and 101,325 kPa; however, reference temperatures of 0 °C and 20 °C are also acceptable.

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ISO 16000-7:2007 specifies procedures to be used in planning of air measurements to determine the concentrations of asbestos in indoor atmospheres. Careful planning of the measurement strategy is important, because the results can become the basis of recommendations for major building renovations, or for the return of a building to normal occupancy status after removal of asbestos-containing materials. ISO 16000-7:2007 uses the following definition for indoor environments as specified in ISO 16000-1: dwellings having living rooms, bedrooms, do-it-yourself (DIY) rooms, recreation rooms, cellars, kitchens and bathrooms; workrooms or workplaces in buildings which are not subject to health and safety inspections in regard to air pollutants (for example, offices and sales premises); public and commercial buildings (for example, hospitals, schools, kindergartens, sports halls, libraries, restaurants and bars, theatres and other function rooms); cabins of vehicles and public transport.

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ISO 16362:2005 specifies sampling, cleanup and analysis procedures for the quantitative determination of low volatility (particle-bound) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. For sampling, a low-volume or a medium/high-volume sampling device may be used. Sampling times between 1 h and 24 h are possible. The sampling volume flow rates can range from 1 m/h to 4 m/h ("low volume sampler") or from 10 m/h to about 90 m/h ("medium/high-volume sampler"). In any case, the linear face velocity at the collection filter should range between about 0,5 m/s and 0,9 m/s. The method has been validated for sampling periods up to 24 h. The detection limits for single PAHs and the standard deviations resulting from duplicate measurements are listed. ISo 16362:2005 describes a sampling and analysis procedure for PAH that involves collection from air onto a filter followed by analysis using high performance liquid chromatography usually with fluorescence detector (FLD). The use of a diode array detector (DAD) is possible. The combination of both detector types is also possible. Total suspended particulate matter is sampled. Generally, compounds having a boiling point above 430 °C (vapour pressure less than 10-9 kPa at 25 °C, e.g. chrysene, benz[a]anthracene) can be collected efficiently on the filter at low ambient temperatures (e.g. below 10 °C). In contrast, at higher temperatures (above 30 °C, see also ISO 12884[1]), only PAHs having boiling points above 475 °C (vapour pressure less than 10-10 kPa at 25 °C) are determined quantitatively.

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ISO 10498:2004 describes an ultraviolet fluorescence method for sampling and determining sulfur dioxide (SO2) concentrations in the ambient air using automatic analysers. ISO 10498:2004 is applicable to the determination of sulfur dioxide mass concentrations of a few micrograms per cubic metre to a few milligrams per cubic metre or, expressed in terms of volume fraction, from a few microlitres per cubic metre to a few millilitres per cubic metre.

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This International Standard describes a method for the measurement of the mass of particulate matter in ambient air and is based on the absorption of beta rays by the particulate matter. This method applies to the determination of concentrations ranging from a few micrograms per cubic metre to a few milligrams per cubic metre contained in the atmospheres of urban, rural or industrial areas. The lower mass detection limit of the method is usually 15 μg to 30 μg of deposited mass per square centimetre of surface area, S, of the filter. This means, for a sampling time t of 3 h and a flowrate q of 1 m3/h, that the concentration detection limit ranges between 5 μg/m3 and 10 μg/m3, computed as follows: Sampling techniques are not included in the scope of this International Standard. NOTE The concentration of particulate matter is calculated by dividing the mass deposited on a filter tape or individual filter, by the known volume of air sampled. However, concentration is dependent on the sampling technique used, for example, the design of the sampling inlet. Normally, for ambient-air particle sampling, large particles are filtered out by means of a sizeselective inlet (for example cascade impactor or cyclone filtration). The particle size limit is defined by the characteristics of the sampling head.

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This International Standard specifies sampling, cleanup and analysis procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air. It is designed to collect both gas-phase and particulate-phase PAH and to determine them collectively. It is a high-volume (100 l/min to 250 l/min) method capable of detecting 0,05 ng/m3 or lower concentrations of PAH with sampling volumes up to 350 m3. The method has been validated for sampling periods up to 24 h. Precision under normal conditions can be expected to be _ 25 % or better and uncertainty _ 50 % or better (see annex A, Table A.1). This International Standard describes a procedure for sampling and analysis for PAH that involves collection from air on a combination fine-particle filter and sorbent trap, and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

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This International Standard describes a procedure for sampling and determining concentrations of total nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in the ambient atmosphere. This International Standard describes the collection of cumulative samples in passivated stainless steel canisters and subsequent laboratory analysis. It describes a procedure for sampling in canisters at final pressures above atmospheric pressure (referred to as pressurized sampling). It employs a cryogenic trapping procedure for concentration of the NMVOC prior to analysis. This International Standard describes the determination of the NMVOC by simple flame ionization detection (FID), without the gas chromatographic columns and complex procedures necessary for species separation. This International Standard is applicable to carbon concentrations in the range from 20 ppbC to 10 000 ppbC. See 12.4 for procedures for lowering the range. Several variations to the method described in this International Standard are also possible; see clause 12.

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This International Standard specifies a non-dispersive infrared spectrometry method for the continuous analysis and recording of the carbon monoxide (CO) content of the ambient air. The method is applicable to the determination of carbon monoxide concentrations from 0,6 mg/m3 (0,5 ppm volume fraction) to 115 mg/m3 (100 ppm volume fraction). The method has a lower limit of detection of about 0,06 mg/m3 (0,05 ppm volume fraction) carbon monoxide in air.

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The principle of the method specified is based on digesting with acid the particulate material collected on a filter, solubilizing any lead present und analysing the sample solution by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The method is applicable to ambient air samples with particulate lead contents, such that the amount of deposited particulate lead collected on the filter is greater than 1 µg if flame AAS is used. Final determination by graphite furnace AAS allows measurement of quantities of less than 1 µg, but is only applicable after experimental validation of detection limits.

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The method specified is based on drawing continuously, at a constant flow rate, an air sample through a particle filter before it enters the chemiluminescence analyser. It then flows into a reaction chamber where it is mixed with an excess flow of ethylene. Ozone and ethylene react instantaneously to produce light in the visible region (maximum at about 400 nm). The emitted light intensity is proportional to the concentration of ozone in the air sample and is measured by a photomultiplier tube. Applies to determination of the mass concentration of ozone between 2 µg/m^3 and 10 mg/m^3 at the reference conditions.

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Specifies a method for measuring the black smoke index of an ambient air sample based on the staining effect of particles which is produced when a sample of air is drawn through a filter paper. Annex A describes conversion of absorption coefficient to traditional black smoke units.

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The procedure is intended for the measurement of less than 25 mg/m3 although it can be successfully applied to concentrations up to 1 000 mg/m3 at 25 °C and 101,3 kPa. Concentrations of less than 1 mg/m3 can be obtained with careful operation. The automatic technique is continuous only in so far as several discrete air samples can be drawn and analysed each hour.

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The procedure is applicable to mass concentration of nitrogen monoxide present up to approximately 12,5 mg/m3 of nitrogen dioxide up to approximately 19 mg/m3 at 25 °C and 101,3 kPa.

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Is applicable to mass concentrations of sulfur dioxide higher than 30 g/m3. The results obtained following this procedure depend on the amounts of acid and alkaline gaseous air pollutants which are likely to be determined under the specified sampling and analytical conditions.

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Applies to the range of 3,5 to 150 micrograms per cubic metre, assuming an air sample volume of 2 m3 and a sample solution volume of 50 ml. For higher concentrations, dilution of the sample may be necessary.

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Specifies general requirements. Is primarily intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 4220 and ISO 4221 which give supplement details relating to means of sampling, the absorbing solution and the sampling procedure.

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This International Standard specifies a method using scanning electron microscopy for determination of the concentration of inorganic fibrous particles in the air. The method specifies the use of gold-coated, capillary-pore, track-etched membrane filters, through which a known volume of air has been drawn. Using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, the method can discriminate between fibres with compositions consistent with those of the asbestos varieties (e.g. serpentine and amphibole), gypsum, and other inorganic fibres. Annex C provides a summary of fibre types which can be measured. This International Standard is applicable to the measurement of the concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in ambient air. The method is also applicable for determining the numerical concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in the interior atmospheres of buildings, for example to determine the concentration of airborne inorganic fibrous particles remaining after the removal of asbestos-containing products.
The range of concentrations for fibres with lengths greater than 5 µm, in the range of widths which can be detected under standard measurement conditions (see 6.2), is approximately 3 fibres to 200 fibres per square millimetre of filter area. The air concentrations, in fibres per cubic metre, represented by these values are a function of the volume of air sampled. NOTE The ability of the method to detect and classify fibres with widths lower than 0,2 µm is limited. If airborne fibres in the atmosphere being sampled are predominantly 0,2 µm in width, a transmission electron microscopy method such as ISO 10312 can be used to determine the smaller fibres.

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ISO 14966:2002 specifies a method using scanning electron microscopy for determination of the concentration of inorganic fibrous particles in the air. The method specifies the use of gold-coated, capillary-pore, track-etched membrane filters, through which a known volume of air has been drawn. Using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, the method can discriminate between fibres with compositions consistent with those of the asbestos varieties (e.g. serpentine and amphibole), gypsum and other inorganic fibres. Annex C provides a summary of fibre types which can be measured. ISO 14966:2002 is applicable to the measurement of the concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in ambient air. The method is also applicable for determining the numerical concentrations of inorganic fibrous particles in the interior atmospheres of buildings, for example, to determine the concentration of airborne inorganic fibrous particles remaining after the removal of asbestos-containing products. The range of concentrations for fibres with lengths greater than 5 micrometres, in the range of widths which can be detected under standard measurement conditions, is approximately 3 fibres to 200 fibres per square millimetre of filter area. The air concentrations, in fibres per cubic metre, represented by these values are a function of the volume of air sampled. NOTE The ability of the method to detect and classify fibres with widths lower than 0,2 micrometres is limited. If airborne fibres in the atmosphere being sampled are predominantly less than 0,2 micrometres in width, a transmission electron microscopy method such as ISO 10312 can be used to determine the smaller fibres.

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Specifies a reference method using transmission electron microscopy for the determination of the concentration of asbestos structures in ambient atmospheres and includes measurement of the lengths, widths and aspect ratios of the asbestos structures. The method allows determination of the types of asbestos fibres present. The method cannot discriminate between individual fibres of the asbestos and non-asbestos analogues of the same amphibole mineral.

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