This document specifies the mechanical, electrical/electronic and pneumatic characteristics of a fully automated fifth wheel coupling system to ensure interchangeability between a towing vehicle and a coupled semi-trailer(s) with 24 V nominal supply voltage. The two vehicles together constitute an articulated vehicle or are part of a vehicle combination. This document also supports the step-by-step introduction of fully automated fifth wheel coupling systems in the market. It specifies features necessary for mixed mode operation, i.e. the combination of a fully automated coupling system (FACS) equipped towing vehicle with a conventional semi-trailer, and vice versa, the combination of a conventional towing vehicle with a FACS-equipped semi-trailer.

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  • Draft
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This document specifies the characteristics necessary for the mounting and interchangeability of clevis couplings on the frame (cross member, drawbeam or mounting bracket) of towing vehicles for trailers. This document is applicable to clevis couplings intended for connection to trailers equipped with a drawbar eye on the drawbar of the trailer. Characteristics not specified are left to the discretion of the component manufacturer.

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ISO 18868:2013 defines different multiple-vehicle combinations (vehicle combinations with more than one coupling point) and the formulae to calculate the requirement of performance for the coupling equipment used in those vehicle combinations. Vehicle categories concerned are N2, N3, O3, and O4.

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ISO 7641:2012 gives a simplified procedure for the calculation of the mechanical strength of steel drawbars, whether there are welds or not, for centre-axle trailers Categories O1 and O2 as specified in the UNECE, Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3). Consequently, it only applies to simple constructions that enable a calculation in bending.

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ISO 1726-3:2010 specifies the test conditions of a static test to be performed on the semi-trailer contact area to the fifth wheel. It ensures the ability of the semi-trailer to couple the greatest possible variety of tractor vehicles equipped with a fifth wheel coupling in accordance with ISO 3842.

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ISO 1103:2007 lays down the dimensions necessary for the compatibility of mechanical coupling devices between light trailers or caravans and towing vehicles, when the latter are fitted with a coupling ball. The clearance space around the coupling ball is intended to allow coupling and decoupling of towed vehicles, as well as safe operation during coupling and uncoupling of mechanical devices. ISO 1103:2007 applies to coupling balls designed to couple caravans and light trailers of categories O1 and O2 to vehicles of categories M or N. It does not necessarily apply to special trailers drawn by special vehicles.

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ISO 12357-2:2007 lays down test conditions and strength requirements to be met by: drawbar couplings and corresponding drawbar eyes for rigid drawbars which are provided for use on rigid drawbar trailers with a maximum design total mass exceeding 3,5 tonnes and a vertical static load exceeding 10 % of their design total mass, and/or a vertical static load greater than 1 000 kg and up to 2 000 kg; drawbar couplings and corresponding drawbar eyes for use on vehicle transport combinations, provided for a technical mass exceeding 3,5 tonnes.

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ISO 1726-2:2007 specifies dimensions to ensure interchangeability between a low coupling height tractor vehicle and a coupled high-volume semi-trailer, the two together constituting a high-volume articulated vehicle. It specifies certain interchangeability dimensions, including those of the optimised gooseneck contour, as well as operating dimensions related to angle values. The specifications are primarily intended to permit semi-trailers to be coupled with two-axle tractors. However, three-axle tractors are not excluded, provided they are in compliance with the requirements of ISO 1726-2:2007. ISO 1726-2:2007 does not provide limitations of maximum gross mass and overall dimensions, which are generally laid down by legislative requirements.

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ISO 3842:2006 lays down the dimensional characteristics necessary for mounting and interchangeability of the fifth wheel mounted on a mounting plate or directly on the frame of towing vehicles for semi-trailers. It applies to the fifth wheels intended to hitch on semi-trailers equipped with a: 50 coupling pin as defined in ISO 337; 90 coupling pin as defined in ISO 4086. Dimensions not specified are left to the discretion of the component manufacturer. Test conditions and strength requirements to be met by 50 and 90 fifth wheel coupling are specified in ISO 8717.

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ISO 18207:2006 defines a simplified and reliable check procedure of the mechanical coupling devices between light trailers and towing vehicles, covered by ISO 3853 and European regulation (94/20/CE), which specify a dynamic test of mechanical resistance at the conclusion of which these devices should present neither fractures, splits, cracks, nor visible external deteriorations caused by the test. ISO 18207:2006 is applicable to all the components of the mechanical coupling devices whose failure can cause the fracture of the attachment, manufactured out of steel, forged steel or cast steel (i.e. generally in ferromagnetic materials). In the case of use of other materials, the manufacturer will check their compatibility with the methods of non destructive testing.

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ISO 11407:2004 specifies the interchangeability requirements -- the various elements and dimensions -- for the mechanical coupling of towing vehicles whose coupling is mounted forward and below to centre-axle trailers. It is applicable to road trains for the commercial transport of low-density, high-volume cargo of the greatest possible variety. It is also applicable to corresponding equipment in cases where the same vehicle makes up part of a road train having more than one trailer. It is not applicable to dedicated or special combinations such as coupling systems with an extensible drawbar; nor does it specify limitations on maximum gross mass and overall dimensions, which are generally laid down by legislative requirements.

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ISO TS 20825:2003 specifies the maximum allowable wear and the limit dimensions of worn components of in-use mechanical couplings, which, when respected, will ensure the safe operation on the road of the heavy commercial vehicles fitted with such couplings. It is applicable to 40 mm and 50 mm drawbar couplings, 40 mm and 50 mm drawbar eyes, 50 mm and 90 mm fifth wheel kingpins, and hook couplings and toroidal eyes.

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This International Standard specifies strength test conditions and requirements for 50 and 90 fifth wheel kingpins. NOTE See ISO 337 [1] and ISO 4086 [2].

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This International Standard specifies strength test conditions and requirements for the 40 mm and 50 mm drawbar couplings and corresponding drawbar eyes for hinged drawbars. NOTE See ISO 3584 [1] for couplings, and ISO 1102 [2] and ISO 8755 [3] for eyes.

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This International Standard specifies the characteristics of the 90 [89 mm (3,5") diameter] semi-trailer fifth wheel kingpin used for coupling extra-heavy-duty vehicles exceeding the limitations of weight generally laid down by official requirements. It is applicable to fifth wheel kingpins intended for engaging 90 fifth wheels as defined in ISO 3842 [1]. This International Standard also specifies the dimensional characteristics required for mounting and interchangeability. NOTE The dimensions of the 50 semi-trailer fifth wheel kingpin, normally used to couple semi-trailers to tractors in compliance with mass limitations usually set by compulsory regulations, are given in ISO 337[2].

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This International Standard specifies the characteristics of 50 mm drawbar eyes, necessary for the interchangeability of the coupling components on trailers and permitting interchangeability between towing vehicles and trailers equipped with these components. This International Standard is applicable to mechanical connections designed for commercial vehicles and trailers, the maximum total mass of which is above 3,5 t.

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    9 pages
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This International Standard specifies the characteristics of 40 mm drawbar eyes, necessary for the interchangeability of the coupling components on trailers and permitting interchangeability between towing vehicles and trailers equipped with these components. This International Standard is applicable to mechanical connections designed for commercial vehicles and trailers, the maximum total mass of which is above 3,5 t.

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This International Standard specifies the requirements for the various elements and dimensions of towing vehicles with rear-mounted coupling and of drawbar trailers, to ensure interchangeability. NOTE Annex B gives examples of different configurations of vehicle combinations; this International Standard deals only with No. B.1.1. This International Standard is applicable to road trains for commercial transport of cargo of the greatest possible variety; it does not cover dedicated or special combinations. Nor does it specify limitations of maximum gross mass and overall dimensions, which are generally laid down by legislative requirements. Vehicles whose couplings form the subject of this International Standard are not interchangeable with vehicles whose couplings are mounted forward and below (which form the subject of ISO 11407 [1]).

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This International Standard specifies the test conditions and strength requirements to be met by 50 and 90 fifth wheel couplings (see ISO 3842).

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This International Standard specifies dimensions to ensure interchangeability between a tractor vehicle and a coupled semi-trailer, the two together constituting an articulated vehicle. It specifies certain interchangeability dimensions, including those of the gooseneck contour, as well as operating dimensions related to angle values. The specifications permit the same semi-trailer to be used with either two- or three-axle tractors. Annex A gives interface technical specifications for tractors designed for towing high-cube semi-trailers, including ISO containers having an external height of 2,9 m. This International Standard covers articulated vehicles used in commercial cargo transport of the greatest possible variety. However, it may not be applicable to special combination types such as low-bed or tipper vehicles. This International Standard does not provide limitations of maximum gross mass and overall dimensions, which are generally laid down by legislative requirements.

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This International Standard specifies the test conditions and strength requirements to be met by drawbar couplings (see ISO 3584) and the corresponding drawbar eyes (see ISO 1102 and ISO 8755) for rigid drawbars, which are provided for use with centre-axle trailers with a technical maximum mass C exceeding 3,5 t (tonnes).

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Cancels and replaces the first edition (1977). Specifies a simplified procedure for testing the mechanical strength of coupling devices fitted to towing vehicles for towing caravans or light trailers of categories O1 and O2.

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    8 pages
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Specifies the minimum requirements to allow efficient lashing and securing of semi-trailers, as defined in ISO 3833, on board Ro/Ro ships, indicating in particular the lashing arrangements on the semi-trailer and the securing method to be used. Annex A gives, for information to semi-trailer designers, the securing point arrangements generally used on Ro/Ro ships, annex B describes for information some design indications to decrease damage during handling.

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    20 pages
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Specifies the characteristics required of attachments which permit the use of ropes, cables or bars. Does not apply to special purpose vehicles and standard vehicles used for special applications.

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Specifies the minimum requirements to allow efficient lashing and securing of road vehicles on board roll-on/roll-off ships. Applies to goods vehicles, semi-trailer towing vehicles, road trains, and combination of vehicles with a maximum authorized total mass of vehicle and cargo, as defined in ISO 1176, of between 3,5 t and 40 t. Does not apply to passenger cars, buses, and special vehicles.

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Specifies the characteristics of the towing anchorages mounted on road vehicles, allowing them to be towed or to tow another vehicle. Applies to passenger cars as defined in ISO 3833 and to other vehicles which have a maximum authorized total weight not exceeding 3,5 tonnes. The shape of the anchorages is left to the manufacturer's option.

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This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (1973). Specifies the dimensions of the 50 coupling pin /dia. 50,8 mm (2 in)/ which is used for coupling semi-trailers to prime movers, taking into account the limitations of weight generally laid down by official requirements. Some figures illustrate shapes and the difference of types.

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ISO 13044-2:2013 specifies the mechanical, electrical/electronic and pneumatic characteristics of a fully automated fifth wheel coupling system to ensure interchangeability between a tractor vehicle and a coupled semi-trailer(s) with 24 V nominal supply voltage. The two vehicles together constitute an articulated vehicle. ISO 13044-2:2013 also supports the smooth introduction of fully automated fifth wheel coupling systems in the market. It specifies features necessary for mixed mode operation; i.e. the combination of a fully automated coupling system (FACS) equipped tractor vehicle with a conventional semi-trailer, and vice versa, the combination of a conventional tractor vehicle with a FACS-equipped semi-trailer.

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  • Standard
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Prescribes the dimensions necessary for the compatibility of mechanical coupling devices between light trailers or caravans and towing vehicles when the latter are fitted with a coupling ball. Replaces the second edition.

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Lays down the requirements for the various elements and dimensions of a towing vehicle coupling mounted forward and below, and of a centre-axle trailer to ensure interchangeability. Applies to road trains for commercial transport of low-density, high-volume cargo of the greatest possible variety.

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  • Standard
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Applies to trailers of categories O1 and O2, which fit coupling balls complying with ISO 1103. The specified height of the coupling head measured from the centre of the spherical socket shall be (430 ± 35) mm above the horizontal surface.

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Specifies the strength requirements to be met by mechanical coupling devices. Applies to trailers or caravans of categories 01 and 02 in the case of ball couplings in accordance with ISO 1103 and a static load in accordance with ISO/TR 4114. The values adopted in ISO 8704 are derived from road tests. These tests revealed the existence of forces as depicted in the distribution diagram in figure 0.1.

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  • Standard
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Establishes test conditions and strength requirements to be met by 40 mm and 50 mm drawbar couplings, and the corresponding drawbar eyes. Gives the equation to be used to calculate the F-value (expressed in kN), shows the application of horizontal test load (figure 1), and describes the loading cycle and the selected frequency as well as strength criteria.

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Establishes test conditions and strength requirements to be met by 50 and 90 fifth wheel coupling pins. Gives the equation to be used to calculate the Fhvalue (expressed in kN), shows the application of test load (figure 1), and describes the loading cycle and the selected frequency as well as strength criteria.

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Specifies the essential dimensions of a 40 mm drawbar coupling and a 40 mm drawbar eye to permit interchangeability between towing vehicles and trailers equipped with these connections. These connections are not interchangeable with the 50 mm couplings specified in ISO 1102. Applies to connections designed for commercial vehicles and trailers, the maximum total mass of which is above 3,5 t.

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This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (1975). Specifies the essential dimensions of a 50 mm drawbar coupling and a 50 mm drawbar eye to permit interchangeability. Applies to mechanical connections designed for commercial vehicles and trailers, the maximum total mass of which is above 3,5 t.

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Gives a simplified procedure for the calculation of the mechanical strength of drawbars where the vertical static load on the coupling head does not exceed the limits specified in ISO/TR 4114. Applies only to steel drawbars of welded and other than welded construction. The welding procedure requirements given by the manufacturer shall be met.

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Specifies the dimensions of the 90 coupling pin /dia. 89 mm (3,5 in)/ which is used for coupling extra-heavy-duty vehicles exceeding the limitations of weight generally laid down by official requirements. Some figures illustrate shapes and the difference of types. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (1977).

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This Technical Report lays down the limiting values of static loads applied vertically by caravans or light trailers on ball couplings fitted to towing vehicles. Applies to caravans or light trailers for which the maximum authorized weight does not exceed 3,5 tonnes. Not applicable to unbraked trailers and twin-axle trailers.

  • Technical report
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