This document specifies a test method for determining the minimum volume fraction of oxygen, in admixture with nitrogen, at ambient temperature, that supports combustion of small vertical sheet test specimen under a specified gas velocity that is higher than that specified in ISOÂ 4589-2. NOTEÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The result is expressed as a high gas velocity oxygen index (HOI). In addition, this document specifies the testing apparatus for determining the HOI. The test method is applicable to materials in the form of sheets up to 2Â mm thick. It is also applicable to flexible sheet materials that are supported vertically by a specified specimen holder.

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This document describes and classifies a range of laboratory ignition sources for use in fire tests on plastics and products consisting substantially of plastics. These sources vary in intensity and area of impingement. They are suitable for use to simulate the initial thermal abuse to which plastics are potentially exposed in certain actual fire risk scenarios. This compilation of standard ignition sources describes the ignition sources used by different standards development organizations and contained in standard test methods, specifications, or regulations used to assess the fire properties or plastics and of products containing plastic materials. The ignition sources described in this document are associated with flaming and non-flaming ignition. This document describes the relevant ignition sources and references the associated standard. This compilation of ignition sources does not discuss the application of the standard referenced in any specific clause in which the ignition source is described, and this compilation is likely not to be a fully comprehensive list of ignition sources. This document does not address detailed test procedures.

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This document specifies a small-scale laboratory screening procedure for comparing the relative burning characteristics of horizontally oriented, small cellular plastic specimens having a density less than 250 kg⋅m−3 determined in accordance with ISO 845, when exposed to a small-flame ignition source. NOTE Another International Standard which covers flexible cellular plastic and cellular rubber is ISO 3582[2]. This method of test is intended for quality assurance and limited product evaluation of cellular plastic materials under controlled laboratory conditions, and is not intended to assess the fire behaviour of, for example, building materials or furnishings under actual fire conditions. The optional classification system described in Annex A is intended for the pre-selection of cellular plastic materials for products, including the determination of the ranges of material parameters that give the same classification (see 6.1).

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The document defines terms related to smoke corrosivity as well as smoke acidity and smoke toxicity. It presents the scenario-based approach that controls smoke corrosivity. It describes the test methods to assess smoke corrosivity at laboratory scale and deals with test applicability and post-exposure conditions. This document is applicable to tests of determination of smoke corrosivity from combustion of materials samples.

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This document provides information on the fire characteristics and performance in fire tests of PVC materials and products for use in building applications. It illustrates a number of suitable applications incorporating primarily PVC materials, including unplasticized PVC (PVC-U), plasticized (or flexible) PVC (PVC-P) and chlorinated PVC (PVC-C) based products. Except where otherwise stated, there is no restriction with reference to the content of PVC (in terms of quantity and composition) in the products mentioned in this document. This document draws attention to the limits of applicability or the unsuitability of some standard fire test methods for certain applications of PVC based products in buildings. This document applies to products during their use phase in the building and does not apply to the manufacturing phase of plastic products. It neither applies to general safety measures applicable to the installation phase nor to the dismantling or the demolition phase of the building.

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This document specifies requirements for utility lighters to ensure a reasonable degree of safety for normal use or reasonably foreseeable misuse of such lighters by users. This document applies to all flame-producing consumer products commonly known as utility lighters (also known as grill lighters, fireplace lighters, lighting rods or gas matches), and similar devices. It does not apply to matches and flame-producing products intended for igniting cigars, pipes and cigarettes.

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This document specifies requirements for lighters to ensure a reasonable degree of safety for normal use or reasonably foreseeable misuse of such lighters by users. This document applies to all flame-producing products commonly known as cigarette lighters, cigar lighters and pipe lighters. It does not apply to matches and flame-producing products intended solely for igniting materials other than cigarettes, cigars, and pipes.

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This document describes and classifies a range of laboratory ignition sources for use in fire tests on plastics and products consisting substantially of plastics. These sources vary in intensity and area of impingement. They are suitable for use to simulate the initial thermal abuse to which plastics are potentially exposed in certain actual fire risk scenarios. Different standards developing organizations have issued many standard test methods, specifications and regulations to assess fire properties of plastics or of products containing plastic materials. Many of those standards contain ignition sources associated with flaming and non-flaming ignition. This document describes the ignition sources and references the associated standard. This compilation of ignition sources does not discuss the application of the standard where the ignition source is described and is likely not to be a fully comprehensive list of ignition sources. This document does not address detailed test procedures.

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ISO/TS 15791-2:2017 provides guidelines and specifies requirements for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests applicable to semi-finished and finished products made of, or containing, plastics. ISO/TS 15791-2:2017 covers typical applications of such tests, as well as methods of preparation and mounting of test specimens. ISO/TS 15791-2:2017 applies to planar, linear or profiled plastics products. These products can be tested in horizontal or vertical orientation. ISO/TS 15791-2:2017 defines the parameters to be measured, the way that test results are expected to be reported and explains how they can be used for direct product assessment or as input data for scaling studies.

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ISO 5659-2:2017 specifies a method of measuring smoke production from the exposed surface of specimens of materials or composites. It is applicable to specimens that have an essentially flat surface and do not exceed 25 mm in thickness when placed in a horizontal orientation and subjected to specified levels of thermal irradiance in a closed cabinet with or without the application of a pilot flame. This method of test is applicable to all plastics. It is intended that the values of optical density determined by this test be taken as specific to the specimen or assembly material in the form and thickness tested and are not to be considered inherent, fundamental properties. The test is intended primarily for use in research and development and fire safety engineering in buildings, trains, ships, etc. and not as a basis for ratings for building codes or other purposes. No basis is provided for predicting the density of smoke that can be generated by the materials upon exposure to heat and flame under other (actual) exposure conditions. This test procedure excludes the effect of irritants on the eye.

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ISO 4589-3:2017 specifies methods for determining the minimum volume fraction of oxygen, in a mixture with nitrogen, that will support combustion of small vertical test specimens under specified test conditions over a range of temperatures between 25 °C and 150 °C. The range of temperatures is typically between 40 °C and 150 °C. The results are defined as temperature index values at the test temperature, which is typical of the practical temperature that a plastic material can experience in an overheated service situation. Methods are provided for testing materials that are self-supporting at the test temperature in the form of vertical bars or sheet up to 10,5 mm thick. However, they are not applicable to form V which requires a supporting frame as defined in ISO 4589‑2:2017, Table 2. These methods are suitable for solid, laminated or cellular materials characterized by an apparent density 100 kg/m3 or higher. The methods are also applicable to some cellular materials having an apparent density of less than 100 kg/m3. A method is provided for testing flexible sheet or film materials while supported vertically. ISO 4589-3:2017 also includes a method (see Annex A) for determining the temperature at which the OI of small vertical test specimens in air is 20,9 % under specified test conditions. The temperature at which this occurs is defined as the flammability temperature (FT) and the method is limited to the determination of temperatures less than 400 °C. The method is not applicable to materials having an OI of

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ISO 4589-1:2017 specifies the general requirements for the oxygen index (OI) test which are further described in ISO 4589‑2 and ISO 4589‑3 as follows: - ISO 4589‑2 describes a method for determining the minimum volume fraction of oxygen in a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen introduced at 23 °C ± 2 °C that will just support combustion of a material under specified test conditions; - ISO 4589‑3 describes methods of carrying out the same determination over a range of temperatures typically between 25 °C and 150 °C (although temperatures up to 400 °C can be used).

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ISO 4589-2:2017 specifies methods for determining the minimum volume fraction of oxygen, in admixture with nitrogen, that will support combustion of small vertical test specimens under specified test conditions. The results are defined as oxygen index (OI) values. Methods are provided for testing materials that are self-supporting in the form of vertical bars or sheets up to 10,5 mm thick. These methods are suitable for solid, laminated or cellular materials characterized by an apparent density 100 kg/m3 or greater. The methods might also be applicable to some cellular materials having an apparent density of less than 100 kg/m3. A method is provided for testing flexible sheets or film materials while supported vertically. For comparative purposes, a procedure is provided for determining whether or not the OI of a material lies above some specified minimum value.

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ISO 12992:2017 specifies a test method for measurement of flame spread properties of vertically oriented specimens of plastics in the form of film and sheet, 3 mm or less thickness, subjected to a small igniting flame.

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ISO 13927:2015 specifies a method suitable for the production control or product development purposes for assessing the heat release rate of essentially flat products exposed in the horizontal orientation to controlled levels of radiant heating with an external igniter. The heat release rate is determined by the use of a thermopile instead of the more accurate oxygen consumption techniques. The time to ignition (sustained flaming) is also measured in this test. Test specimen mass loss can also be measured optionally.

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ISO 15791-1:2014 provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for products made of or containing plastics. The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can arise involving products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is described to ensure their relevance to the end use of the product.

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ISO 30021:2013 specifies a method of determining the fire resistance of non-load-bearing separating elements made of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) when exposed to heating on one face. It is applicable to FRP products for which the end-use application is smaller than the full-scale fire test specimen specified in ISO 834‑1. Fire barriers in transportation applications are a common example, since the end-use dimensions of the barrier products are often smaller than those specified in ISO 834‑1. This test is, in general, applicable to FRP products which have an essentially flat surface and can have stiffening members. This includes sandwich-panel-type structures in which the skins consist of FRP.

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ISO 834-12:2012 specifies the procedures to be followed for determining the fire resistance of non-load-bearing separating elements when exposed to heating on one face when the specimen size is such that a less than full scale fire resistance furnace is justified. This condition is particularly found in the testing of separating elements in transport applications since the end-use dimensions of the barrier products are often smaller than those specified in other parts of ISO 834. Specimen sizes requiring less than full size resistance furnaces are also found when testing elements to be fitted into a separating element, such as pipe penetration systems, ducts, dampers and cable transits. The test is not appropriate for the evaluation of curtain walls (non-load-bearing external walls suspended from the ends of floor slabs) or walls containing doors or glazing. Tests of walls containing doors are covered by ISO 3008; tests of walls containing glazing are covered by ISO 3009. The application of this test to other untested forms of construction is acceptable when the construction complies with the direct field of application as given in ISO 834-12:2012 or when it is subjected to a field of extended application analysis in accordance with ISO/TR 12470.

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ISO 9772:2012 specifies a small-scale laboratory screening procedure for comparing the relative burning characteristics of horizontally oriented, small cellular plastic specimens, having a density less than 250 kg/m3, when exposed to an ignition source. This method of test is intended for quality assurance and limited product evaluation of cellular plastic materials under controlled laboratory conditions, and is not intended to assess the fire behaviour of e.g. building materials or furnishings under actual fire conditions. An optional classification system is described in an annex. It is intended for the pre-selection of cellular plastic materials for products, including the determination of the ranges of material parameters that give the same classification.

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ISO 25762:2009 gives guidelines for the assessment of the fire characteristics and fire performance of fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites, particularly in structural applications in buildings and transport. It is applicable to FRP composites prepared from thermosetting or thermoplastic resins and reinforced with inorganic fibres greater than 7,5 mm in length. It gives guidelines on: the applicability of product types (e.g. sheets, laminates, profiled sections and some sandwich constructions) to end-use performance; the test methods and performance criteria for different physical forms of FRP test specimen.

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ISO 10840:2008 covers the following aspects of fire testing of plastics materials and products: selection of appropriate tests that reflect realistic end-use conditions; grouping of the reaction-to-fire characteristics that any given test or tests can measure; assessment of tests as to their relevance in areas such as material characterization, quality control, pre‑selection, end-product testing, environmental profiling and DfE (Design for the Environment); definition of potential problems that may arise when plastics are tested in standard fire tests. The scope of the standard does not include the development or design of new fire tests for plastics. However, the flexibility of approach that is indicated with respect to the mounting and fixing of test specimens will be valuable when fire-testing laboratories and certification bodies are considering how to evaluate ranges of plastics that are used in different ways.

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ISO 21367:2007 specifies a test method for plastics for the determination of the heat release rate, ignitability, surface spread of a flame, falling droplets/particles and smoke production using a "medium" scale specimen that simulates the early development stage of the fire. This test method can be used as a screening test for intermediate scale and large scale tests in addition to its use in factory production control, research and product development. ISO 21367:2007 provides data that is suitable for comparing reaction-to-fire performance of many materials, products, composites or assemblies under end use application conditions. The results of this test method are limited to specimens with heat release rates of less than 10 kW.

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ISO 871:2006 specifies a laboratory method for determining the flash-ignition temperature and spontaneous-ignition temperature of plastics using a hot-air furnace. It is one of a number of methods in use for evaluating the reaction of plastics to the effects of ignition sources. The method described does not give a direct measure of the combustibility or rate of burning of a material or any definition of the safe upper limit of temperature for the plastics in use, and is not intended to be used alone to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions. However, results of this test may be used as elements of a fire hazard or fire risk assessment which takes into account all of the factors pertinent to an assessment of the fire hazard of a particular end use. Tests made under conditions of this method can be of considerable value in comparing the relative ignition characteristics of different materials. Values obtained represent the lowest ambient air temperature that will cause ignition of the material under the conditions of this test. Test values are expected to rank materials according to ignition susceptibility under actual use conditions.

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ISO/TR 10093:2017 describes and classifies a range of laboratory ignition sources for use in fire tests on plastics and products consisting substantially of plastics. These sources vary in intensity and area of impingement. They are suitable for use to simulate the initial thermal abuse to which plastics are potentially exposed in certain actual fire risk scenarios. Different standards developing organizations have issued many standard test methods, specifications and regulations to assess fire properties of plastics or of products containing plastic materials. Many of those standards contain ignition sources associated with flaming and non-flaming ignition. This document describes the ignition sources and references the associated standard. This compilation of ignition sources does not discuss the application of the standard where the ignition source is described and is likely not to be a fully comprehensive list of ignition sources. ISO/TR 10093:2017 does not address detailed test procedures.

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ISO 5659-2:2012 specifies a method of measuring smoke production from the exposed surface of specimens of materials, composites or assemblies. It is applicable to specimens that have an essentially flat surface and do not exceed 25 mm in thickness when placed in a horizontal orientation and subjected to specified levels of thermal irradiance in a closed cabinet with or without the application of a pilot flame. This method of test is applicable to all plastics and may also be used for the evaluation of other materials (e.g. rubbers, textile-coverings, painted surfaces, wood and other materials). It is intended that the values of optical density determined by this test be taken as specific to the specimen or assembly material in the form and thickness tested, and are not to be considered inherent, fundamental properties. The test is intended primarily for use in research and development and fire safety engineering in buildings, trains, ships, etc. and not as a basis for ratings for building codes or other purposes. No basis is provided for predicting the density of smoke that might be generated by the materials upon exposure to heat and flame under other (actual) exposure conditions. This test procedure excludes the effect of irritants on the eye. It is emphasized that smoke production from a material varies according to the irradiance level to which the specimen is exposed. The results yielded from the method specified in this standard are based on exposure to the specific irradiance levels of 25 kW/m2 and 50 kW/m2.

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ISO 5659-2:2006 specifies a method of measuring smoke production from the exposed surface of specimens of essentially flat materials, composites or assemblies not exceeding 25 mm in thickness when placed in a horizontal orientation and subjected to specified levels of thermal irradiance in a closed cabinet with or without the application of a pilot flame. This method of test is applicable to all plastics and may also be used for the evaluation of other materials (e.g. rubbers, textile-coverings, painted surfaces, wood and other materials). It is intended that the values of optical density determined by this test be taken as specific to the specimen or assembly material in the form and thickness tested, and are not to be considered inherent, fundamental, properties. The test is intended primarily for use in research and development and in fire safety engineering of buildings, trains, ships, etc., and not as a basis for ratings for building codes or other purposes. No basis is provided for predicting the density of smoke that may be generated by the materials upon exposure to heat and flame under other (actual) exposure conditions, nor is any correlation established with measurements derived from other test methods. This test procedure excludes the effect of irritants on the eye.

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ISO 9994:2005 establishes requirements for lighters to ensure a reasonable degree of safety for normal use or reasonably foreseeable misuse of such lighters by users. The safety specification given in this International Standard applies to all flame-producing products commonly known as cigarette lighters, cigar lighters and pipe lighters. It does not apply to matches, nor does it apply to other flame-producing products intended solely for igniting materials other than cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. Lighters, being flame-producing devices, can, as do all flame sources, present a potential hazard to users. The safety specification given in this International Standard cannot eliminate all hazards, but is intended to reduce potential hazards to users.

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ISO 22702:2003 gives a consumer-safety specification covering all flame-producing consumer products commonly known as utility lighters (also known as grill lighters, fireplace lighters, lighting rods or gas matches), and similar devices. Matches are specifically excluded from the safety specification; flame-producing products intended for igniting cigars, pipes and cigarettes are also specifically excluded from the safety specification.

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ISO 10840:2003 covers the following aspects of fire testing: selection of appropriate test(s); listing of reaction-to-fire characteristics which the test(s) can measure; assessment of the test(s) for their suitability for material characterization, quality control, pre-selection and/or end-product testing; problems that can arise when plastics specimens are tested in standard fire tests. Particular attention is given to the provision of guidance for inexperienced users who may need to assess the fire performance of materials or products made of, or incorporating, plastics. This International Standard also provides answers to frequently asked questions concerning standard fire tests; these cover factors such as cost, test duration, complexity, required operator skills, quality of the data produced, relevance to fire hazard assessment as well as test repeatability and reproducibility. The main focus in this International Standard is on reaction-to-fire testing. Fire-resistance testing has also been considered, however, in order to take account of the widespread use of advanced polymer composites and related materials with superior thermo-mechanical stability which may be used in applications where there is a demand for some degree of fire resistance. Further development of such plastics composites and related products will predictably increase the demand for fire-resistance testing. The scope of this International Standard does not include the development or design of fire tests for plastics.

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This document provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for products made of or containing plastics. The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can arise involving products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is described to ensure their relevance to the end use of the product.

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Replaces the existing table 1 and contains corrections relating to the foreword, the clause 13 and the table B.2.

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Guidance document for the determination of burning behaviour of plastics by the oxygen index (OI). Provides information to guide the reader in the use of the test procedures described in parts 2 and 3.

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Gives a laboratory method for determining the flash-ignition temperature and spontaneous-ignition temperature of plastics using a hot-air furnace. Does not give a direct measure of the combustability or rate of burning of plastics. Replaces the first edition.

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Specifies methods for the determination the minimum concentration of oxygen, in a mixture with nitrogen, that will support combustion of small vertical test specimens under specified test conditions over a range of temperatures between 25 °Celsius and 150 °Celsius. The results are defined as oxygen index values at the test temperature. Also included is a method for determining the flammability temperature (less than 400 °Celsius) at which the oxygen index of small vertical test specimens in air is 20,9.

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Part 1 constitutes the guidance document of ISO 5659 for the test procedure described in part 2.

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Deals with a test method for the measurement of flame spread properties of vertically oriented specimens of plastics in the form of film and sheet, 3 mm or less in thickness, subjected to a small igniting flame.

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Describes a test method using a small-scale laboratory apparatus for the determination of the corrosive effects of combustion products liberated by burning plastics. Makes it possible to produce a ranking of materials by corrosivity of their combustion products under specific test conditions with regard to combustion temperature, available oxygen, ventilation and different humidity levels.

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In Table 1 in column 3, delete the reference to IEC 195.

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