Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 4: Evaluation of working postures and movements in relation to machinery

This European Standard presents guidance when designing machinery or its components parts in assessing and controlling health risks due to machine-related postures and movements, i.e. during assembly, installation, operation, adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair, transport, and dismantlement. The standard specifies requirements for postures and movements without any or with only minimal external force exertion. The requirements are intended to reduce the risks for nearly all healthy adults.
Basic concepts and general ergonomic principles for the design of machinery are dealt with in EN 292-1, EN 292-2 and EN 614-1.
This document is not applicable to specify the machinery which is manufactured before the date of publication of this document by CEN.

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Menschliche körperliche Leistung - Teil 4: Bewertung von Körperhaltungen und Bewegungen bei der Arbeit an Maschinen

Diese Europäische Norm enthält für die Konstruktionsphase von Maschinen und Maschinenteilen Leitsätze für die
Beurteilung und Beeinflussung nur von maschinenbedingten Körperhaltungen und Bewegungen, d. h. während der
Montage und der Installation, des Betriebes und der Einrichtung, der Wartung, Reinigung und Reparatur, des
Transports und Abbaus einer Maschine. Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt die Anforderungen für
Körperhaltungen und Bewegungen ohne oder nur bei minimaler Kraftausübung. Die Anforderungen zielen darauf
ab, die Gesundheitsrisiken für nahezu alle gesunden Erwachsenen zu reduzieren.
Diese Europäische Norm gilt nicht für Maschinen, die hergestellt wurden, bevor CEN diese Europäische Norm
veröffentlichte.

Sécurité des machines - Performance physique humaine - Partie 4: Evaluation des postures et mouvements lors du travail en relation avec les machines

Le présent document expose des recommandations qui, lors de la conception des machines ou de leurs
éléments, permettent d�évaluer les risques pour la santé et d�influer sur ceux-ci. Il s�agit uniquement des
risques liés aux postures et mouvements en rapport avec les machines, à savoir ceux auxquels on est
confronté pendant le montage, l�installation, le fonctionnement, la mise au point, l�entretien, le nettoyage, la
réparation, le transport et le démontage. Le présent document spécifie des prescriptions pour les postures et
les mouvements n�exigeant aucune charge externe, ou en tout état de cause, une charge externe minimale
seulement. Ces prescriptions visent à réduire les risques pour la santé de presque tous les adultes sains.
Ce document n�est pas applicable aux machines fabriquées avant la date de publication du présent document
par le CEN.

Varnost strojev – Človeške fizične zmogljivosti – 4. del: Vrednotenje delovnih položajev in gibov pri delu s stroji

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
24-May-2005
Withdrawal Date
30-Sep-2008
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Start Date
01-Oct-2008
Completion Date
01-Oct-2008

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 1005-4:2005
01-november-2005
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Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 4: Evaluation of working
postures and movements in relation to machinery

Sicherheit von Maschinen - Menschliche körperliche Leistung - Teil 4: Bewertung von

Körperhaltungen und Bewegungen bei der Arbeit an Maschinen
Sécurité des machines - Performance physique humaine - Partie 4: Evaluation des
postures et mouvements lors du travail en relation avec les machines
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 1005-4:2005
ICS:
13.110 Varnost strojev Safety of machinery
13.180 Ergonomija Ergonomics
SIST EN 1005-4:2005 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN 1005-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
May 2005
ICS 13.110; 13.180
English version
Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 4:
Evaluation of working postures and movements in relation to
machinery

Sécurité des machines - Performance physique humaine - Sicherheit von Maschinen - Menschliche körperliche

Partie 4: Evaluation des postures et mouvements lors du Leistung - Teil 4: Bewertung von Körperhaltungen und

travail en relation avec les machines Bewegungen bei der Arbeit an Maschinen
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 February 2005.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2005 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 1005-4:2005: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 1005-4:2005 (E)
Contents
Page

Foreword ..................................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope...........................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references.................................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................6

4 Requirements..............................................................................................................................................6

4.1 General........................................................................................................................................................6

4.2 Guidance towards risk assessment ..........................................................................................................6

4.2.1 General........................................................................................................................................................6

4.2.2 Establish the operator population .............................................................................................................7

4.2.3 Perform a task analysis ..............................................................................................................................7

4.2.4 Identify the ergonomic data required ........................................................................................................7

4.2.5 Evaluate at the drawing-table/CAD-screen ...............................................................................................8

4.2.6 Evaluate with operators..............................................................................................................................8

4.3 Risk assessment.........................................................................................................................................8

4.3.1 General........................................................................................................................................................8

4.3.2 Trunk..........................................................................................................................................................10

4.3.3 Upper arm..................................................................................................................................................12

4.3.4 Head and neck...........................................................................................................................................14

4.3.5 Other body parts .......................................................................................................................................15

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements

of EU Directive 98/79/EC...........................................................................................................................17

Bibliography...........................................................................................................................................................18

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EN 1005-4:2005 (E)
Foreword

This European Standard (EN 1005-4:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 122

“Ergonomics”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or

by endorsement, at the latest by November 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest

by November 2005.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this European

Standard.

EN 1005 consists of the following Parts, under the general title Safety of machinery - Human physical performance:

 Part 1: Terms and definitions;
 Part 2: Manual handling of machinery and component parts of machinery;
 Part 3: Recommended force limits for machinery operation;
 Part 4: Evaluation of working postures and movements in relation to machinery;
 Part 5 : Risk assessment for repetitive handling at high frequency.
This European Standard includes a Bibliography.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,

Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

1 This European Standard is under preparation by CEN/TC 122/WG 4 "Biomechanics".
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EN 1005-4:2005 (E)
Introduction

About one third of all workers in the European Union are involved in painful or tiring postures for more than half of

their working day, and close to 50 % of all workers are exposed to short repetitive tasks, which are mostly

accompanied by painful and tiring movements [2]. Pain and fatigue may lead to musculoskeletal disorder, reduced

productivity, and deteriorated posture and movement control. The latter can increase the risk of errors and may result

in reduced quality and hazardous situations. Within the life cycle of a machine, from construction to dismantling, all

machine-related actions require certain postures and movements. The role of the machinery designer should be to

avoid painful and tiring postures and movements.

The requirements in this European Standard aim to reduce the health risks associated with machine-related actions

and could also have a positive effect on the quality, efficiency and profitability of those actions.

The requirements in this European Standard are based on current ergonomic knowledge and expert opinions, and will

be subject to changes in accordance with future research [1].
This document is a type B standard as stated in EN ISO 12100-1.

The provisions of this European Standard can be supplemented or modified by a type C standard.

For machines which are covered by the scope of a type C standard and which have been designed and built

according to the provisions of that standard, the provisions of that type C standard take precedence over the

provisions of this type B standard.
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EN 1005-4:2005 (E)
1 Scope

This European Standard presents guidance when designing machinery or its component parts in assessing and

affecting health risks due only to machine-related postures and movements, i.e. during assembly, installation,

operation, adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair, transport, and dismantlement. This European Standard

specifies requirements for postures and movements without any or with only minimal external force exertion. The

requirements are intended to reduce the health risks for nearly all healthy adults.

This European Standard is not applicable to the machinery, which is manufactured before the date of publication of

this European Standard by CEN.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references,

only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any

amendments) applies.

EN 547-1, Safety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 1: Principles for determining the dimensions

required for openings for whole body access into machinery.

EN 547-2, Safety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 2: Principles for determining the dimensions

required for access openings.

EN 547-3, Safety of machinery - Human body measurements - Part 3: Anthropometric data.

EN 614-1, Safety of machinery - Ergonomic design principles - Part 1: Terminology and general principles.

EN 894-1, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 1:

General principles for human interactions with displays and control actuators.

EN 894-2, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 2:

Displays.

EN 894-3, Safety of machinery - Ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators - Part 3:

Control actuators.

EN 1005-1:2001, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 1: Terms and definitions.

EN 1005-2, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 2: Manual handling of machinery and

component parts of machinery.

EN 1005-3, Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 3: Recommended force limits for machinery

operation.

prEN 1005-5 , Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 5: Risk assessment for repetitive handling at

high frequency.
EN 1050, Safety of machinery – Principles for risk assessment.

EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1: Basic terminology,

methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003).

EN ISO 12100-2, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical principles

(ISO 12100-2:2003).
This European Standard is under preparation by CEN/TC 122/WG 4 "Biomechanics".
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
EN 1005-4:2005 (E)

EN ISO 14738, Safety of machinery - Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations at machinery. (ISO

14738:2002).
ISO 11226:2000, Ergonomics - Evaluation of static working postures.
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 1005-1:2001 and EN ISO

12100-1:2003 apply.
4 Requirements
4.1 General

It is recommended that those using this European Standard should first refer to EN 1050, EN ISO 12100-1, EN ISO

12100-2, and EN 614-1.

The requirements conveyed by this European Standard formally apply to all machine-related actions. Assessing each

individual action may be impracticable, therefore those actions which are frequently undertaken or are infrequent but

may give rise to risk of pain, fatigue or disorder shall be part of the risk assessment.

NOTE It is emphasised that the requirements in this European Standard should not be used to regulate work organisation.

Above all, machinery design shall allow for variation between and while sitting, standing, and walking. Awkward body

postures and movements shall be avoided (e.g. kneeling, crouching). Good design shall encourage low frequency

movements and avoid painful and tiring postures and high frequency movements (see 4.3).

This European Standard adopts a stepwise risk assessment approach for assessing postures and movements as part

of the machinery design process (see Figure 1). The approach detailed in this European Standard makes a distinction

between:

 Evaluation without operators: When there is no full-size model/prototype of the machinery or its parts currently

available (see 4.2.5);

 Evaluation with operators: When a full-size model/prototype of the machinery or its parts is available (see

4.2.6).

Clause 4.2 provides guidance during the various design stages. Clause 4.3 provides the risk assessment procedure

for determining the acceptability of postures and movements.

It is emphasised that there may be information available or obtainable on the use and consequences of particular

designs and tasks performed. Provision shall be made for the collection and use of this data. This data shall be

analysed to determine whether current designs and practices are adequate or whether a redesign of the machine is

needed. The use of inexperienced subjects to perform established tasks may sometimes identify problems that

experienced operators have learned to avoid.
4.2 Guidance towards risk assessment
4.2.1 General

Five main stages of the design process based on ergonomic tasks, as outlined in EN 614-1, are discussed in more

detail (see 4.2.2 to 4.2.6 and Figure 1 (texts printed in bold)).
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EN 1005-4:2005 (E)
4.2.2 Establish the operator population
Perform a task analysis
4.2.3
4.2.4 Identify the ergonomic data required
4.2.5 Evaluate at the drawing-table/CAD-screen
redesign
Risk assessment
4.3
acceptable
not acceptable
4.2.6 Evaluate with operators
redesign
Risk assessment
4.3
acceptable
not acceptable

NOTE The numbers in the boxes and the texts to the right refer to sections in this European Standard.

Figure 1 — Flow chart illustrating the risk assessment approach
4.2.2 Establish the operator population

A design shall accommodate the full range of intended operators. When considering the postures and movements of

operators, it is important to determine the range of body dimensions of the operator population, the general principles

of which are described in EN 614-1. The ergonomic tasks described in 4.2.4 to 4.2.6 rely on the selected body

dimensions.
4.2.3 Perform a task analysis

Each task the operator is required to perform shall be identified and broken down into its individual components to

produce a series of sequential events. All visual, control (hand/foot), stability, and force demands shall be determined

for each of these events. The ergonomic tasks described in 4.2.4 to 4.2.6 are dependent upon this information.

Furthermore, possible movement frequencies and work durations required with the machine shall be considered.

The risk assessment described in 4.3.2 to 4.3.5 is dependent upon this information.

4.2.4 Identify the ergonomic data required

When considering the postures and movements of operators, EN ISO 14738 provides the ergonomic data required in

any design process, i.e., with respect to:
 Selecting the main working posture
(sitting, standing, standing with a buttock rest);
 Machinery dimensions
(space/area demands, work surface height/slope).
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EN 1005-4:2005 (E)

This data alone will only establish the basic conditions for favourable postures and movements. Postures and

movements may also be affected by the task demands listed below and these shall be considered early in the design

process:
 Visual demands:

Posture is adversely affected by an obstruction falling within the line of sight, low illumination levels, small-

sized visual targets, and a small angle between the line of sight (gaze direction) and the surface of the visual

target. Prolonged observation of a visual target to the side of the operator will lead to sustained head rotation

and possible discomfort. In the vertical plane, the most favourable upward/downward direction of the line of

sight depends upon the posture of the trunk, i.e., when leaning forwards the most favourable line of sight is in a

more downwards, whereas when leaning backwards (i.e. against a backrest), it is in a more upwards direction;

 Control demands (operating a control device by hand/foot):

Posture or movement may be adversely affected by the type and orientation of a hand grip/contact or pedal. For

example, inappropriate orientation of the hand grip axis may create an unfavourable elevated upper arm;

 Stability demands:

Posture may be affected by the need to support the body, or body parts, at the machinery. For example, when

undertaking precision work, a low surface used to support the elbows can cause excessive forward bending of

the trunk.

When there is a need to exert a force, reference shall be made to EN 1005-2, EN 1005-3, and prEN 1005-5.

EN 894-1, EN 894-2, and EN 894-3 provide ergonomics requirements for the design of displays and control actuators.

4.2.5 Evaluate at the drawing-table/CAD-screen

Early in the design process a comparison shall be made between the body dimensions of the intended operator

population (see 4.2.2) and the machinery dimensions. A number of methods may be used: standards (e.g. EN 547-1,

EN 547-2, EN 547-3, EN ISO 14738), body templates or computer manikins.

It is recommended that a template or manikin be positioned in natural postures to simulate tasks, and that the risk

assessment described in 4.3 of this European Standard be performed. If the design turns out to be ‘not acceptable',

the user of this European Standard
...

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