Liquid petroleum products - Bio-lubricants - Criteria and requirements of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants

This European Standard specifies the term bio-lubricant and minimum requirements for all kinds of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants, while e.g. the EEL [1] refers to specific bio-lubricant families.
This European Standard also briefly describes relevant test method needs with respect to the characterization of bio-lubricants. It presents recommendation for related standards in the field of biodegradability, product functionality and the amount of different renewable raw materials and/or different biobased contents used during manufacturing of such bio-lubricants forming one product group.

Flüssige Mineralöl-Erzeugnisse - Bio-Schmierstoffe - Kriterien und Anforderungen an Bio-Schmierstoffe und bio-basierte Schmierstoffe

Diese Europäische Norm legt den Begriff Bio-Schmierstoff und Mindestanforderungen an alle Arten von Bio Schmierstoffen und biobasierten Schmierstoffen fest, während sich z. B. die EEL [4] auf bestimmte Familien von Bio-Schmierstoffen bezieht.
Diese Europäische Norm beschreibt darüber hinaus kurz die benötigten wesentlichen Prüfverfahren in Zusammenhang mit der Charakterisierung von Bio-Schmierstoffen. Sie enthält Empfehlungen für zugehörige Normen im Bereich der biologischen Abbaubarkeit, der Funktionalität des Produktes und der Menge unterschiedlicher nachwachsender Rohstoffe bzw. unterschiedlicher biobasierter Gehälter, die bei der Herstellung derartiger Bio-Schmierstoffe verwendet werden, die eine Produktgruppe bilden.
WARNUNG - In dieser Norm können nicht sämtliche potentiellen Risiken für die Umwelt behandelt werden.

Produits pétroliers liquides - Bio-lubrifiants - Critere et exigences de bio-lubrifiants et lubrifiant en basse biologique

La présente Norme européenne définit le terme bio-lubrifiant ainsi que les exigences minimales applicables à tous les types de bio-lubrifiants et lubrifiants d'origine biologique, tandis que d'autres documents, tels que l'EEL[4] par exemple, se rapportent à des familles bien précises de bio-lubrifiants.
La présente Norme européenne décrit également brièvement les besoins relatifs à la méthode d'essai pertinente pour ce qui concerne la caractérisation des bio-lubrifiants. Elle propose des recommandations pour les normes connexes dans le domaine de la biodégradabilité, la fonctionnalité du produit ainsi que la quantité de matières premières renouvelables différentes et/ou de différents composants d'origine biologique utilisés pendant la fabrication des bio-lubrifiants formant un groupe de produits.
AVERTISSEMENT: Tous les risques potentiels pour l'environnement ne peuvent être traités dans cette norme.

Tekoči naftni proizvodi - Biomaziva - Kriteriji in zahteve za biomaziva in maziva na biološki osnovi

Ta evropski standard določa izraz biomazivo ter minimalne zahteve za vse vrste biomaziv in maziv na biološki osnovi, medtem ko se npr. znak EEL [1] nanaša na določene družine biomaziv.  Poleg tega ta evropski standard na kratko opisuje ustrezne potrebe preskusnih metod v zvezi s karakterizacijo biomaziv. Podaja priporočilo za z njim povezane standarde na področju biorazgradljivosti, funkcionalnost proizvoda ter količino različnih obnovljivih surovin in/ali različnih snovi na biološki osnovi, ki se uporabljajo pri proizvodnji takih biomaziv, ki sestavljajo eno skupino proizvodov.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
11-Jan-2015
Publication Date
07-Nov-2016
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Oct-2016
Due Date
25-Dec-2016
Completion Date
08-Nov-2016

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Flüssige Mineralöl-Erzeugnisse - Bio-Schmierstoffe - Kriterien und Anforderungen an Bio-Schmierstoffe und bio-basierte SchmierstoffeProduits pétroliers liquides - Bio-lubrifiants - Critere et exigences de bio-lubrifiants et lubrifiant en basse biologiqueLiquid petroleum products - Bio-lubricants - Criteria and requirements of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants75.100MazivaLubricants, industrial oils and related products27.190Biološki viri in drugi alternativni viri energijeBiological sources and alternative sources of energyICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 16807:2016SIST EN 16807:2016en,de01-december-2016SIST EN 16807:2016SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 16807:2016
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 16807
October
t r s x ICS
y wä s r r English Version

Liquid petroleum products æ Bioælubricants æ Criteria and requirements of bioælubricants and bioæbased lubricants Produits pétroliers liquides æ Bioælubrifiants æ Critères et exigences sur les bioælubrifiants et lubrifiants d 5origines biologiques

Flüssige MineralölæErzeugnisse æ BioæSchmierstoffe æ Kriterien und Anforderungen für BioæSchmierstoffe und bioæbasierte Schmierstoffe This European Standard was approved by CEN on

t x May
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey and United Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s x z r yã t r s x ESIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 8 4 Sampling ............................................................................................................................................................. 8 5 Test methods .................................................................................................................................................... 9 5.1 Biodegradation ................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.2 Ecotoxicity ......................................................................................................................................................... 9 5.3 Bio-based carbon content ......................................................................................................................... 10 5.4 Fit for purpose / Fit for use....................................................................................................................... 11 6 Criteria and minimum requirements for ´Bio-Lubricants' and ´Bio-based Lubricants´ ..... 11 6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 6.2 Bio-based content ........................................................................................................................................ 12 6.3 Biodegradability ........................................................................................................................................... 12 6.4 Ecotoxicity ...................................................................................................................................................... 12 6.5 Performance .................................................................................................................................................. 12 Annex A (informative)

Test methods for determining 14C content ....................................................... 13 Annex B (normative)

Bio-lubricants - groups of application .................................................................... 14 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 18

SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 3 European foreword This document (EN 16807:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19 “Gaseous and liquid fuels, lubricants and related products of petroleum, synthetic and biological origin”, the secretariat of which is held by NEN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by April 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by

April 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. Mandate M/430 covers the development of European standards for bio-lubricants in relation to bio-based product aspects. It has been prepared by CEN/TC 19/WG 33 “Bio-Lubricants”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 4 Introduction General technical specifications for the different types of lubricants, the test methods and criteria for performance are well defined compared to characteristics of the relatively new class of bio-lubricants. Despite the great interest in ‘environmentally compatible lubricants’, the lack of standards and technical language describing these fluids and greases has impeded the growth of the market for these types of lubricants. Standards and definitions are only available for single groups of lubricants, for example for hydraulic fluids (ISO 15380 [1], some Ecolabels). However, a general, non-contentious and well-accepted description and definition including biodegradability, renewability and aquatic toxicity, consistently valid for all kinds of lubricants, still is missing. The “bio-“prefix is often considered as a synonym of good for the environment, or in another situation, good for health. The prefix, when associated with lubricants, can be perceived by the consumers as an indication of biodegradability. In other words, a “bio-lubricant” is expected to biodegrade (to break down in the environment), needed for instance in case of leakages or technically intended losses. In addition, the use of bio-based raw materials could be beneficial with reference to two current problems: fossil resources depletion and climate change. Today, regarding the latter issue, we have to manage the carbon in order to avoid its accumulation in the atmosphere. Efficient use of all available resources and responsible utilization of renewable carbon is a way to participate in this reduction; the prefix “bio” in this sense is taken as an indication of the biological circle. Further detailed information is given in CEN/TR 16227 [2]. Lubricants are important materials which contribute significantly to efficient use of resources: thanks to their tailor-made properties they reduce energy losses and wear in machines and aggregates. The global manufacture of lubricants in all applications only uses a small part of the entire consumed mineral oil: in Europe, it makes up only about 1 %. The major fraction (>80 %) of the residual fossil material is used for energy production, predominantly for transportation and heating purposes. Besides crude oil, biomass is an additional raw material source for lubricants. The currently available biomass is consumed in different segments: food and feed production, power and heat generation, biofuel production and industrial applications (e.g. production of paper, fine chemicals). Due to the limited capacity of ecosystems, the utilization efficiency of biomass and availability issues have to be addressed across the whole bio-economy landscape. The eco-efficiency in this competitive use (e.g. energetic use vs. manufacture of goods) should always be in focus. Today it is mostly acknowledged that it would appear appropriate to use agricultural raw materials predominantly in a cascade of uses, instead of burning them directly in furnaces or engines. That would mean, for example, first producing a bio-lubricant from biomass: around 1 t to 2 t of bio-lubricants can be produced per hectare of agriculture land. The bio-lubricant thereby stores carbon dioxide in the form of vegetable carbon and removes it from atmosphere. It would be desirable to trap this carbon dioxide in the lubricant for as long as possible. Finally, after maximum utilization including recycling when achievable and appropriate, the lubricant can then be used either as energy source or – after re-refining – as downshifted base oil – to return the bound carbon to the natural cycle in the form of carbon dioxide. In order to ensure responsible and environmentally conscious use of natural (fossil and renewable) resources, a clear and unambiguous terminology is of particular importance. The approach which is published in this European Standard is focused on the view of the customer: Are the referred criteria for “bio-lubricants” potentially provable for the formulated product? The statement of this document is: Every announcement with regard to biodegradability, toxicity and renewability should be measurable through the final product in the hands of the customer. It has to be stated that this approach, based on testing of mixtures, is in principle complementary to the basics of the chemicals policy in Europe, which is focused on testing of single components and not on SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 5 testing of mixtures. Hence, adverse effects in humans and/or the environment are considered for specific chemicals but not for the mixture made of them. However, it has to be stated that the combination of well-tested single components in a mixture can generate synergistic or antagonistic effects. Even if biodegradability or bioaccumulation tests for mixtures maybe difficult to interpret, the view on the mixture is the view of the end-user. Thus, the approach of this standard is meaningful for business-to-consumer communication. Adverse effects of single components are generally acknowledged and documented in the Safety Data Sheet for the mixture, according to the Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation [3]. Finally, this approach intends to enhance the reputation of “bio-lubricants” and the confidence of the customer in this product group. The criteria and requirements for “bio-lubricants” published in this document are intended as horizontal requirements for all kinds of bio-based lubricants, and should be seen as minimum requirements compared to the European Ecolabel for Lubricants (EEL) [4]. The lubricants’ base oils can be made from both biomass and fossil resources. Lubricants made from biomass can be rapidly, slowly, or not biodegradable; their base oils can be natural (unchanged renewable material) or synthetic (chemically modified biomass). Bio-lubricants can be a combination of both natural and synthetic base oils. All the different examples shown in Table 1 are present in the marketplace today and use the term “bio”. This is a cause of concern as it can be the source of misleading information and confusion for the final consumers. The dissemination of confusing, ambiguous or misleading information should be prevented in order not to jeopardize the success of such schemes as well as the credibility of industry itself – this is the aim of this European Standard. Table 1 — Examples for the use of the term “bio” with regard to lubricants Origin of material Biodegradability Example Occasional wording for the prefix “bio-” Renewable Rapidly biodegradablea Rapeseed oil,

Tri-methylol-propane-trioleate (TMP-O) Biodegradablea and

bio-basedb Non-renewable Biodegradablea Di-isotridecyl-adipate (DITA) Biodegradablea Renewable Inherently or

non biodegradable Hydrocarbons from process

“Biomass-to-Liquid” (BtL) Bio-basedb Non-renewable Non biodegradable White oil for foodgrade lubricants Biocompatible a According to OECD 301[5]. b According to EN 16575. NOTE In addition, consideration of soil dwelling organisms could be reflected in a future edition. Even if in a more general approach “environmentally compatible lubricants” can be seen under additional aspects, up to a comprehensive Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), this European Standard focuses on the term bio-lubricant, which comprises requirements regarding biodegradability, aquatic toxicity, content of biomass and performance. SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 6 The initial issue of this standard is the qualification of the term “bio-based product” with regard to lubricants. Since the bio-based content of a lubricant is not acknowledged as an adequate attribute per se, the combination with other environmentally relevant aspects like biodegradability and aquatic toxicity is obvious. Similarly, the historical view on “bio-lubricants” only in relation to biodegradability shall be extended to aspects of renewable, biological resources. Hence, this standard combines both the term “bio-based lubricant” and the term “bio-lubricant”, and to avoid misunderstandings, both terms are seen as equivalent according to this standard. SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 7 1 Scope This European Standard specifies the term bio-lubricant and minimum requirements for all kinds of bio-lubricants and bio-based lubricants, while e.g. the EEL [4] refers to specific bio-lubricant families. This European Standard also briefly describes relevant test method needs with respect to the characterization of bio-lubricants. It presents recommendation for related standards in the field of biodegradability, product functionality and the amount of different renewable raw materials and/or different bio-based contents used during manufacturing of such bio-lubricants forming one product group. WARNING — Not all potential risks for the environment can be addressed by this standard. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. CEN/TS 16640:2014, Bio-based products - Determination of the bio based carbon content of products using the radiocarbon method EN 16575, Bio-based products - Vocabulary EN ISO 3170, Petroleum liquids - Manual sampling (ISO 3170) EN ISO 6341, Water quality - Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea) - Acute toxicity test (ISO 6341) EN ISO 7346-1, Water quality - Determination of the acute lethal toxicity of substances to a freshwater fish (Brachydanio rerio Hamilton-Buchanan (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)) - Part 1: Static method (ISO 7346-1) EN ISO 8692, Water quality - Fresh water algal growth inhibition test with unicellular green algae (ISO 8692) EN ISO 9408, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in aqueous medium by determination of oxygen demand in a closed respirometer (ISO 9408) EN ISO 9439, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in aqueous medium - Carbon dioxide evolution test (ISO 9439) EN ISO 10253, Water quality - Marine algal growth inhibition test with Skeletonema costatum and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (ISO 10253) EN ISO 12922, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) - Family H (Hydraulic systems) - Specifications for hydraulic fluids in categories HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC, HFDR and HFDU (ISO 12922) EN ISO 14593, Water quality - Evaluation of ultimate aerobic biodegradability of organic compounds in aqueous medium - Method by analysis of inorganic carbon in sealed vessels (CO2 headspace test) (ISO 14593) ISO 8068, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) — Family T (Turbines) — Specification for lubricating oils for turbines SIST EN 16807:2016

EN 16807:2016 8 ISO 10050, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) — Family T (Turbines) — Specifications of triaryl phosphate ester turbine control fluids (category ISO-L-TCD) ISO 11158, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (class L) — Family H (hydraulic systems) — Specifications for categories HH, HL, HM, HV and HG ISO 12924, Lubricants, industrial oils and related products (Class L) — Family X (Greases) — Specification ISO 12

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