Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 1: General guidelines and definitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)

This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.
This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.
This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:
—   define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;
—   describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
—   define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
—   present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;
—   identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.
This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases:
—   initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;
—   routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;
—   investigations of accident and incident situations;
—   planning and surveillance of remedial action;
—   decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Erdboden - Teil 1: Allgemeine Leitlinien und Begriffe (ISO 18589-1:2019)

Dieses Dokument legt die allgemeinen Anforderungen für die Durchführung von Radionuklidprüfungen fest, einschließlich der Probenahme an Bodenproben, einschließlich sowohl von Brocken von Festgestein und von Erz als auch von Baustoffen und -produkten, Keramik usw., bei welchen NORM verwendet werden oder Radionuklide aus technologischen Prozessen, die technologisch verbesserte natürlich vorkommende radio-aktive Stoffe (TENORM, en: Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) einbezie-hen, z. B. die Förderung und die Verarbeitung von mineralischen Sanden oder die Produktion und Anwen-dung von Phosphatdüngern.
Zur Vereinfachung deckt der Begriff „Boden“ im vorliegenden Dokument die vorgenannte Reihe von Ele-menten ab.
Das vorliegende Dokument richtet sich an jene Personen, welche für die Bestimmung der in Böden vorhan-denen Radioaktivität zum Zwecke des Strahlenschutzes verantwortlich sind. Dies kann Bodenproben aus Gärten, landwirtschaftlichen Nutzflächen, Siedlungs- oder Industrieflächen oder auch von menschlichen Akti-vitäten unbeeinflusste Böden betreffen.
Dieses Dokument ist auf alle Labore anwendbar, unabhängig von deren Personalstärke oder dem Umfang ihrer Prüfaktivitäten. Wenn ein Labor eine oder mehrere der im vorliegenden Dokument behandelten Aktivi-täten nicht durchführt, wie z. B. Planung, Probenahme oder Prüfung, gelten die Anforderungen dieser Ab-schnitte nicht.
Dieses Dokument ist zusammen mit anderen Teilen der Normenreihe ISO 18589 anzuwenden, welche die Aufstellung von Programmen, Probenahmeverfahren, allgemeinen Verfahren zur Probenbehandlung im Labor sowie Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der Radioaktivität in Böden behandeln. Zweck der Norm ist:
– Definition der Begriffe in Bezug auf Böden, Probenahme, Radioaktivität und ihrer Messung;
– Beschreibung der Herkunft von Radioaktivität in Böden;
– Bestimmung der Hauptziele der Untersuchung von Radioaktivität in Bodenproben;
– Darstellung der Prinzipien für die Untersuchung von Radioaktivität in Bodenproben;
– Angabe der analytischen und verfahrensbezogenen Anforderungen bei der Messung von Radioaktivität im Boden.
Dieses Dokument ist anwendbar, wenn in den folgenden Fällen Radionuklid-Messungen zum Zwecke des Strahlenschutzes durchzuführen sind:
– erste Charakterisierung der Umwelt-Radioaktivität;
– laufende Überwachung des Einflusses kerntechnischer Anlagen oder der Entwicklung des gesamten Ge-ländes;
– Untersuchungen von Störfällen und Betriebsstörungen;
– Planung und Überwachung von Rekultivierungsmaßnahmen;
– Stilllegung von Anlagen oder Freimessung von Stoffen.

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Sol - Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales et définitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Tla - 1. del: Splošne smernice in definicije (ISO 18589-1:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
23-Jun-2021
Publication Date
22-Aug-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Aug-2021
Due Date
21-Oct-2021
Completion Date
23-Aug-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
01-oktober-2021

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Tla - 1. del: Splošne smernice in definicije (ISO

18589-1:2019)

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 1: General guidelines and

definitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)

Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt - Erdboden - Teil 1: Allgemeine Leitlinien und

Begriffe (ISO 18589-1:2019)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Sol - Partie 1: Lignes directrices

générales et définitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ICS:
13.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo tal soil quality
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
EN ISO 18589-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
August 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.01; 17.240
English Version
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil -
Part 1: General guidelines and definitions (ISO 18589-
1:2019)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Ermittlung der Radioaktivität in der Umwelt -

Sol - Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales et Erdboden - Teil 1: Allgemeine Leitlinien und Begriffe

définitions (ISO 18589-1:2019) (ISO 18589-1:2019)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 July 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18589-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
EN ISO 18589-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
EN ISO 18589-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18589-1:2019 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85 "Nuclear energy,

nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” of the International Organization for Standardization

(ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 18589-1:2021 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 430 “Nuclear

energy, nuclear technologies, and radiological protection” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2022, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18589-1:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18589-1:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18589-1
Second edition
2019-11
Measurement of radioactivity in the
environment — Soil —
Part 1:
General guidelines and definitions
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement — Sol —
Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales et définitions
Reference number
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Terms relating to soils ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to sampling ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Origins of the radioactivity in soils ................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Natural radioactivity .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Other sources of radioactivity in soils ................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Objectives of the study of soil radioactivity .............................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Characterization of radioactivity in the environment ........................................................................................... 6

6.3 Routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of

the general territory ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Investigations of accident and incident situations ................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Planning and surveillance of remedial action .............................................................................................................. 7

6.6 Decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials .......................................................................... 7

7 Principles and requirements of the study of soil radioactivity ........................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Planning process — Sampling strategy and plan ...................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Sampling process .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4 Laboratory process ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.1 Preparation of samples ...........................................................................................................................................10

7.4.2 Radioactivity measurements ..............................................................................................................................10

7.5 General procedural requirements .......................................................................................................................................11

7.6 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies

and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18589-1:2005), which has been

technically revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows:

— The introduction has been reviewed accordingly to the generic introduction adopted for the

standards published on the radioactivity measurement in the environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18589 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Everyone is exposed to natural radiation. The natural sources of radiation are cosmic rays and

naturally occurring radioactive substances which exist in the earth and flora and fauna, including the

human body. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive substances add to the

radiation exposure from this natural exposure. Some of those activities, such as the mining and use

of ores containing naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and the production of energy

by burning coal that contains such substances, simply enhance the exposure from natural radiation

sources. Nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations use radioactive materials and produce

radioactive effluent and waste during operation and decommissioning. The use of radioactive materials

in industry, agriculture and research is expanding around the globe.

All these human activities give rise to radiation exposures that are only a small fraction of the global

average level of natural exposure. The medical use of radiation is the largest and a growing man-made

source of radiation exposure in developed countries. It includes diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy,

nuclear medicine and interventional radiology.

Radiation exposure also occurs as a result of occupational activities. It is incurred by workers in

industry, medicine and research using radiation or radioactive substances, as well as by passengers

and crew during air travel. The average level of occupational exposures is generally below the global

average level of natural radiation exposure (see Reference [1]).

As uses of radiation increase, so do the potential health risk and the public's concerns. Thus, all these

exposures are regularly assessed in order to:

— improve the understanding of global levels and temporal trends of public and worker exposure;

— evaluate the components of exposure so as to provide a measure of their relative importance;

— identify emerging issues that may warrant more attention and study. While doses to workers are

mostly directly measured, doses to the public are usually assessed by indirect methods using the

results of radioactivity measurements of waste, effluent and/or environmental samples.

To ensure that the data obtained from radioactivity monitoring programs support their intended use, it

is essential that the stakeholders (for example nuclear site operators, regulatory and local authorities)

agree on appropriate methods and procedures for obtaining representative samples and for handling,

storing, preparing and measuring the test samples. An assessment of the overall measurement

uncertainty also needs to be carried out systematically. As reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’

data are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements,

international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for

the production of such measurement results. The application of standards serves also to guarantee

comparability of the test results over time and between different testing laboratories. Laboratories

apply them to demonstrate their technical competences and to complete proficiency tests successfully

during interlaboratory comparisons, two prerequisites for obtaining national accreditation.

Today, over a hundred International Standards are available to testing laboratories for measuring

radionuclides in different matrices.

Generic standards help testing laboratories to manage the measurement process by setting out the

general requirements and methods to calibrate equipment and validate techniques. These standards

underpin specific standards which describe the test methods to be performed by staff, for example, for

different types of sample. The specific standards cover test methods for:
40 3 14

— naturally-occurring radionuclides (including K, H, C and those originating from the thorium

226 228 234 238 210

and uranium decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U and Pb) which can be found in

materials from natural sources or can be released from technological processes involving naturally

occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate

fertilizer production and use);
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)

— human-made radionuclides, such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

3 14 90

and curium), H, C, Sr and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides found in waste, liquid and gaseous

effluent, in environmental matrices (water, air, soil and biota), in food and in animal feed as a result

of authorized releases into the environment, fallout from the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear

devices and fallout from accidents, such as those that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

The fraction of the background dose rate to man from environmental radiation, mainly gamma

radiation, is very variable and depends on factors such as the radioactivity of the local rock and soil, the

nature of building materials and the construction of buildings in which people live and work.

A reliable determination of the activity concentration of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in various

matrices is necessary to assess the potential human exposure, to verify compliance with radiation

protection and environmental protection regulations or to provide guidance on reducing health risks.

Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides are also used as tracers in biology, medicine, physics, chemistry, and

engineering. Accurate measurement of the activities of the radionuclides is also needed for homeland

security and in connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

This document is to be used in the context of a quality assurance management system (ISO/IEC 17025).

ISO 18589 is published in several parts for use jointly or separately according to needs. These parts

are complementary and are addressed to those responsible for determining the radioactivity present

in soil, bedrocks and ore (NORM or TENORM). The first two parts are general in nature describe the

setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the

laboratory (ISO 18589-1), the sampling strategy and the soil sampling technique, soil sample handling

and preparation (ISO 18589-2). ISO 18589-3, ISO 18589-4 and ISO 18589-5 deal with nuclide-specific

test methods to quantify the activity concentration of gamma emitters radionuclides (ISO 18589-3 and

ISO 20042), plutonium isotopes (ISO 18589-4) and Sr (ISO 18589-5) of soil samples. ISO 18589-6

deals with non-specific measurements to quantify rapidly gross alpha or gross beta activities and

ISO 18589-7 describes in situ measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides.

The test methods described in ISO 18589-3 to ISO 18589-6 can also be used to measure the radionuclides

[2][3[[4][5]

in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure

[22][23]

This document is one of a set of International Standards on measurement of radioactivity in the

environment.
vi © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Soil —
Part 1:
General guidelines and definitions
1 Scope

This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling

of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery,

etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally

Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or

phosphate fertilizer production and use.

For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for

the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial

sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.

This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the

scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered

by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.

This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of

programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and

also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:

— define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;

— describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
— define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
— present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;

— identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.

This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are

to be made in the following cases:
— initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;

— routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;

— investigations of accident and incident situations;
— planning and surveillance of remedial action;
— decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 11929 (all parts), Determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and

limits of the coverage interval) for measurements of ionizing radiation — Fundamentals and application

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 18589-2, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Soil — Part 2: Guidance for the selection

of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

me a s ur ement (GUM: 1995)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
routine surveillance

surveillance carried out periodically and designed to observe the potential changes of the soil’s

radioactive characteristics
3.1.2
analysis for characterization

set of observations that contribute, at a given time, to the characterization of the radioactive properties

of a soil sample with a view to use them later as reference data

Note 1 to entry: The test report may include other data characterizing the site studied.

3.1.3
vertical distribution of the radioactivity

determination of the radioactivity in the layers of the earth’s crust sampled at different depths which

describe the vertical profile of the distribution by a radionuclide or a group of radionuclides

3.2 Terms relating to soils
3.2.1
soil

upper layer of the Earth’s crust transformed by weathering and physical/chemical and biological

processes and composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms organized

in generic soil horizons

Note 1 to entry: In a broader civil engineering sense, soil includes topsoil and sub-soil; deposits such as clays,

silts, sands, gravels, cobbles, boulders, and organic matter and deposits such as peat; materials of human origin

such as wastes; ground gas and moisture; and living organisms.

Note 2 to entry: Mineral materials include earth, sands, clay, slates, stones, etc. that can also be used as

construction materials and included in construction products.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 2.1.11]
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
3.2.2
herbaceous cover

lower stratum of vegetation made up essentially of various herbaceous species found for example in

meadows, lawns or fallow fields
3.2.3
soil horizon

basic layer of soil, which is more or less parallel to the surface and is homogeneous in appearance for

most morphological characteristics (colour, texture, structure, etc.)

Note 1 to entry: The succession of soil horizons makes up a soil profile and allows, on the basis of certain

analytical criteria, the morphogenetic nature of the soil to be defined.
3.3 Terms relating to sampling
3.3.1
sample

portion of material selected from a larger quantity of material, collected and taken away for testing

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.1.17, modified — The word "soil" was removed and the last part of the

definition was added.]
3.3.2
sampling
defined procedure whereby a part of the soil is taken for testing

Note 1 to entry: In certain cases, the sample might not be representative but is determined by availability.

Note 2 to entry: Sampling procedures describe all the processes necessary to provide the laboratory with

the samples required to reach the objectives of the study of the soil radioactivity. This includes the selection,

sampling plan, withdrawal and preparation of the samples from the soil.
3.3.3
sampling strategy

set of technical principles that aim to resolve, depending on the objectives and site considered, the two

main issues which are the sampling density and the spatial distribution of the sampling areas

Note 1 to entry: The sampling strategy provides the set of technical options that are required in the sampling plan.

3.3.4
sampling area
area from which the different samples are collected
Note 1 to entry: A site can be divided into several sampling areas.
3.3.5
sampling plan

precise protocol that, depending on the application of the principles of the strategy adopted, defines

the spatial and temporal dimensions of sampling, the frequency, the sample n
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
01-junij-2021

Merjenje radioaktivnosti v okolju - Tla - 1. del: Splošne smernice in definicije (ISO

18589-1:2019)

Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Soil - Part 1: General guidelines and

definitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)

Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement - Sol - Partie 1: Lignes directrices

générales et définitions (ISO 18589-1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 18589-1
ICS:
13.080.01 Kakovost tal in pedologija na Soil quality and pedology in
splošno general
17.240 Merjenje sevanja Radiation measurements
oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18589-1
Second edition
2019-11
Measurement of radioactivity in the
environment — Soil —
Part 1:
General guidelines and definitions
Mesurage de la radioactivité dans l'environnement — Sol —
Partie 1: Lignes directrices générales et définitions
Reference number
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.1 General terms ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Terms relating to soils ...................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.3 Terms relating to sampling ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Origins of the radioactivity in soils ................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Natural radioactivity .......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2 Other sources of radioactivity in soils ................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Objectives of the study of soil radioactivity .............................................................................................................................. 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Characterization of radioactivity in the environment ........................................................................................... 6

6.3 Routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of

the general territory ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.4 Investigations of accident and incident situations ................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Planning and surveillance of remedial action .............................................................................................................. 7

6.6 Decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials .......................................................................... 7

7 Principles and requirements of the study of soil radioactivity ........................................................................... 8

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 Planning process — Sampling strategy and plan ...................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Sampling process .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.4 Laboratory process ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.1 Preparation of samples ...........................................................................................................................................10

7.4.2 Radioactivity measurements ..............................................................................................................................10

7.5 General procedural requirements .......................................................................................................................................11

7.6 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, nuclear technologies

and radiological protection, Subcommittee SC 2, Radiological protection.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 18589-1:2005), which has been

technically revised.
The main change compared to the previous edition is as follows:

— The introduction has been reviewed accordingly to the generic introduction adopted for the

standards published on the radioactivity measurement in the environment.
A list of all parts in the ISO 18589 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html
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Introduction

Everyone is exposed to natural radiation. The natural sources of radiation are cosmic rays and

naturally occurring radioactive substances which exist in the earth and flora and fauna, including the

human body. Human activities involving the use of radiation and radioactive substances add to the

radiation exposure from this natural exposure. Some of those activities, such as the mining and use

of ores containing naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and the production of energy

by burning coal that contains such substances, simply enhance the exposure from natural radiation

sources. Nuclear power plants and other nuclear installations use radioactive materials and produce

radioactive effluent and waste during operation and decommissioning. The use of radioactive materials

in industry, agriculture and research is expanding around the globe.

All these human activities give rise to radiation exposures that are only a small fraction of the global

average level of natural exposure. The medical use of radiation is the largest and a growing man-made

source of radiation exposure in developed countries. It includes diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy,

nuclear medicine and interventional radiology.

Radiation exposure also occurs as a result of occupational activities. It is incurred by workers in

industry, medicine and research using radiation or radioactive substances, as well as by passengers

and crew during air travel. The average level of occupational exposures is generally below the global

average level of natural radiation exposure (see Reference [1]).

As uses of radiation increase, so do the potential health risk and the public's concerns. Thus, all these

exposures are regularly assessed in order to:

— improve the understanding of global levels and temporal trends of public and worker exposure;

— evaluate the components of exposure so as to provide a measure of their relative importance;

— identify emerging issues that may warrant more attention and study. While doses to workers are

mostly directly measured, doses to the public are usually assessed by indirect methods using the

results of radioactivity measurements of waste, effluent and/or environmental samples.

To ensure that the data obtained from radioactivity monitoring programs support their intended use, it

is essential that the stakeholders (for example nuclear site operators, regulatory and local authorities)

agree on appropriate methods and procedures for obtaining representative samples and for handling,

storing, preparing and measuring the test samples. An assessment of the overall measurement

uncertainty also needs to be carried out systematically. As reliable, comparable and ‘fit for purpose’

data are an essential requirement for any public health decision based on radioactivity measurements,

international standards of tested and validated radionuclide test methods are an important tool for

the production of such measurement results. The application of standards serves also to guarantee

comparability of the test results over time and between different testing laboratories. Laboratories

apply them to demonstrate their technical competences and to complete proficiency tests successfully

during interlaboratory comparisons, two prerequisites for obtaining national accreditation.

Today, over a hundred International Standards are available to testing laboratories for measuring

radionuclides in different matrices.

Generic standards help testing laboratories to manage the measurement process by setting out the

general requirements and methods to calibrate equipment and validate techniques. These standards

underpin specific standards which describe the test methods to be performed by staff, for example, for

different types of sample. The specific standards cover test methods for:
40 3 14

— naturally-occurring radionuclides (including K, H, C and those originating from the thorium

226 228 234 238 210

and uranium decay series, in particular Ra, Ra, U, U and Pb) which can be found in

materials from natural sources or can be released from technological processes involving naturally

occurring radioactive materials (e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate

fertilizer production and use);
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— human-made radionuclides, such as transuranium elements (americium, plutonium, neptunium,

3 14 90

and curium), H, C, Sr and gamma-ray emitting radionuclides found in waste, liquid and gaseous

effluent, in environmental matrices (water, air, soil and biota), in food and in animal feed as a result

of authorized releases into the environment, fallout from the explosion in the atmosphere of nuclear

devices and fallout from accidents, such as those that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

The fraction of the background dose rate to man from environmental radiation, mainly gamma

radiation, is very variable and depends on factors such as the radioactivity of the local rock and soil, the

nature of building materials and the construction of buildings in which people live and work.

A reliable determination of the activity concentration of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in various

matrices is necessary to assess the potential human exposure, to verify compliance with radiation

protection and environmental protection regulations or to provide guidance on reducing health risks.

Gamma-ray emitting radionuclides are also used as tracers in biology, medicine, physics, chemistry, and

engineering. Accurate measurement of the activities of the radionuclides is also needed for homeland

security and in connection with the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

This document is to be used in the context of a quality assurance management system (ISO/IEC 17025).

ISO 18589 is published in several parts for use jointly or separately according to needs. These parts

are complementary and are addressed to those responsible for determining the radioactivity present

in soil, bedrocks and ore (NORM or TENORM). The first two parts are general in nature describe the

setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the

laboratory (ISO 18589-1), the sampling strategy and the soil sampling technique, soil sample handling

and preparation (ISO 18589-2). ISO 18589-3, ISO 18589-4 and ISO 18589-5 deal with nuclide-specific

test methods to quantify the activity concentration of gamma emitters radionuclides (ISO 18589-3 and

ISO 20042), plutonium isotopes (ISO 18589-4) and Sr (ISO 18589-5) of soil samples. ISO 18589-6

deals with non-specific measurements to quantify rapidly gross alpha or gross beta activities and

ISO 18589-7 describes in situ measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides.

The test methods described in ISO 18589-3 to ISO 18589-6 can also be used to measure the radionuclides

[2][3[[4][5]

in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure

[22][23]

This document is one of a set of International Standards on measurement of radioactivity in the

environment.
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oSIST prEN ISO 18589-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Soil —
Part 1:
General guidelines and definitions
1 Scope

This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling

of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery,

etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally

Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or

phosphate fertilizer production and use.

For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for

the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial

sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.

This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the

scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered

by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.

This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of

programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and

also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:

— define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;

— describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;
— define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;
— present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;

— identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.

This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are

to be made in the following cases:
— initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;

— routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;

— investigations of accident and incident situations;
— planning and surveillance of remedial action;
— decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

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ISO 18589-1:2019(E)
ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 11929 (all parts), Determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and

limits of the coverage interval) for measurements of ionizing radiation — Fundamentals and application

ISO/IEC 17025, General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

ISO 18589-2, Measurement of radioactivity in the environment — Soil — Part 2: Guidance for the selection

of the sampling strategy, sampling and pre-treatment of samples

ISO/IEC Guide 98-3, Uncertainty of measurement — Part 3: Guide to the expression of uncertainty in

me a s ur ement (GUM: 1995)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 General terms
3.1.1
routine surveillance

surveillance carried out periodically and designed to observe the potential changes of the soil’s

radioactive characteristics
3.1.2
analysis for characterization

set of observations that contribute, at a given time, to the characterization of the radioactive properties

of a soil sample with a view to use them later as reference data

Note 1 to entry: The test report may include other data characterizing the site studied.

3.1.3
vertical distribution of the radioactivity

determination of the radioactivity in the layers of the earth’s crust sampled at different depths which

describe the vertical profile of the distribution by a radionuclide or a group of radionuclides

3.2 Terms relating to soils
3.2.1
soil

upper layer of the Earth’s crust transformed by weathering and physical/chemical and biological

processes and composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms organized

in generic soil horizons

Note 1 to entry: In a broader civil engineering sense, soil includes topsoil and sub-soil; deposits such as clays,

silts, sands, gravels, cobbles, boulders, and organic matter and deposits such as peat; materials of human origin

such as wastes; ground gas and moisture; and living organisms.

Note 2 to entry: Mineral materials include earth, sands, clay, slates, stones, etc. that can also be used as

construction materials and included in construction products.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 2.1.11]
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3.2.2
herbaceous cover

lower stratum of vegetation made up essentially of various herbaceous species found for example in

meadows, lawns or fallow fields
3.2.3
soil horizon

basic layer of soil, which is more or less parallel to the surface and is homogeneous in appearance for

most morphological characteristics (colour, texture, structure, etc.)

Note 1 to entry: The succession of soil horizons makes up a soil profile and allows, on the basis of certain

analytical criteria, the morphogenetic nature of the soil to be defined.
3.3 Terms relating to sampling
3.3.1
sample

portion of material selected from a larger quantity of material, collected and taken away for testing

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.1.17, modified — The word "soil" was removed and the last part of the

definition was added.]
3.3.2
sampling
defined procedure whereby a part of the soil is taken for testing

Note 1 to entry: In certain cases, the sample might not be representative but is determined by availability.

Note 2 to entry: Sampling procedures describe all the processes necessary to provide the laboratory with

the samples required to reach the objectives of the study of the soil radioactivity. This includes the selection,

sampling plan, withdrawal and preparation of the samples from the soil.
3.3.3
sampling strategy

set of technical principles that aim to resolve, depending on the objectives and site considered, the two

main issues which are the sampling density and the spatial distribution of the sampling areas

Note 1 to entry: The sampling strategy provides the set of technical options that are required in the sampling plan.

3.3.4
sampling area
area from which the different samples are collected
Note 1 to entry: A site can be divided into several sampling areas.
3.3.5
sampling plan

precise protocol that, depending on the application of the principles of the strategy adopted, defines

the spatial and temporal dimensions of sampling, the frequency, the sample number, the quantities

sampled, etc., and the human resources to be used for the sampling operation
3.3.6
random sampling
sampling at random in space and time from the sampling area
3.3.7
systematic sampling
sampling by some systematic method in space and time from the sampling area
3.3.8
random systematic sampling

sampling at random from each sampling unit from a set of systematically defined sampling units

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3.3.9
sampling unit
section of the sampling area whose limits can be physical or hypothetical

Note 1 to entry: Sampling units are obtained by dividing the sampling area into grid box units according to the

sampling pattern.
3.3.10
sampling pattern
system of sampling locations based on the results of statistical procedures

Note 1 to entry: This leads to a set of predetermined sampling points designed to monitor one or more specified

sites. The sampling area is divided into several sampling units or basic grid box units, which are usually square

or rectangular (but circular or linear grid boxes are not excluded depending upon the characteristics of the

pollution source).
3.3.11
increment

individual portion of material collected by a single operation of a sampling device

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.1.8]
Note 1 to entry: Increments can be grouped to form a composite sample.
3.3.12
sub-sample

sample in which the material of interest is randomly distributed in parts of equal or unequal size

3.3.13
single sample

representative quantity of the material, presumed to be homogeneous, taken from a sampling unit, kept

and treated separately from the other samples
3.3.14
composite sample

two or more increments mixed together in appropriate proportions, either discretely or continuously

(blended composite sample), from which the average value representative of a desired characteristic

can be obtained

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.3.3 modified — the word "subsamples" was removed, "average result"

replaced by "average value representative".]
3.3.15
sorted sample

single sample or composite sample taken from the same sampling unit, obtained after the elimination

of coarse elements that are larger than 2 cm and before drying
3.3.16
laboratory sample
sorted sample intended for laboratory inspection or testing

Note 1 to entry: When the laboratory sample is further prepared (reduced) by subdividing, mixing, grinding

or combinations of these operations, the result is the test sample. When no preparation is required, the initial

laboratory sample is considered as the test sample. Depending on the number of analyses to be performed, test

portions are isolated from the test sample for analysis

Note 2 to entry: The laboratory sample is the final sample from the point of view of the sample collection step, but

it is the initial sample from the point of view of the test step.
[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.3.7, modified — Notes have been modified.]
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3.3.17
test sample
sample treated prepared for testing

Note 1 to entry: The test sample is prepared from the laboratory sample. It is a fine dry homogeneous soil in a

powder state. It is prepared in accordance with ISO 18589-2 depending of the test method used.

3.3.18
test portion
part of the test sample prepared for specific testing
4 Symbols
Table 1 — Definitions and symbols
Common
Quantity Unit Definition
notation
becquerel
Activity A number of decays per second of a radionuclide
becquerel per
Activity concentra-
kilogram
A radionuclide activity per unit dry mass of material
tion
Bq·kg
becquerel per
radionuclide activity per unit area used to characterize
Activity per unit
square metre
A the activity at the soil surface, at a depth or integrated
area
−2 activity over a soil column
Bq·m
number of α decays per second of a mixture of radionu-
becquerel
clides determined by non-nuclide-specific measurement
Gross α activity A′(α)
techniques whose efficiency is calibrated using a specific
239 241
radionuclide such as Pu, Am, …
number of β decays per second of a mixture of radionu-
becquerel
clides determined by non-nuclide-specific measurement
Gross β ac
...

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