This document specifies methods for the determination of colour stability/colour evaluation, process hiding power, re-dissolving, overspray absorption, wetting, surface texture and mottling of coating materials applied to a test panel under defined conditions, using spray application process.

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This document specifies visual methods for the assessment of tendency to sagging, formation of bubbles, pinholing and hiding power of coating materials applied to a test panel under defined conditions, using spray application process. Assessment using measuring techniques is also described for all evaluations.

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This document defines terms relating to the evaluation of coating materials in research, development and production with regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes and error analysis. This document also specifies methods for the preparation of test panels and the subsequent measurement of film thickness, colour, surface texture and other measurable surface properties.

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This document specifies methods for exposing coatings to fluorescent UV lamps, heat and water in apparatus designed to reproduce the weathering effects that occur when materials are exposed in actual end-use environments to daylight, or to daylight through window glass. The coatings are exposed to different types of fluorescent UV lamps under controlled environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and/or water). Different types of fluorescent UV lamp can be used to meet all the requirements for testing different materials. Specimen preparation and evaluation of the results are covered in other ISO documents for specific materials. General guidance is given in ISO 16474‑1. NOTE Fluorescent UV lamp exposures for plastics are described in ISO 4892‑3.

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This document specifies the conditions to take into consideration when selecting the type of natural weathering and the natural weathering procedure to determine the resistance of coatings or coating systems (direct weathering or weathering behind window glass). Natural weathering is used to determine the resistance of coatings or coating systems (denoted in this document by coatings) to the sun's radiation and the atmosphere. This document does not take into account special atmospheric influences, e.g. industrial pollution.

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This document specifies a test method for assessing the resistance of paint coatings and varnishes (including wood stains) to separation from substrates when a right-angle lattice pattern is cut into the coating, penetrating through to the substrate. The property determined by this empirical test procedure depends, among other factors, on the adhesion of the coating to either the preceding coat or the substrate. This procedure is not, however, a means of measuring adhesion. NOTE 1 Where a measurement of adhesion is required, see the method described in ISO 4624. NOTE 2 Although the test is primarily intended for use in the laboratory, the test is also suitable for field testing. The method described can be used either as a pass/fail test or, where circumstances are appropriate, as a six-step classification test. When applied to a multi-coat system, assessment of the resistance to separation of individual layers of the coating from each other can be made. The test can be carried out on finished objects and/or on specially prepared test specimens. Although the method is applicable to paint on hard (e.g. metal) and soft (e.g. wood and plaster) substrates, these different substrates need a different test procedure (see Clause 8). The method is not suitable for coatings of total thickness greater than 250 µm or for textured coatings. NOTE 3 The method, when applied to coatings designed to give a rough patterned surface, will give results which will show too much variation (see also ISO 16276-2).

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This document specifies a test procedure for assessing the scratch resistance of organic paint coatings, in particular paint coatings used in the automotive industry (i.e. for assessing their car-wash resistance). Machine-based washing is simulated in the laboratory environment using a rotating brush and synthetic dirt. The test conditions have been designed to be as close as possible to the real conditions in a car-wash. If the test parameters are suitably chosen, the method can also be used for testing protective plastics films and plastics components.

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This document specifies a method for determining the film hardness by pushing pencils of known hardness over the film. The test can be performed on a single coating of a paint, varnish or related product, or on the upper layer of a multi-coat system. This rapid test has not been found to be useful in comparing the pencil hardness of different coatings. It is more useful in providing relative ratings for a series of coated panels exhibiting significant differences in pencil hardness. The method is applicable only to smooth surfaces.

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This document specifies two on-site test methods (on-site cleanability [stain removal] and on-site wet-scrub resistance) for the evaluation of the quality assessment for interior wall coatings. These test methods are applicable to white coatings and light-coloured coatings of tristimulus value Y10 greater than 25 measured on a test specimen consisting of a coating applied to a black substrate. The cleanability test can differentiate the coating quality between 18 % of the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and the critical pigment volume concentration (CPVC). The on-site wet-scrub resistance test method can differentiate the coating quality when the PVC is nearly equal to the CPVC or above.

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This document specifies methods for determining the hiding power given by paint coats of white or light colours of tristimulus values Y and Y10 greater than 25, applied to a black and white chart, or to a colourless transparent foil. In the latter case the tristimulus values Y and Y10 are measured over black and white panels. Subsequently, the hiding power is calculated from these tristimulus values. This document also specifies a simple method for calculating the spreading rate for paints with a volatile matter content with low evaporation speed, e.g. coatings for interior walls and ceilings as specified in EN 13300.

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This document specifies the lighting and the procedure for the visual assessment of degraded areas, spots or other defects on or in coatings. This document is not applicable to the visual comparison of colour, which can be assessed using ISO 3668. NOTE See Annex A for examples of the possible applications of this document.

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This document provides an overview for selecting the most suitable test method regarding the evaluation of the hardness and the wear resistance of coatings. Annex A gives a summarized list of test methods for the evaluation of the hardness and of the wear resistance of coatings for different stresses. Methods for testing cross-linking (wear test in connection with solvents) and abrasion tests with multiple impacts are not covered by this document.

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This document describes methods for measuring the thickness of coatings applied to a substrate. Methods for determining wet-film thickness, dry-film thickness and the film thickness of uncured powder layers are described. For each method described, this document provides an overview of the field of application, existing standards and the precision. Information on measuring film thickness on rough surfaces is given in Annex B. Information on measuring film thickness on wooden substrates is given in Annex C.

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This document specifies a method to determine the solar reflectance of coating systems using a spectrophotometer with a wide spectral range (300 nm to 2 500 nm) and global solar radiation. This document is applicable to coating systems.

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This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a coating to scratches introduced by a usually hand-held loaded stylus. The test can be carried out using a point stylus (method A) or using a disc stylus (method B). Both methods are generally applicable and can be used in the field as well as on curved surfaces. Method A can also be applied on small test specimens (minimum dimensions 30 mm × 50 mm). The test can be carried out as a "pass/fail" test (test requirement I) or as a classification test (test requirement II).

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This document specifies a test method for determining under defined conditions the resistance of a single coating or a multi-coat system of paint, varnish or related product to penetration by scratching with a scratch stylus loaded with a specified load. Penetration of the stylus is to the substrate, except in the case of a multi-coat system, in which case the stylus can penetrate either to the substrate or to an intermediate coat. The method specified can be carried out a) either as a "pass/fail" test, by testing with a single specified load applied to the stylus to assess conformity with a particular specification, or b) as an assessment test by applying increasing loads to the stylus to determine the minimum load at which the coating is penetrated. NOTE Neither this document nor ISO 1518‑2 specifies a method using a curved stylus, which is specified in ISO 12137. The choice between the three methods will depend on the particular practical problem.

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This document specifies a method for determining, using a pointed stylus loaded with a continuously increasing load, the scratch resistance of a single coating of a paint, varnish or related product, or the upper layer of a multicoat system. This test has been found to be useful in comparing the scratch resistance of different coatings. It is most useful in providing relative ratings for a series of coated panels exhibiting significant differences in scratch resistance. NOTE Neither this document nor ISO 1518‑1 specifies a method using a curved stylus, which is specified in ISO 12137. The choice between the three methods will depend on the particular practical problem.

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This document specifies a method for determining the hiding power (spreading rate necessary to give a hiding power of 98 %) of white or light-coloured paints. It is applicable to paint films having the tri-stimulus value of Y ≥ 70 and hiding power > 80 %. It is not applicable to fluorescent or metallic paints.

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This document specifies three methods for testing the peel adhesion, peel strength and tensile lap-shear strength in order to evaluate the adhesive bond as well as the type, location and structure of failures of elastic adhesives on coatings. These methods are used, for example, for testing the assembly with respect to the bond of panes or built-on parts, such as plastic covers, spoilers, instrument panel covers, headlights, with coatings for automobile construction. The two methods of climatic exposure of specimens described herein are the condensation test and cataplasm storage. This document does not specify requirements for adhesives and coatings. NOTE The peel strength test (method B) for rigid car body construction adhesives is described in ISO 8510‑2. The tensile lap-shear strength test (method C) for rigid car body construction adhesives is described in EN 1465. Testing of rigid car body construction adhesives is generally conducted on small joint thicknesses, i.e.

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This document specifies a method, using an absorbent medium, for determining the resistance of an individual-layer or multi-layer system of coating materials to the effects of liquids or paste-like products. This method enables the tester to determine the effects of the test substance on the coating and, if necessary, to assess the damage to the substrate.

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This document specifies a method for determining the resistance of a coating to rubbing by means of a loaded abrasive material which is linearly moved over the surface to be tested. The method can also be applied to different material surfaces, such as plastics and metals.

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This document describes a test procedure for assessing the protective action of coatings of paints or varnishes on steel against filiform corrosion arising from a scribed mark cut through the coating. It is only suitable for assessing the performance of the coating/substrate combination tested. It is not suitable for predicting the performance of the coating on different substrates.

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This document specifies a method for determining the water-vapour transmission properties of coatings of paints, varnishes and related products. It supplements ISO 12572. As far as possible, the procedure, the definitions and the calculations have been taken over from ISO 12572. ISO 12572 can be consulted, if necessary, to obtain a better understanding of the procedure specified in this document. Water-vapour transmission rates of more than 680 g/(m2⋅d) (i.e. water-vapour diffusion-equivalent air layer thicknesses, sd, of less than 0,03 m) are not accurately quantified by the test method described in this document.

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This document specifies a method, using a temperature-gradient oven, for determining the resistance of an individual-layer or multi-layer system of coating materials to the effects of liquids or paste-like products. This method enables the testers to determine the effects of the test substance on the coating and, if necessary, to assess the damage to the substrate.

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This document specifies a method for determining the settling of coating materials. It is used to determine short-time settling, e.g. during transport or in an electro-deposition bath.

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This document summarises the common methods for evaluating the adhesive strength of coatings on a substrate, which can be another coating beneath or the substrate itself. The test methods and evaluation methods are described in Clauses 4, 5, and 6. In the case of standardized test methods the respective standard is referenced in regard to procedure and evaluation. Annex A compares the methods in the synoptic Tables A.1, A.2, and A.3. Often the adhesive strength cannot be sufficiently evaluated by means of a single method. The purely physical methods for measuring the adhesive strength are such in which mechanical quantities (e.g. force or torsion moment) are measured directly. All other methods are based on the evaluation of behaviour under mechanic stress according to practical conditions. For these methods the viscoelastic properties have a wide influence on the evaluation of the adhesive strength, so that it can only be tested comparatively within one method. Each method has its specific application. An unsuitable method can lead to false information. All of the test methods for the evaluation of the adhesive strength require a certain routine of the test person, especially in regard to identifying the separation line. For most of the test methods the test results, among other things, depend on the film thickness of the coating to be tested. In addition, for several methods differences between tests on a test sheet and in practice can occur, due to different roughness of the substrate. Effects of delamination caused by weathering or corrosion influences are not subject of this document. In case cohesion failures predominantly occur during an adhesive strength test, this is no measure for the adhesive strength. However, information can be given on the protective effect of the coating against corrosion.

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ISO 6270-3:2018 specifies the general conditions and procedures to be observed when testing coated test specimens in constant condensation water atmospheres in order to ensure that the results of tests carried out in different laboratories are reproducible. NOTE The shape and preparation of the test specimens, the duration of the test and the assessment of the test results are not covered in this document.

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ISO 15110:2017 specifies a so-called acid dew and fog test (ADF test) as an accelerated laboratory test method for simulating, by the use of artificial acidic precipitation, the damaging effects of acidic atmospheric precipitation in association with UV radiation, neutral condensed precipitation, and changing temperature and humidity. This test method is intended to be used in evaluating, on the basis of relative performance rankings, the suitability of painted materials for use in outdoor environments with acidic precipitation. It is not intended to generate the same extent of damage or the same damage pattern as in outdoor weathering, but rather to give a ranking which is similar to that which would be obtained in outdoor weathering. The method produces damage which is more homogeneous, allows fewer specimens to be exposed (and hence more rapid testing) and enables evaluation of the exposed specimens to be carried out using methods which are more objective than visual assessment.

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ISO 3668:2017 specifies a method for the visual comparison of the colour of films of paints or related products against a standard (either a reference standard or a freshly prepared standard) using artificial light sources in a standard booth. It is not applicable to coatings containing special-effect pigments, e.g. metallic, without previous agreement on all details of illuminating and viewing conditions

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ISO 4623-2:2016 describes a test procedure for assessing the protective action of coatings of paints or varnishes on aluminium against filiform corrosion arising from a scribe mark cut through the coating. It is only suitable for assessing the performance of the coating/substrate combination tested. It is not suitable for predicting the performance of the coating on different substrates.

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ISO 1514:2016 specifies several types of standard panels and describes procedures for their preparation prior to painting. These standard panels are for use in general methods of test for paints, varnishes and related products.

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ISO 3248:2016 specifies a method for determining the resistance of single coatings or multi-coat systems of paints, varnishes or related products to changes in gloss and/or colour, blistering, cracking and/or detachment from the substrate under conditions of a specified temperature. This procedure is applicable to products intended for use on domestic radiators or other articles likely to be subjected to similar temperatures.

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ISO 19399:2016 specifies a destructive method for determination of the dry film thickness, in which damage to the coat caused in a definite manner is evaluated microscopically. The method is suitable for almost all coat-substrate combinations and also allows determination of the single film thicknesses of coating systems. The method cannot be applied or can only be applied with restrictions in case of - too soft and/or elastic coatings (no recognizable scribe or drill hole can be observed), - hard (cannot be scribed/drilled) or too soft and/or elastic substrates, - too low visual contrast between the coating and substrate, and - film thicknesses that are larger than the depth of field of the measuring microscope.

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ISO 7784-3:2016 specifies a method for determining the resistance to abrasion of coatings, for which a loaded, rigid abrasive-paper covered wheel affects the coating of the linearly reciprocating test specimen.

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ISO 7784-2:2016 specifies a method for determining the resistance to abrasion of coatings, for which two loaded, freely rotatable but eccentrically arranged abrasive rubber wheels affect the coating of the rotating test specimen.

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ISO 7784-1:2016 specifies a method for determining the resistance to abrasion of coatings, for which two loaded, freely rotatable but eccentrically arranged abrasive-paper covered wheels affect the coating of the rotating test specimens.

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ISO 4624:2016 specifies three methods (i.e. one dolly or two dollies on a painted panel and two dollies, one as painted substrate) for determining the adhesion by carrying out a pull-off test on a single coating or a multi-coat system of paint, varnish or related product. These test methods have been found useful in comparing the adhesion behaviour of different coatings. It is most useful in providing relative ratings for a series of coated panels exhibiting significant differences in adhesion. The test may be applied using a wide range of substrates. Different procedures are given according to whether the substrate is deformable, for example thin metal, plastics and wood, or rigid, for example thick concrete and metal plates. To avoid distortion of the substrate during the tensile test, it is common to use a sandwich construction. For example, for special purposes, the coating may be applied directly to the face of a test dolly.

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ISO 4628-1:2016 defines a system for designating the quantity and size of defects and the intensity of changes in appearance of coatings and outlines the general principles of the system used throughout ISO 4628. This system is intended to be used, in particular, for defects caused by ageing and weathering, and for uniform changes, for example yellowing. The other parts of ISO 4628 provide pictorial standards or other means for evaluating particular types of defect. As far as possible, already existing evaluation schemes have been used as the basis. ISO 4628-1:2016 is also used for assessing defects not covered by the other parts of ISO 4628.

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ISO 4628-3:2016 specifies a method for assessing the degree of rusting of coatings by comparison with pictorial standards. The pictorial standards provided in this part of ISO 4628 show coated steel surfaces which have deteriorated to different degrees by a combination of rust broken through the coating and visible underrust. NOTE 1 The pictorial standards have been selected from the "European rust scale" published by the European Confederation of Paint, Printing Ink and Artists' Colours Manufacturers' Associations (CEPE), Brussels. The correlation between the ISO scale and the "European rust scale" is given in Annex B, Table B.1. NOTE 2 The correlation between the ISO scale and the rating system of ASTM D 610 is given in Annex B, Table B.2. NOTE 3 The rust formation on uncoated steel surfaces is designated in accordance with ISO 8501‑1 (rust grades A, B, C, and D). ISO 4628‑1 defines the system used for designating the quantity and size of defects and the intensity of changes in appearance of coatings and outlines the general principles of the system. This system is intended to be used, in particular, for defects caused by ageing and weathering, and for uniform changes such as colour changes, for example yellowing.

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ISO 4628-2:2016 specifies a method for assessing the degree of blistering of coatings by comparison with pictorial standards. The pictorial standards provided in this part of ISO 4628 illustrate blisters in the sizes 2, 3, 4, and 5, and each size in the quantities (densities) 2, 3, 4, and 5. ISO 4628‑1 defines the system used for designating the quantity and size of defects and the intensity of changes in appearance of coatings and outlines the general principles of the system. This system is intended to be used, in particular, for defects caused by ageing and weathering, and for uniform changes such as colour changes, for example yellowing.

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ISO 4628-10:2016 specifies a method for assessing the amount of filiform corrosion developed from a scribed mark by measuring the length of the longest filament L and the most frequent length M of filaments. Pictorial examples provided in Annex A of this part of ISO 4628 illustrate different ratings for the length of the longest filament L and the most frequent length M of the filaments. A comparison of the test panels with the 12 pictures in Annex A does not supersede the obligatory numerical assessment (method 1 or 2). ISO 4628-1 defines a system used for designating the quantity and size of defects and the intensity of uniform changes in appearance of coatings and outlines the general principles of the system. This system is intended to be used, in particular, for defects caused by ageing and weathering, and for uniform changes such as colour changes, for example yellowing.

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ISO 4628-5:2016 specifies a method for assessing the degree of flaking of coatings by comparison with pictorial standards. ISO 4628‑1 defines the system used for designating the quantity and size of defects and the intensity of changes in appearance of coatings and outlines the general principles of the system. This system is intended to be used, in particular, for defects caused by ageing and weathering, and for uniform changes such as colour changes, for example yellowing.

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ISO 4628-7:2016 specifies a method suitable, in particular, for rating the degree of chalking on white or coloured exterior coatings and coating systems on rough surfaces (i.e. those having a roughness greater than segment 4 of the reference comparator G as described in ISO 8503‑1). The test method specified can also be used for the assessment of the degree of chalking of coatings and coating systems on smooth surfaces, but the method specified in ISO 4628‑6:2011 is preferable for this purpose. The test method is applicable to coatings and coating systems on mineral substrates, e.g. fibre cement, brick, concrete, and renderings, independent of the structure of the surface. The method can be used quite effectively by experienced operators and is recommended for laboratory use as well as for on-site evaluation. NOTE 1 When a reference to this test method is included in specifications, the test conditions (i.e. weathering method and substrate) have to be agreed between the interested parties. NOTE 2 The method described in this part of ISO 4628 is a relative ranking method and is therefore not suitable for use in agreements between parties. See, however, the Note to Table 1. NOTE 3 Refer to ISO 4628‑1 for the designation system for quantity and size of defects and the intensity of changes in appearance of coatings, as well as general principles of the system.

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ISO/TS 19397:2015 describes a method for determining the film thickness of coatings on metallic and non-metallic substrates using an ultrasonic gauge.

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ISO 13803:2014 specifies a test method for determining the haze of coatings. The method is suitable for the haze measurement of non-textures coatings on plane, opaque substrates. The use of the 20° geometry means that the method is closely related to the measurement of gloss at 20° in ISO 2813. The application of this method is intended to give improved differentiation between high-gloss surfaces, for example in the field of assessment of dispersion characteristics.

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ISO 2813:2014 specifies a method for determining the gloss of coatings using the three geometries of 20°, 60° or 85°. The method is suitable for the gloss measurement of non-textured coatings on plane, opaque substrates.

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ISO 16925:2014 specifies a test method for the assessment of the resistance of coatings to pressure water-jetting. The test method simulates the effects pressure water-jetting has on a coating.

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ISO 16927:2014 specifies a method for testing the overcoatability and recoatability of unaged single-coat or multi-coat systems using a coating material which is intended for repairing damaged areas during or after installation. Since the testing of overcoatability and recoatability can be conducted under different conditions, this International Standard only specifies one procedure and indicates the basic parameters. The existing single-coat or multi-coat system is indicated as coating A and the new single-coat or multi-coat system as coating B. The same applies analogously for the respective coating material.

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ISO 16474-3:2013 specifies methods for exposing coatings to fluorescent UV lamps, heat and water in apparatus designed to reproduce the weathering effects that occur when materials are exposed in actual end-use environments to daylight, or to daylight through window glass. The coatings are exposed to different types of fluorescent UV lamps under controlled environmental conditions (temperature, humidity and/or water). Different types of fluorescent UV lamp may be used to meet all the requirements for testing different materials. Specimen preparation and evaluation of the results are covered in other ISO documents for specific materials. General guidance is given in ISO 16474‑1. Fluorescent UV lamp exposures for plastics are described in ISO 4892‑3.

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ISO 16474-1:2013 provides information and general guidance relevant to the selection and operation of the methods of exposure described in detail in subsequent parts. It also describes general performance requirements for devices used for exposing paints and varnishes to laboratory light sources. Information about such performance requirements is required only by producers of artificial accelerated weathering or artificial accelerated irradiation devices. ISO 16474-1:2013 also provides information on the interpretation of data from artificial accelerated weathering or artificial accelerated irradiation exposures.

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