This document specifies methods for measuring beam widths (diameter), divergence angles and beam propagation ratios of laser beams. This document is applicable to general astigmatic beams or unknown types of beams. For stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams, ISO 11146‑1 is applicable. Within this document, the description of laser beams is accomplished by means of the second order moments of the Wigner distribution rather than physical quantities such as beam widths and divergence angles. However, these physical quantities are closely related to the second order moments of the Wigner distribution. In ISO/TR 11146‑3, formulae are given to calculate all relevant physical quantities from the measured second order moments.

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This document specifies methods for measuring beam widths (diameter), divergence angles and beam propagation ratios of laser beams. This document is only applicable for stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams. If the type of the beam is unknown, and for general astigmatic beams, ISO 11146‑2 is applicable.

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This document specifies measurement procedures for the precise determination of the high reflectance or high transmittance (>99 %) of optical laser components. The methods given in this document are intended to be used for the testing and characterization of high reflectance of both concave and plane mirrors or high transmittance of plane windows used in laser systems and laser-based instruments. The reflectance of convex mirrors or transmittance of positive or negative lenses can also be tested by taking into consideration the radius of curvature of the mirror surface or the focal length of the lens. This document is complementary to ISO 15368 which specifies the measurement procedures for the determination of reflectance and transmittance of optical components with spectrophotometry. ISO 15368 is applicable to the measurements of reflectance and transmittance in the range from 0 % to 100 % with a typical accuracy of ±0,3 %, and is therefore not applicable to the precise measurements of reflectance and transmittance higher than 99,9 %.

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This document describes procedures for the determination of the angle resolved scattering by optical components such as coated or uncoated optical elements, photonic structures, and materials that can be transparent, translucent, or opaque. It comprises scattering into the scattering sphere around the specimen usually separated into the backward and forward hemispheres. The procedures apply to wavelengths of radiation ranging from 5 nm in the extreme ultraviolet to 15 µm in the infrared spectral ranges.

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This document specifies a method of testing the laser-induced ignition and damage of medical beam delivery systems to allow checking of suitable products according to the classification system. NOTE 1 Take care when interpreting these results, since the direct applicability of the results of this test method to the clinical situation has not been fully established. NOTE 2 Users of products tested by this method are cautioned that the laser will be wavelength sensitive and tested at the wavelength for which it is intended to be used. If tested using other wavelengths, the power settings and modes of beam delivery need to be explicitly stated. CAUTION — This test method can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document provides advice on minimizing some of the risks associated with its use but does not purport to address all such risks. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document describes laser radiation hazards arising in laser processing machines, as defined in 3.7. It also specifies the safety requirements relating to laser radiation hazards, as well as the information to be supplied by the manufacturers of such equipment (in addition to that prescribed by IEC 60825). Requirements dealing with noise as a hazard from laser processing machines are included in ISO 11553‑3:2013. This document is applicable to machines using laser radiation to process materials. It is not applicable to laser products, or equipment containing such products, which are manufactured solely and expressly for the following applications: — photolithography; — stereolithography; — holography; — medical applications (per IEC 60601-2-22); — data storage.

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This document defines the basic terms for diffractive optical elements for free space propagation. The purpose of this document is to provide an agreed-upon common terminology that reduces ambiguity and misunderstanding and thereby aid in the development of the field of diffractive optics.

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This document specifies procedures and techniques for obtaining comparable values for the absorptance of optical laser components.

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This document defines terms for microlens arrays. It applies to arrays of very small lenses formed inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate. This document also applies to systems of microlens arrays.

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This document defines basic terms, symbols, and units of measurement for the field of laser technology in order to unify the terminology and to arrive at clear definitions and reproducible tests of beam parameters and laser-oriented product properties. NOTE The laser hierarchical vocabulary laid down in this document differs from that given in IEC 60825?1. ISO and IEC have discussed this difference and agree that it reflects the different purposes for which the two standards serve. For more details, see informative Annex A.

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This document specifies methods by which the measurement of power (energy) density distribution is made and defines parameters for the characterization of the spatial properties of laser power (energy)density distribution functions at a given plane. The methods given in this document are intended to be used for the testing and characterization of both continuous wave (cw) and pulsed laser beams used in optics and optical instruments. This document provides definitions of terms and symbols to be used in referring to power density distribution, as well as requirements for its measurement. For pulsed lasers, the distribution of time-integrated power density (i.e. energy density) is the quantity most often measured.

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This document specifies a method of testing the continuous wave (cw) laser resistance of the shaft of a tracheal tube and the cuff regions including the inflation system of tracheal tubes designed to resist ignition by a laser. NOTE 1 When interpreting these results, the attention of the user is drawn to the fact that the direct applicability of the results of this test method to the clinical situation has not been fully established. NOTE 2 The attention of the users of products tested by this method is drawn to the fact that the laser will be wavelength sensitive and tested at the wavelength for which it is intended to be used. If tested using other wavelengths, explicitly state the power settings and modes of delivery. CAUTION — This test method can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document provides advice on minimizing some of the risks associated with its use but does not purport to address all such risks. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document describes methods of measuring temperature and injected current dependence of lasing wavelengths, and lasing spectral line width in relation to semiconductor lasers for sensing applications. This document is applicable to all kinds of semiconductor lasers, such as edge-emitting type and vertical cavity surface emitting type lasers, bulk-type and (strained) quantum well lasers, and quantum cascade lasers, used for optical sensing in e.g. industrial, medical and agricultural fields.

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ISO 11554:2017 specifies test methods for determining the power and energy of continuous wave and pulsed laser beams, as well as their temporal characteristics of pulse shape, pulse duration and pulse repetition rate. Test and evaluation methods are also given for the power stability of cw-lasers, energy stability of pulsed lasers and pulse duration stability. The test methods given in this document are used for the testing and characterization of lasers.

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ISO/TR 20811:2017 describes the setup, test procedure and analysis of measured data for investigation of laser-induced molecular contamination (LIMC) for space and vacuum applications. LIMC is the formation of depositions on optical surfaces due to interaction of intense light radiation with outgassing molecules especially from organic materials. It is a phenomenon of molecular contamination and it is distinguished from particle contamination, which can occur during manufacturing, assembly, integration or test of the optical components. Formation of laser-induced depositions can lead to deterioration of the performance of an optical system. Phase distortion, scattering and absorption can be increased by LIMC. LIMC is of particular relevance, if a laser system is operated in vacuum at short wavelength and short pulse duration. In such a case, even small partial pressure of contamination material in the range of 10−5 hPa could have strong negative impact on optical performance. It was also shown that the laser-induced damage threshold could be reduced by a factor of 10 and more if laser-induced depositions are involved. Laser-induced molecular contamination and laser-induced damage are both phenomena, for which the interaction of laser radiation with optical surfaces plays a major role, in case of LIMC with additional molecular contamination. Therefore, ISO/TR 20811:2017 is treated in relation to ISO 21254 (all parts) which specifies the test methods for the determination of laser-induced damage thresholds. This method was derived to evaluate qualitatively, whether the material under investigation causes deposits on optical surfaces in a low-pressure environment in the presence of high-energy nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation at a wavelength of 355 nm. Due to the nature of photochemical surface reactions, this result cannot be directly transferred to scenarios where the properties of the irradiation are altered (especially wavelength, repetition rate, pulse duration, etc.). Due to the non-linear growth of the laser-induced contamination and its detection methods, this technique does not provide quantitative means to evaluate the deposit and, therefore, it should be seen as a means to compare materials relatively with respect to their laser-induced contamination behaviour. Furthermore, it is out of the scope of this method to select representative quantities of contamination materials - representative with respect to the material partial pressure present in the vicinity of the optical surface in a real laser system. This is carefully derived with other methods and is a mandatory parameter to be fixed before applying this method.

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ISO 11810:2015 is applicable to disposable and reusable, as well as woven and non-woven materials used as surgical drapes and other patient-protective covers which claim to be laser-resistant. The purpose of this International Standard is to provide a standardized method for testing and classifying surgical drapes and other patient-protective covers with respect to laser-induced hazards. An appropriate classification system is given. It is not the purpose of this International Standard to serve as a general fire safety specification, and as such, this International Standard does not cover other sources of ignition. All materials reflect portions of the beam and it is necessary for the user to decide whether specular reflectance can be a hazard. This measurement, however, is not covered in this International Standard. The test procedure can be used to assess the laser induced flammability properties of non-laser-resistant items NOTE Users of products tested by this method are cautioned that the laser resistance of a surgical drape and/or patient-protective cover will be wavelength sensitive and that a surgical drape and/or patient-protective cover are better tested at the wavelength for which it is intended to be used. If tested using other wavelengths, it is necessary to explicitly state the power settings and modes of delivery.

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ISO 17901-1:2015 specifies the terms related to optical characteristics of holograms, the method to measure their diffraction efficiency, and the angular and wavelength selectivity measurement methods. These measurement methods are applicable to any type of hologram if the hologram yields a simple diffraction pattern, which means the reconstructed wave can be clearly separated from other diffracted and non-diffracted waves. In other words, holograms that yield complex diffraction patterns are excluded. There are no restrictions on the materials used to form the holograms.

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ISO 13142:2015 specifies measurement procedures for the precise determination of the high reflectance of optical laser components. Up to now, the ISO standardized testing methods for reflectance of optical laser components have the accuracy limit of approximately 0,01 % (for measurement of absolute reflectance) which are not appropriate for measuring the reflectance higher than 99,99 % or, in some cases, measurement accuracy better than 0,01 % is required. The range of application of this standardized test method is reflectance 99 % and higher (theoretically up to 100 %). The methods given in ISO 13142:2015 are intended to be used for the testing and characterization of high reflectance of both concave and plane mirrors used in laser systems and laser-based instruments. The reflectance of convex mirrors can also be tested by taking into consideration the radius of curvature of the mirror surface.

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ISO 17901-2:2015 specifies the terms and measurement method concerning exposure characteristics (exposure characteristic curve, exposure at half-maximum, R-value, amplitude of refractive index modulation) for the hologram recorded by double-beam interference. The materials of hologram to be measured are not restricted to any particular ones. ISO 17901-2:2015 does not intend to restrict manufacturing process.

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ISO 11151-2:2015 specifies requirements for laser components used from near-infrared to mid-infrared, from wavelengths 2,1 µm to 15,0 µm, and facilitates the supply of spare parts by specifying preferred dimensions and tolerances, thereby reducing the variety of types, by standardizing the specifications and removing barriers to trade, and by establishing an agreed designation for item orders. ISO 11151-2:2015 covers planar, plano-spherical, and spherical substrates, lenses, and optical components that are designed specifically as standardized optical components normally offered through a catalogue from suppliers and intended for use with lasers. ISO 11151-2:2015 includes component descriptions, materials employed, physical dimensions, and manufacturing tolerances (including surface finish, figure, and parallelism). Although most, but not all of these components will be coated (fully reflecting, partially reflecting, or anti-reflecting) before incorporation into the laser system, ISO 11151-2:2015 does not include recommendations for the specification of coatings.

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ISO 11151-1:2015 specifies requirements for laser components used in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared spectral ranges, from wavelengths 170 nm to 2 100 nm, and facilitates the supply of spare parts by specifying preferred dimensions and tolerances, thereby reducing the variety of types, by standardizing the specifications and removing barriers to trade, and by establishing an agreed designation for item orders. ISO 11151-1:2015 covers planar, plano-spherical and spherical substrates, lenses, and optical components that are designed specifically as standardized optical components normally offered through a catalogue from suppliers and intended for use with lasers. ISO 11151-1:2015 includes component descriptions, materials employed, physical dimensions, and manufacturing tolerances (including surface finish, figure, and parallelism). Although most, but not all, of these components are coated (fully reflecting, partially reflecting or anti-reflecting) before incorporation into the laser system, ISO 11151-1:2015 does not include recommendations for the specification of coatings.

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ISO 11252:2013 specifies the minimum documentation, marking and labelling for all laser products classified in accordance with IEC 60825-1 including laser diodes and all laser devices defined in ISO 11145. It is applicable to laser systems being integrated in a laser product in accordance with IEC 60825-1 and laser devices being integrated in a laser unit or processing machine in accordance with ISO 11553-1 and ISO 11553-2. ISO 11252:2013 specifies requirements for technical data sheets and information for the user. The requirements in ISO 11252:2013 augment but do not supersede any of the requirements in IEC 60825-1.

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ISO/IEC 11553-3:2013 describes the requirements to deal with noise hazards and specifies all the information necessary to carry out efficiently and under standardized conditions the determination, declaration and verification of airborne noise emission from laser processing machines and hand-held laser processing devices within the scope of ISO/IEC 11553-1 and ISO/IEC 11553-2. It specifies the safety requirements relating to noise hazards. It specifies noise measurement methods, installation and operating conditions to be used for the test, together with the information to be supplied by manufacturers of such equipment. ISO/IEC 11553-3:2013 applies to those laser processing machines and hand-held laser processing devices included in the scope of ISO/IEC 11553-1 and ISO/IEC 11553-2. Noise emission characteristics include emission sound pressure levels at work stations and the sound power level. Declared noise emission values permit comparison of laser processing machines and hand-held laser processing devices on the market. The use of this noise test code (see Annex A) ensures the reproducibility of the determination of the characteristic noise emission values within specific limits. These limits are determined by the accuracy grade of the noise emission measuring method used. Noise emission measurements specified by ISO/IEC 11553-3:2013 meet the requirements of an engineering method (accuracy grade 2).

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ISO/TR 21254-4:2011 describes techniques for the inspection and detection of laser-induced damage on optical surfaces and in the bulk of optical components.

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ISO 21254-2:2011 describes 1-on-1 and S-on-1 tests for the determination of the laser-induced damage threshold of optical laser components. It is applicable to all types of laser and all operating conditions.

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ISO 21254-1:2011 defines terms used in conjunction with, and the general principles of, test methods for determining the laser-induced damage threshold and for the assurance of optical laser components subjected to laser radiation.

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ISO 21254-3:2011 specifies two methods of verifying the power density (energy density) handling capability of optical surfaces. The first method provides a rigorous test that fulfils the requirements at a specified confidence level in the knowledge of potential defects. The second method provides a simple, and hence inexpensive, test for an empirically derived test level.

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ISO/TR 14880-5:2010 gives guidelines for the testing of microlenses. It applies to microlenses in arrays where very small lenses are formed inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate. ISO/TR 14880-5:2010 addresses the measurement of optical and geometrical properties of single microlenses as well as microlens arrays. When testing a microlens or microlens array, the test method is selected according to the parameters to be measured, the size and structure of the microlens and its application. ISO/TR 14880-5:2010 guides the user to select the appropriate measurement method from the available ISO standards.

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ISO 11553-2:2007 specifies the requirements for laser processing devices, as defined in ISO 11553-1, which are hand-held or hand-operated. The purpose of ISO 11553-2:2007 is to draw attention to the particular hazards related to the use of hand-held laser and hand-operated laser processing devices and to prevent personal injury. This includes both the areas of hazard analysis and risk assessment as well as protective measures.

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ISO 24013:2006 specifies test methods for the determination of the optical phase retardation of optical components by polarized laser beams.

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ISO 14880-4:2006 specifies methods for testing geometrical properties of microlenses in microlens arrays. It is applicable to microlens arrays with very small lenses formed on one or more surfaces of a common substrate and to graded index microlenses.

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ISO 14880-3:2006 specifies methods for testing optical properties, other than wavefront aberrations, of microlenses in microlens arrays. It is applicable to microlens arrays with very small lenses formed on one or more surfaces of a common substrate and to graded index microlenses.

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ISO 13697:2006 specifies measurement procedures for the precise determination of the specular reflectance and regular transmittance of optical laser components. The accuracy of the described test methods exceeds that of measurement procedures outlined in ISO 15368 by several orders of magnitude.

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ISO 14880-2:2006 specifies methods for testing wavefront aberrations for microlenses within microlens arrays. It is applicable to microlens arrays with very small lenses formed inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate.

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ISO/TR 22588:2005 specifies standard measurement and evaluation techniques for determining the absorption-induced effects caused by lasers in laser optical components in order to provide useful information to reduce conflict between users and suppliers of optical components.

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ISO 15367-2:2005 specifies methods for measurement and evaluation of the wavefront distribution function in a transverse plane of a laser beam utilizing Hartmann or Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors. ISO 15367-2:2005 is applicable to fully coherent, partially coherent and general astigmatic laser beams, both for pulsed and continuous operation. Furthermore, reliable numerical methods for both zonal and modal reconstruction of the two-dimensional wavefront distribution together with their uncertainty are described. The knowledge of the wavefront distribution enables the determination of several wavefront parameters that are defined in ISO 15367-1.

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ISO 11146-2:2005 specifies methods for measuring beam widths (diameter), divergence angles and beam propagation ratios of laser beams. ISO 11146-2:2005 is applicable to general astigmatic beams or unknown types of beams. For stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams, ISO 11146-1 is applicable. Within ISO 11146-2:2005, the description of laser beams is accomplished by means of the second order moments of the Wigner distribution rather than physical quantities such as beam widths and divergence angles. However these physical quantities are closely related to the second order moments of the Wigner distribution. In ISO/TR 11146-3, formulae are given to calculate all relevant physical quantities from the measured second order moments.

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ISO 11146-1:2005 specifies methods for measuring beam widths (diameter), divergence angles and beam propagation ratios of laser beams. ISO 11146-1:2005 is only applicable for stigmatic and simple astigmatic beams. If the type of the beam is unknown and for general astigmatic beams ISO 11146-2 is applicable.

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ISO 13695:2004 specifies methods by which the spectral characteristics such as wavelength, bandwidth, spectral distribution and wavelength stability of a laser beam can be measured. ISO 13695:2004 is applicable to both continuous wave (cw) and pulsed laser beams. The dependence of the spectral characteristics of a laser on its operating conditions may also be important.

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ISO/TR 11146-3:2004 specifies methods for measuring beam widths (diameter), divergence angles and beam propagation ratios of laser beams in support of ISO 11146-1. It provides the theoretical description of laser beam characterization based on the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution, including geometrical and intrinsic beam characterization, and offers important details for proper background subtraction methods recommendable for matrix detectors such as CCD cameras. It also presents alternative methods for the characterization of stigmatic or simple astigmatic beams that are applicable where matrix detectors are unavailable or deliver unsatisfying results.

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ISO 15367-1:2003 specifies methods for the measurement of the topography of the wavefront of a laser beam by measurement and interpretation of the spatial distribution of the phase of that wavefront across a plane approximately perpendicular to its direction of propagation. Requirements are given for the measurement and analysis of phase distribution data to provide quantitative wavefront parameters and their uncertainty in a test report. The methods described in ISO 15367-1:2003 are applicable to the testing and characterization of a wide range of beam types from both continuous wave and pulsed lasers. Definitions of parameters describing wavefront deformations are given together with methods for the determination of those parameters from phase distribution measurements.

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ISO 17526:2003 covers terms and definitions as well as test methods and evaluation procedures to characterize, estimate and predict the longterm behaviour of various types of lasers. It defines terms for the lifetime of lasers and specifies test procedures and fundamental aspects for the determination of lifetime. It applies for all types of lasers for which lifetime is a critical issue, including diode lasers except those used in telecommunications.

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ISO 11670:2003 specifies methods for determining laser beam positional as well as angular stability. The test methods given in ISO 11670:2003 are intended to be used for the testing and characterization of lasers.

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ISO 12005:2003 specifies a method for determining the polarization status and, whenever possible, the degree of polarization of the beam from a continuous wave (cw) laser. It can also be applied to repetitively pulsed lasers, if their electric field vector orientation does not change from pulse to pulse. ISO 12005:2003 also specifies the method for determining the direction of the plane of oscillation in the case of linearly polarized (totally or partially) laser beams. It is assumed that the laser radiation is quasi-monochromatic and sufficiently stable for the purpose of the measurement. The knowledge of the polarization status can be very important for some applications of lasers with a high divergence angle, for instance when the beam of such a laser shall be coupled with polarization dependent devices (e.g. polarization maintaining fibres). ISO 12005:2003 also specifies a method for the determination of the state of polarization of highly divergent laser beams, as well as for the measurement of beams with large apertures.

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ISO 13696:2002 specifies procedures for the determination of the total scattering by coated and uncoated optical surfaces. Procedures are given for measuring the contributions of the forward scattering and backward scattering to the total scattering of an optical component. ISO 13696:2002 applies to coated and uncoated optical components with optical surfaces that have a radius of curvature of more than 10 m. The wavelength range includes the ultraviolet, the visible and the infrared spectral regions.

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ISO 14880-1:2016 defines terms for microlens arrays. It applies to microlens arrays which consist of arrays of very small lenses formed inside or on one or more surfaces of a common substrate and systems. The aim of ISO 14880-1:2016 is to improve the compatibility and interchangeability of lens arrays from different suppliers and to enhance the development of technology using microlens arrays.

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