Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another (ISO 16993:2016)

ISO 16993:2016 gives formulae which allow analytical data relating to solid biofuels to be expressed on the different bases in common use. Consideration is given to corrections that can be applied to certain determined values for solid biofuels prior to their calculation to other bases.
In Annex A, tools for integrity checks of analytical results are given. In Annex B, conversion factors for calculation into other units are given. Annex C is a guideline for the use of validation parameters as can be found in ISO/TC 238 analytical standards.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Umwandlung von Analysenergebnissen einer Bezugsbasis in Ergebnisse mit anderer Bezugsbasis (ISO 16993:2016)

Diese Internationale Norm stellt Gleichungen zur Verfügung, die es ermöglichen, auf biogene Festbrennstoffe bezogene Analysendaten hinsichtlich der verschiedenen, allgemein gebräuchlichen Bezugsbasen anzugeben. Es werden Korrektionen berücksichtigt, die auf gewisse bestimmte Werte für biogene Festbrennstoffe vor deren Berechnung auf anderen Bezugsbasen angewendet werden können.
Im Anhang A sind Instrumente für Integritätsprüfungen von Analysenergebnissen angegeben. Im Anhang B sind Umrechnungsfaktoren zur Berechnung in andere Einheiten angeführt. Der Anhang C ist ein Leitfaden für die Anwendung von Validierungsparametern, wie sie in Analysennormen vom ISO/TC 238 zu finden sind.

Biocombustibles solides - Conversion de résultats analytiques d'une base en une autre base (ISO 16993:2016)

L'ISO 16993 :2016 fournit les formules permettant aux données analytiques relatives aux biocombustibles solides d'être exprimées sur différentes bases communément utilisées. Il faut prendre en considération les corrections qui peuvent s'appliquer à certaines valeurs déterminées pour les biocombustibles solides avant de procéder à des calculs sur d'autres bases.
L'Annexe A donne des outils destinés aux vérifications d'intégrité des résultats analytiques. L'Annexe B donne les facteurs de conversion pour un calcul dans d'autres unités. L'Annexe C est une directive d'utilisation des paramètres de validation tels qu'ils peuvent être trouvés dans les normes analytiques de l'ISO/TC 238.

Trdna biogoriva - Preračun analiznih rezultatov na različne osnove (ISO 16993:2016)

Ta mednarodni standard podaja formule, ki omogočajo izražanje analiznih podatkov v zvezi s trdnimi biogorivi na različnih osnovah, ki se pogosto uporabljajo. Obravnavani so popravki, ki se lahko uporabijo za določene ugotovljene vrednosti za trdna biogoriva pred izračunom na druge osnove. V dodatku A so podana orodja za preverjanje integritete analiznih rezultatov. V dodatku B so podani faktorji pretvorbe za izračun v druge enote. Dodatek C je smernica za uporabo parametrov potrjevanja, kot so navedeni v analiznih standardih ISO/TC 238.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Jul-2016
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
27-Jul-2016
Completion Date
27-Jul-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
01-oktober-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 16993:2015
7UGQDELRJRULYD3UHUDþXQDQDOL]QLKUH]XOWDWRYQDUD]OLþQHRVQRYH ,62

Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one basis to another (ISO
16993:2016)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Umwandlung von Analysenergebnissen einer Bezugsbasis in

Ergebnisse mit anderer Bezugsbasis (ISO 16993:2016)

Biocombustibles solides - Conversion de résultats analytiques d'une base en une autre

base (ISO 16993:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 16993:2016
ICS:
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 16993:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
EN ISO 16993
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10; 27.190 Supersedes EN ISO 16993:2015
English Version
Solid biofuels - Conversion of analytical results from one
basis to another (ISO 16993:2016)

Biocombustibles solides - Conversion de résultats Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Umwandlung von

analytiques d'une base en une autre base (ISO Analysenergebnissen einer Bezugsbasis in Ergebnisse

16993:2016) mit anderer Bezugsbasis (ISO 16993:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 June 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 16993:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
EN ISO 16993:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
EN ISO 16993:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 16993:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 "Solid

biofuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN ISO 16993:2015.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 16993:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 16993:2016 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16993
Second edition
2016-07-01
Solid biofuels — Conversion of
analytical results from one basis to
another
Biocombustibles solides — Conversion de résultats analytiques d’une
base en une autre base
Reference number
ISO 16993:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
ISO 16993:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
ISO 16993:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Calculations for analyses of solid biofuels ................................................................................................................................. 2

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2 Extra calculations for hydrogen, oxygen, and net calorific value ................................................................ 2

5.2.1 Hydrogen ................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2.2 Oxygen ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.2.3 Net calorific value ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 General formulae for the conversion from one basis to another basis................................................... 3

Annex A (informative) Tools for integrity check ...................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex B (informative) Tables with units and conversion factors .......................................................................................... 7

Annex C (informative) Guideline for the use of validation parameters ........................................................................... 8

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
ISO 16993:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 16993:2015), of which it constitutes a

minor revision.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
ISO 16993:2016(E)
Introduction

In the International Standards covering the analysis of solid biofuels, it is generally specified that the

determination is intended to be carried out on the air-dried or in air-equilibrated general analysis test

sample prepared according to ISO 14780. However, in making use of these analyses, it is necessary to

express the results on dry basis and sometimes, also on some other basis. The bases in common use for

solid biofuels are “air-dried” (sometimes stated as “as determined”), “as received” (sometimes stated

“as sampled” or “as delivered”), “dry”, and “dry, ash free”.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16993:2016(E)
Solid biofuels — Conversion of analytical results from one
basis to another
1 Scope

This International Standard gives formulae which allow analytical data relating to solid biofuels to

be expressed on the different bases in common use. Consideration is given to corrections that can be

applied to certain determined values for solid biofuels prior to their calculation to other bases.

In Annex A, tools for integrity checks of analytical results are given. In Annex B, conversion factors for

calculation into other units are given. Annex C is a guideline for the use of validation parameters as can

be found in ISO/TC 238 analytical standards.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 16948:2015, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen

ISO 16994, Solid biofuels — Determination of total content of sulphur and chlorine

ISO 18122, Solid biofuels — Determination of ash content
ISO 18125 , Solid biofuels — Determination of calorific value

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified method

ISO 18134-3, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 3: Moisture

in general analysis sample
3 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The symbols employed in the subsequent clauses are as follows, with the suffixes “ad” (air-dried), “ar”

(as received), “d” (dry), and “daf” (dry, ash free), where appropriate.
A ash (percentage by mass) according to ISO 18122
C total carbon content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 16948
Cl total chlorine content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 16994
q net calorific value at constant pressure (J/g) according to ISO 18125
p,net
H total hydrogen content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 16948
1) To be published.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 16993:2016
ISO 16993:2016(E)

M moisture content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 18134-1, ISO 18134-2, and

ISO 18134-3
N total nitrogen content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 16948
O total oxygen content (percentage by mass)
S total sulfur content (percentage by mass) according to ISO 16994
4 Principle

In order to convert an analytical result expressed as one basis to another basis, it is multiplied by a

factor calculated from the appropriate formulae (see Table 1), after insertion of the requisite numerical

values into the formula in question.
5 Calculations for analyses of solid biofuels
5.1 General

Most analytical values on a particular basis can be converted to any other basis by multiplying it by a

factor calculated from the appropriate formula given in Table 1, after insertion of the requisite numerical

values into the formula in question. However, for some parameters, there is a direct involvement of the

moisture content. In these cases, a correction (as specified in 5.2) of the air-dried result shall be carried

out before calculation to dry basis or dry, ash-free b
...

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