Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 1: Design principles and framework (ISO 14915-1:2002)

ISO 14915-1:2002 establishes design principles for multimedia user interfaces and provides a framework for handling the different considerations involved in their design. It addresses user interfaces for applications that incorporate, integrate and synchronize different media. This includes static media such as text, graphics or images, and dynamic media such as audio, animation, video or media related to other sensory modalities. Detailed design issues within a single medium (e.g. the graphical design of an animation sequence) are only addressed as far as they imply ergonomic consequences for the user.
ISO 14915-1:2002 gives requirements and recommendations for the ergonomic design of multimedia applications mainly intended for professional and vocational activities such as work or learning. It does not specifically address applications outside this area, such as entertainment, although some recommendations can also be applicable in such domains.
ISO 14915-1:2002 is applicable to software aspects related to multimedia user interfaces and does not address hardware or implementation issues. The ergonomic requirements and recommendations described in ISO 14915-1:2002 can be realized through very different techniques, e.g. the delivery system, a scripting language, or the application.
The focus of ISO 14915-1:2002 is on multimedia presentation issues. Multimodal input which uses different media such as speech in combination with pointing for entering information is not considered in the recommendations provided.

Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzungsschnittstellen - Teil 1: Gestaltungsgrundsätze und Rahmenbedingungen (ISO 14915-1:2002)

Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 legt Gestaltungsgrundsätze für Multimedia-Benutzungsschnittstellen fest und liefert Rahmenbedingungen für den Umgang mit verschiedenen Fragen, die bei der Gestaltung zu berücksichtigen sind. Behandelt werden Benutzungsschnittstellen für Anwendungen, die verschiedene Medien enthalten, integrieren und synchronisieren. Dies umfasst statische Medien wie Texte, Grafiken und Bilder sowie dynamische Medien wie Audio, Animation, Video und weitere Medien, die spezifische sensorische Modalitäten ansprechen. Detaillierte Gestaltungsfragen innerhalb eines einzelnen Mediums werden nur soweit angesprochen, wie sie ergonomische Folgen für den Benutzer haben.
Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 legt Anforderungen fest und gibt Empfehlungen für die ergonomische Gestaltung von Multimedia-Anwendungen, die hauptsächlich für fachliche oder berufliche Tätigkeiten wie Arbeit oder Lernen vorgesehen sind. Sie behandelt keine speziellen Anwendungen außerhalb dieses Bereiches, wie z. B. Anwendungen zu Unterhaltungszwecken, obwohl einige Empfehlungen auch für diese Anwendungsbereiche genutzt werden können.
Dieser Teil der ISO 14915 gilt für Software-Aspekte, die auf Multimedia-Benutzungsschnittstellen bezogen sind, und gilt nicht für Hardware- oder Implementierungsfragen. Die in diesem Teil der ISO 14915 beschriebenen ergonomischen Anforderungen und Empfehlungen können mit sehr unterschiedlichen Techniken verwirklicht werden, z. B. dem Übermittlungssystem, einer Scriptsprache oder der Anwendung.
Der Schwerpunkt dieses Teils der ISO 14915 sind Fragen der Multimedia-Darstellung; die multimodale Eingabe, die unterschiedliche Medien verwendet, wie Sprache in Verbindung mit dem Zeigen auf die eingegebene Information, wird in den angegebenen Empfehlungen nicht behandelt.

Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateurs multimedias - Partie 1: Principes et cadre de conception (ISO 14915-1:2002)

L'ISO 14915-1:2002 établit des principes de conception pour les interfaces utilisateur multimédias et fournit un cadre pour la manipulation des différentes considérations impliquées dans leur conception. Elle traite des interfaces utilisateur des applications qui incorporent, intègrent et synchronisent différents médias. Ceci inclut les médias statiques tels que texte, graphique, image, et les médias dynamiques tels que son, animation, vidéo ou des médias liés à d'autres modalités sensorielles. Les sujets de conception détaillés pour un médium unique (par exemple la conception graphique d'une séquence d'animation) ne sont traités que dans la mesure où ils impliquent des conséquences ergonomiques pour l'utilisateur.
L'ISO 14915-1:2002 fournit des exigences et recommandations pour la conception ergonomique des applications multimédias principalement destinées aux activités professionnelles et spécialisées telles que le travail ou l'apprentissage. Elle ne traite pas spécifiquement des applications en dehors de ce domaine telles que le divertissement, bien que certaines recommandations puissent également être applicables à ces domaines.
L'ISO 14915-1:2002 est applicable aux aspects logiciels liés aux interfaces utilisateur multimédias et ne traite pas des questions liées au matériel ou à la mise en oeuvre. Les exigences et recommandations ergonomiques décrites dans l'ISO 14915-1:2002 peuvent être satisfaites par le biais de techniques très différentes, par exemple le système cible, un langage de script ou l'application.
L'ISO 14915-1:2002 se concentre sur les questions de présentation multimédia. L'entrée multimodale qui utilise différents médias tels que la parole en combinaison avec le pointage pour entrer les informations n'est pas prise en considération dans les recommandations fournies.

Ergonomija programske opreme za večpredstavnostne uporabniške vmesnike – 1. del: Načela in območja načrtovanja (ISO 14915-1:2002)

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Publication Date
31-Oct-2002
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9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
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10-Jun-2008
Completion Date
10-Jun-2008

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzungsschnittstellen - Teil 1: Gestaltungsgrundsätze und Rahmenbedingungen (ISO 14915-1:2002)Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateurs multimedias - Partie 1: Principes et cadre de conception (ISO 14915-1:2002)Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 1: Design principles and framework (ISO 14915-1:2002)35.200Vmesniška in povezovalna opremaInterface and interconnection equipment13.180ErgonomijaErgonomicsICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN ISO 14915-1:2002SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003en01-julij-2003SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003SLOVENSKI

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SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN ISO 14915-1November 2002ICS 13.180; 35.200English versionSoftware ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces - Part 1:Design principles and framework (ISO 14915-1:2002)Ergonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateursmultimedias - Partie 1: Principes et cadre de conception(ISO 14915-1:2002)Software-Ergonomie für Multimedia-Benutzungsschnittstellen - Teil 1: Gestaltungsgrundsätzeund Rahmenbedingungen (ISO 14915-1:2002)This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 October 2002.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2002 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN ISO 14915-1:2002 ESIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

EN ISO 14915-1:2002 (E)2CORRECTED

2002-12-18ForewordThis document (EN ISO 14915-1:2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 159"Ergonomics" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 122 "Ergonomics", thesecretariat of which is held by DIN.This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication ofan identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2003, and conflicting national standardsshall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2003.According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations ofthe following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, CzechRepublic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.Endorsement noticeThe text of ISO 14915-1:2002 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14915-1:2002 without anymodifications.NOTE

Normative references to International Standards are listed in Annex ZA (normative).SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

EN ISO 14915-1:2002 (E)3Annex ZA(normative)Normative references to international publicationswith their relevant European publicationsThis European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from otherpublications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and thepublications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions ofany of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it byamendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred toapplies (including amendments).NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicatedby (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.PublicationYearTitleENYearISO 9241-101996Ergonomic requirements foroffice work with visual displayterminals (VDTs) - Part 10:Dialogue principlesEN ISO 9241-101996ISO 9241-111998Ergonomic requirements foroffice work with visual displayterminals (VDTs) - Part 11:Guidance on usabilityEN ISO 9241-111998ISO 134071999Human-centred design processesfor interactive systemsEN ISO 134071999SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

INTERNATIONALSTANDARDISO14915-1First edition2002-11-01Reference numberISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces—Part1:Design principles and frameworkErgonomie des logiciels pour les interfaces utilisateur multimédias—Partie1: Principes et cadre de conception

SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)ii© ISO2002–All rights reservedPDF disclaimerThis PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shall not beedited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In downloading this file,parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat accepts no liability in this area.Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation parameterswere optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In the unlikely eventthat a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.©ISO2002All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO'smember body in the country of the requester.ISO copyright officeCase postale 56  CH-1211 Geneva 20Tel.+ 41 22 749 01 11Fax+ 41 22 749 09 47E-mailcopyright@iso.chWebwww.iso.chPrinted in SwitzerlandSIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002–All rights reservediiiContents Page1Scope ............................................................................................................................................................... 12Normative references ....................................................................................................................................... 13Terms and definitions ........................................................................................................................................ 24Application of ISO14915 .................................................................................................................................. 24.1Intended user groups ..................................................................................................................................... 24.2Applying the recommendations ..................................................................................................................... 34.3Reporting conformance to parts of ISO14915 .............................................................................................. 35Design goals and principles .............................................................................................................................. 35.1Design goals .................................................................................................................................................. 35.2Multimedia design principles ......................................................................................................................... 35.2.1General ....................................................................................................................................................... 35.2.2Dialogue principles ..................................................................................................................................... 45.2.3Multimedia specific design principles ......................................................................................................... 45.2.4Suitability for the communication goal ........................................................................................................ 55.2.5Suitability for perception and understanding .............................................................................................. 55.2.6Suitability for exploration ............................................................................................................................. 75.2.7Suitability for engagement .......................................................................................................................... 86Design considerations ...................................................................................................................................... 86.1General .......................................................................................................................................................... 86.2Content design .............................................................................................................................................. 96.2.1General ....................................................................................................................................................... 96.2.2Analysing the communication goal ............................................................................................................. 96.2.3Structuring content ..................................................................................................................................... 96.3Interaction design .......................................................................................................................................... 96.3.1General ....................................................................................................................................................... 96.3.2Navigation ................................................................................................................................................... 96.3.3Media control and interaction ................................................................................................................... 106.3.4Dialogue interaction .................................................................................................................................. 106.4Media design ............................................................................................................................................... 107Design and development process .................................................................................................................. 107.1General ........................................................................................................................................................ 107.2Analysis ....................................................................................................................................................... 117.3Conceptual design ....................................................................................................................................... 117.4Content, interaction and media design ........................................................................................................ 117.5Prototyping .................................................................................................................................................. 117.6Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................... 11Bibliography........................................................................................................................................................... 12SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)iv© ISO2002–All rights reservedForewordISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISOmember bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technicalcommittees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established hasthe right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, inliaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International ElectrotechnicalCommission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part3.Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75% of the member bodies casting a vote.Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO14915 may be the subject of patentrights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.International Standard ISO14915-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC159, Ergonomics, SubcommitteeSC4, Ergonomics of human-system interaction.ISO14915 consists of the following parts, under the general title Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces: —Part1:Design principles and framework—Part2:Multimedia navigation and control—Part3:Media selection and combinationSIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002–All rights reservedvIntroductionThe design of user interfaces for multimedia applications typically involves a much wider range of design andevaluation issues than that of conventional user interfaces based only in textual and graphical format. Many differenttechniques and design options are available. Multimedia user interfaces incorporate, integrate and synchronizedifferent media (static media such as text, graphics, images, and dynamic media such as audio, animation, video orother sensory modalities). Within each medium, further distinctions can be made. Graphics, for instance, can bepresented either in two- or three-dimensional representation and audio can be further categorized according to thelevel of sound quality or with respect to mono, stereo or surround sound.Ergonomic design enhances the ability of users to operate multimedia applications effectively, efficiently and withsatisfaction (see ISO9241-11). This can be achieved by careful design of multimedia applications with respect touser characteristics, the different tasks they are intended to fulfil (e.g. for work, education or performance support)and the environment in which the system will be used. An ergonomic design of multimedia user interfaces can alsoimprove the safety of operating a system (e.g. delivering an alarm both in visual and auditory media).The range of media available and the interaction of different media have a variety of perceptual, cognitive and otherergonomic implications for the users. Specific characteristics of multimedia are the potentially high perceptual load,the structural and semantic complexity, or the large volume of information to be conveyed through the system.Multimedia applications are often used for communicative purposes. Manipulation of data or information presented inmultimedia applications is also often part of the user's activity.ISO14915 provides requirements and recommendations on the ergonomic design of multimedia software-userinterfaces. ISO14915 is not intended to provide detailed guidance for the design using only a single medium. It doesnot, therefore, describe how to design an effective graphical animation or how to cut a particular video sequence.This part of ISO14915 addresses design issues related to the user interface of multimedia applications, such as theconceptual structure of the interface, the selection and integration of media, user navigation or the controls used forinteracting with the different media. The range of applications addressed includes stand-alone and network-deliveredapplications of various sizes and degrees of complexity (e.g. from a single web page to a complex catalogue or aninteractive simulation).ISO14915 consists of the following parts.a)Part1: Design principles and frameworkPart1 establishes design principles for multimedia user interfaces and provides a framework for multimediadesign. The principles are introduced in order to provide the basis for detailed multimedia-specificrecommendations described in the other parts of ISO14915. General recommendations on the process ofdesigning multimedia user interfaces are given.b)Part2: Multimedia navigation and controlPart2 provides recommendations for media control and navigation in multimedia applications. Media control ismainly concerned with functions for controlling dynamic media such as audio or video. Navigation refers to theconceptual structure of the multimedia application and the user's interactions needed in order to move in thatstructure. It also includes recommendations for searching multimedia material.c)Part3: Media selection and combinationPart3 provides recommendations for the selection of media with respect to the communication goal or the task,as well as with respect to the information's characteristics. It also provides guidance for combining differentmedia. In addition, it includes recommendations for integrating multimedia components in viewing and readingsequences.SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002–All rights reserved1Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces—Part1:Design principles and framework1ScopeThis part of ISO14915 establishes design principles for multimedia user interfaces and provides a framework forhandling the different considerations involved in their design. It addresses user interfaces for applications thatincorporate, integrate and synchronize different media. This includes static media such as text, graphics, or images,and dynamic media such as audio, animation, video or media related to other sensory modalities. Detailed designissues within a single medium (e.g. the graphical design of an animation sequence) are only addressed as far as theyimply ergonomic consequences for the user.This part of ISO14915 gives requirements and recommendations for the ergonomic design of multimediaapplications mainly intended for professional and vocational activities such as work or learning. It does notspecifically address applications outside this area such as entertainment, although some recommendations can alsobe applicable in such domains.This part of ISO14915 is applicable to software aspects related to multimedia user interfaces and does not addresshardware or implementation issues. The ergonomic requirements and recommendations described in this part ofISO14915 can be realized through very different techniques, e.g. the delivery system, a scripting language, or theapplication.The focus of this part of ISO14915 is on multimedia presentation issues. Multimodal input which uses differentmedia such as speech in combination with pointing for entering information is not considered in therecommendations provided.2Normative referencesThe following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions ofthis part of ISO14915. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publicationsdo not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO14915 are encouraged to investigate thepossibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references,the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers ofcurrently valid International Standards.ISO9241-10:1996, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs)— Part10: DialogueprinciplesISO9241-11:1998, Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs)— Part11:Guidance on usabilityISO13407:1999, Human-centred design processes for interactive systemsISO14915-2:—1), Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces— Part2: Multimedia navigation and controlISO14915-3:—2), Software ergonomics for multimedia user interfaces— Part3: Media selection and combination1)To be published.2)To be published.SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)2© ISO2002–All rights reserved3Terms and definitionsFor the purposes of this part of ISO14915, the following terms and definitions apply. For additional definitions, seethe other parts of ISO14915. A precise definition of media types is provided in ISO14915-3.3.1 contentinformation to be communicated by means of a multimedia application from the originator to the user according tocertain communication goals3.2 dynamic mediamedia in which the presentation to the user changes according to timeEXAMPLEThese include video, music, animation.3.3 medium, sing.media, pl.different specific forms of presenting information to the human userEXAMPLEThese include text, video, graphics, animation, audio.3.4 metaphorconcepts already familiar to the user employed by the application to aid the user's understanding and prediction ofthe application's behaviour3.5 multimediacombinations of static and/or dynamic media which can be interactively controlled and simultaneously presented inan applicationEXAMPLEThese include combinations of text and video, or audio and animation.3.6 navigationuser's movement in and between media objects or presentation segments (see ISO14915-2) in order to find anobject, a particular topic, or a specific piece of information3.7 static mediamedia in which the presentation to the user does not change over timeEXAMPLEThese include text and pictures.4Application of ISO149154.1Intended user groupsThe following groups are the intended users of ISO14915:—user interface and multimedia designers who will apply ISO14915 during the development process;—evaluators responsible for quality assurance who will ensure that products meet the recommendations ofISO14915;—potential buyers, in selecting appropriately designed multimedia products;—designers of multimedia development tools to be used by user interface and multimedia developers.SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002–All rights reserved34.2Applying the recommendationsThe design principles provided in ISO14915 are multimedia-specific extensions of the principles described inISO9241-10. Multimedia user interfaces should be designed according to both the principles of ISO9241-10 and theprinciples described in ISO14915. For certain contexts (e.g. certain tasks or user groups), the designer may beforced to follow one principle at the expense of another in order to achieve the optimal design.4.3Reporting conformance to parts of ISO14915If a claim of product or application conformity with this part of ISO14915 is made, the procedure used in establishingrequirements for developing and/or evaluating the multimedia user interface shall be specified. The level ofspecification of the procedure is a matter of negotiation between the involved parties. ISO14915 is a multi-partstandard and therefore, claims of conformity are related to the individual parts and not to the International Standardas a whole.5Design goals and principles5.1Design goalsErgonomic design enhances the ability of users to operate multimedia applications effectively, efficiently and withsatisfaction (ISO9241-11 gives further information on usability). Multimedia information should not be confusing,tiring or frustrating to use.This can be achieved by careful design of the multimedia applications with respect to the different tasks (e.g. forwork, education, and performance support) and the environment in which the system will be used.The design of multimedia user interfaces should take into account the elements of human information processing,based successively on—human sensory physiology,—human perception and motivation,—human cognition, and—human communication.Additional human information-processing concepts relevant to multimedia control and use are exploration andengagement.5.2Multimedia design principles5.2.1GeneralMultimedia applications should be designed according to the general principles for ergonomic dialogue designdescribed in ISO9241-10. Subclause5.2.2 gives multimedia-specific examples for the principles described inISO9241-10. In addition, 5.2.3 introduces further principles which are relevant to multimedia applications.The design of multimedia applications often raises specific design issues relating to their purpose and specificcharacteristics. Multimedia applications can be developed for communicative purposes, e.g. for conveyinginformation to the user, supporting task performance or for education and training. In addition, there can be a widerange of user requirements such as preferences for different media or different perceptual styles.Specific characteristics of multimedia are the potentially high perceptual load, the structural and semantic complexity,or the large volume of information to be conveyed through the system. Manipulation of data or information presentedin multimedia applications can also be part of the user's activity.SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)4© ISO2002–All rights reserved5.2.2Dialogue principlesFor the design and evaluation of multimedia interfaces, the general ergonomic principles described in ISO9241-10should be applied. These seven principles are important for the design and evaluation of interactive applications. Theprinciples are as follows:a)Suitability for the taskEXAMPLEFor learning musical instruments, the application shows the hand movements in a video or animation, plays themusic and presents the current notes.b)Self-descriptivenessEXAMPLE When moving the cursor over a hot spot on a web page, a pop-up is shown that contains a description of the hotspot (e.g. where the link leads to).c)ControllabilityEXAMPLEAudio output can be switched on and off by the user.d)Conformity with user expectationsEXAMPLE1Control elements for playing and stopping a medium work the same way in all videos and animations in amultimedia application.EXAMPLE2Control elements are placed consistently on the screen.EXAMPLE3Control elements operate consistently across different media.e)Error toleranceEXAMPLE If a video has been unintentionally stopped by the user, it can be restarted at the current position so that the userdoes not have to return to the beginning.f)Suitability for individualizationEXAMPLEUsers may set preferences (e.g. preferred output medium, settings for audio parameters) or use bookmarks andannotations.g)Suitability for learningEXAMPLE1A visual representation of a navigation structure in a multimedia application is provided.EXAMPLE2Media combinations are used to represent a subject matter from different viewpoints.5.2.3Multimedia specific design principlesIn addition to the general principles of ISO9241-10, this part of ISO14915 describes specific design principles forthe design of multimedia user interfaces:—suitability for the communication goal;—suitability for perception and understanding;—suitability for exploration;—suitability for engagement.These principles specifically focus on multimedia applications but they may also apply to the design of user interfacesin general. As with most design criteria, the actual design can require trade-offs between the different principles,associating different priority or significance with each of them. These trade-offs require deliberate decisions in thedesign process and appropriate justifications.In 5.2.4 to 5.2.7, these additional multimedia specific principles are introduced and described. Designrecommendations related to these principles are presented. The set of recommendations given for each principlehere is not necessarily complete. There might be other recommendations conforming with these principles.SIST EN ISO 14915-1:2003

ISO14915-1:2002(E)© ISO2002–All rights reserved55.2.4Suitability for the communication goalA primary purpose of multimedia applications is to convey information from an information provider to a recipient. Amultimedia application is suitable for the communication goal if it is designed to match—the goals of the provider(s) of the information to be conveyed, and at the same time;—the goal or task of the users or recipients of this information.In order to achieve this, the provider or designer of the information should define the intended goal of thecommunication and design the multimedia application accordingly. The application should also be designed withrespect to the goals of the recipient, their tasks and information needs.Overall intended goals on the part of the provider could be to teach, inform or entertain users. Specific goals couldbe to summarize, explain, present, convince, justify, impress or motivate in a multimedia communication. Users'needs could include learning requirements, information needed for performing tasks, or engaging design features.EXAMPLE1Summarization can be enhanced by using designed images (diagrams).EXAMPLE2Convincing or justifying arguments are shown using redundant or salient media in order to emphasize key items ina message.5.2.5S

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