Lamps for road vehicles - Performance requirements

This International Standard is applicable to lamps (filament lamps, discharge lamps and LED
light sources) to be used in headlamps, fog-lamps and signalling lamps for road vehicles. It is
especially applicable to those lamps which are listed in IEC 60809. However, the standard
may also be used for other lamps falling under the scope of this standard.
It specifies requirements and test methods for the measurement of performance characteristics
such as lamp life, luminous flux maintenance, torsion strength, glass bulb strength
and resistance to vibration and shock. Moreover, information on temperature limits, maximum
lamp outlines and maximum tolerable voltage surges is given for the guidance of lighting and
electrical equipment design.
For some of the requirements given in this standard, reference is made to data given in tables.
For lamps not listed in such tables, the relevant data are supplied by the lamp manufacturer
or responsible vendor.
The performance requirements are additional to the basic requirements specified in
IEC 60809. They are, however, not intended to be used by authorities for legal type-approval
purposes.
NOTE 1 In the various vocabularies and standards, different terms are used for "incandescent lamp" (IEC 60050-
845:1987, 845-07-04) and "discharge lamp" (IEC 60050-845:1987, 845-07-17). In this standard, "filament lamp"
and "discharge lamp" are used. However, where only “lamp” is written both types are meant, unless the context
clearly shows that it applies to one type only.
NOTE 2 This standard does not apply to luminaires.
NOTE 3 In this standard, the term LED light source is used, in other standards the term LED lamps can be used
to describe similar products.

Lampen für Straßenfahrzeuge - Anforderungen an die Arbeitsweise

Lampes pour véhicules routiers - Exigences de performances

L'IEC 60810:2014 est applicable aux lampes (lampes à filament, lampes à décharge et sources lumineuses à LED) destinées à être utilisées dans les projecteurs avant, les feux de brouillard et les feux de signalisation des véhicules routiers. Elle s'applique particulièrement aux lampes figurant dans l'IEC 60809. Cependant, elle peut aussi être utilisée pour d'autres lampes relevant de son domaine d'application. Cette quatrième édition annule et remplace la troisième édition parue en 2003, l'Amendement 1 (2008) et l'Amendement 2 (2013). Cette édition constitue une révision technique. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) introduction de nouvelles sources lumineuses à décharge; b) introduction des exigences applicables aux lampes à filament non remplaçable; c) introduction des exigences et conditions d'essai applicables aux LED encapsulées.

Sijalke za cestna vozila - Tehnične zahteve (IEC 60810:2014)

Ta mednarodni standard se uporablja za sijalke (konvencionalne sijalke, razelektritvene sijalke in svetlobne vire LED), ki se uporabljajo v žarometih, meglenkah in signalnih lučeh za cestna vozila. Še posebej se uporablja za sijalke, navedene v standardu IEC 60809. Vendar standard se lahko uporablja tudi za druge sijalke, ki spadajo na področje uporabe tega standarda.
Določa zahteve in preskusne metode za merjenje lastnosti delovanja, kot so življenjska doba sijalke, vzdrževanje svetlobnega toka, torzijska moč, trdnost žarnice ter odpornost na vibracije in udarce. Informacije o mejnih vrednostih temperature, največjem obsegu sijalke in najvišjih še sprejemljivih napetostnih udarih so podane kot smernice za načrtovanje opreme za razsvetljavo in električne opreme.
Pri nekaterih zahtevah iz tega standarda so omenjeni podatki, ki so navedeni v preglednicah. Ustrezne podatke za sijalke, ki niso navedene v takšnih preglednicah, zagotovi njihov proizvajalec ali odgovorni prodajalec.
Zahteve glede zmogljivosti so dodane k osnovnim zahtevam iz standarda IEC 60809. Vendar niso namenjene organom za pravne namene tipske odobritve.
OPOMBA 1: V različnih slovarjih in standardih se uporabljajo različni izrazi za »sijalko« (IEC 60050- 845:1987, 845-07-04) in »razelektritveno sijalko« (IEC 60050-845:1987, 845-07-17). V tem standardu se uporabljata izraza »konvencionalna sijalka« in »razelektritvena sijalka«. Kadar je zapisan samo izraz »sijalka«, sta mišljeni obe vrsti sijalk, če iz konteksta ni jasno razvidno, da se izraz nanaša na samo eno vrsto.
OPOMBA 2: Ta standard se ne uporablja za svetilke.
OPOMBA 3: V tem standardu se uporablja izraz »svetlobni vir LED«, medtem ko se morda v drugih standardih za podobne proizvode uporablja izraz »sijalke LED«.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
18-May-2015
Withdrawal Date
15-Feb-2021
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-Feb-2021
Due Date
10-Mar-2021
Completion Date
16-Feb-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60810:2015
01-junij-2015
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SIST EN 60810:2004
SIST EN 60810:2004/A1:2008
SIST EN 60810:2004/A2:2014
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Lamps for road vehicles - Performance requirements
Lampen für Straßenfahrzeuge - Anforderungen an die Arbeitsweise
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60810:2015
ICS:
29.140.20 Žarnice z žarilno nitko Incandescent lamps
43.040.20 Naprave za osvetlitev, Lighting, signalling and
signalizacijo in opozarjanje warning devices
SIST EN 60810:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60810
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
March 2015
ICS 29.140.99 Supersedes EN 60810:2003
English Version
Lamps for road vehicles - Performance requirements
(IEC 60810:2014)

Lampes pour véhicules routiers - Exigences de Lampen für Straßenfahrzeuge - Anforderungen an die

performances Arbeitsweise
(IEC 60810:2014) (IEC 60810:2014)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2015-01-20. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN 60810:2015 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
EN 60810:2015 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 34A/1797/FDIS, future edition 4 of IEC 60810, prepared by SC 34A "Lamps", of

IEC/TC 34 "Lamps and related equipment" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

approved by CENELEC as EN 60810:2015.
The following dates are fixed:
(dop) 2015-10-20
• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at
national level by publication of an identical national
standard or by endorsement
(dow) 2018-01-20
• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with
the document have to be withdrawn
This document supersedes EN 60810:2003.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC [and/or CEN] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such

patent rights.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60810:2014 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards indicated:

IEC 60068-2-20 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-20.
IEC 60068-2-47 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60068-2-47.
IEC 60682 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60682.
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SIST EN 60810:2015
- 3 - EN 60810:2015
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE 1 When an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod),

the relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is

available here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60050 series International electrotechnical vocabulary - -
IEC 60061-1 - Lamp caps and holders together with EN 60061-1 -
gauges for the control of
interchangeability and safety -
Part 1: Lamp caps
IEC 60068-2-6 1995 Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-6 1995
Part 2: Tests - Test Fc: Vibration
(sinusoidal)
IEC 60068-2-14 - Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-14 -
Part 2-14: Tests - Test N: Change of
temperature
IEC 60068-2-43 - Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-43 -
Part 2-43: Tests - Test Kd: Hydrogen
sulphide test for contacts and
connections
IEC 60068-2-60 - Environmental testing - EN 60068-2-60 -
Part 2: Tests - Test Ke: Flowing mixed
gas corrosion test
IEC 60410 1973 Sampling plans and procedures for - -
inspection by attributes
IEC 60809 2014 Lamps for road vehicles - Dimensional, EN 60809 2015
electrical and luminous requirements
CISPR 25 - Vehicles, boats and internal combustion EN 55025 -
engines - Radio disturbance
characteristics - Limits and methods of
measurement for the protection of on-
board receivers
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
EN 60810:2015 - 4 -
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
UNECE 1958 - Agreement concerning the adoption of - -
Agreement uniform technical prescription for
wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts
which can be fitted and/or be used on
wheeled vehicles and the conditions for
reciprocal recognition of approvals
granted on the basis of these
prescriptions
UNECE 38 - 1958 Agreement, Addendum 37: - -
Regulation No. 38: Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of rear fog
lamps for power-driven vehicles and their
trailers
UNECE 48 - 1958 Agreement, Addendum 47: - -
Regulation No. 48: Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of vehicles with
regard to the installation of lighting and
light-signalling devices
UNECE 101 - 1958 Agreement, Addendum 100: - -
Regulation No. 101: Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of passenger
cars powered by an internal combustion
engine only, or powered by a hybrid
electric power train with regard to the
measurement of the emission of carbon
dioxide and fuel consumption and/or the
measurement of electric energy
consumption and electric range, and of
categories M and N vehicles powered
1 1
by an electric power train only with
regard to the measurement of electric
energy consumption and electric range
UNECE 123 - 1958 Agreement, Addendum 122: - -
Regulation No. 123: Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of adaptive front
lighting systems (AFS) for motor vehicles
UNECE 128 - 1958 Agreement, Addendum 127: - -
Regulation No. 128: Uniform provisions
concerning the approval of light emitting
diode (LED) light sources for use in
approved lamp units on power-driven
vehicles and their trailers
JESD22-A100D - Cycled temperature humidity bias life test - -
JESD22-A101C - Steady-state temperature humidity bias - -
life test
JESD22-A104D - Temperature cycling - -
JESD22-A105C - Power and temperature cycling - -
JESD22-A106B - Thermal shock - -
JESD22-A108D - Temperature, bias, and operating life - -
JESD22-A113F - Preconditioning of plastic surface mount - -
devices prior to reliability testing
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
- 5 - EN 60810:2015
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
JESD22-A115C - Electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity - -
testing machine model (MM)
JESD22-B101B - External visual - -
JESD22-B103B - Vibration, variable frequency - -
JESD22-B106D - Resistance to solder shock for through- - -
hole mounted devices
JESD22-B110B - Mechanical shock - Component and - -
subassembly
JESD51-50 2012-04 Overview of methodologies for the - -
thermal measurement of single- and
multi-chip, single- and multi-pn-junction
light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
JESD51-51 2012-04 Implementation of the electrical test - -
method for the measurement of real
thermal resistance and impedance of
light-emitting diodes with exposed
cooling surface
JESD51-52 2012-04 Guidelines for combining CIE 127-2007 - -
total flux measurements with thermal
measurements of LEDs with exposed
cooling surface
JESD51-53 2012-05 Terms, definitions and units glossary for - -
LED thermal testing
IPC/ECA - Solderability tests for component leads, - -
J-STD-002C terminations, lugs, terminals and wires
ANSI/ESDA/JEDEC 2012 JEDEC/ESDA joint standard for - -
JS-001 electrostatic discharge sensitivity test -
Human body model (HBM) - Component
level
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SIST EN 60810:2015
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SIST EN 60810:2015
IEC 60810
Edition 4.0 2014-12
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Lamps for road vehicles – Performance requirements
Lampes pour véhicules routiers – Exigences de performances
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
PRICE CODE
INTERNATIONALE
CODE PRIX XB
ICS 29.140.99 ISBN 978-2-8322-1967-6

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60810:2015
– 2 – IEC 60810:2014 © IEC 2014
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 11

4 Requirements and test conditions for filament lamps ..................................................... 14

4.1 Basic function and interchangeability .................................................................... 14

4.2 Torsion strength .................................................................................................... 14

4.3 Characteristic life T ............................................................................................... 15

4.4 Life B3 .................................................................................................................. 15

4.5 Luminous flux maintenance ................................................................................... 15

4.6 Resistance to vibration and shock ......................................................................... 15

4.7 Glass-bulb strength ............................................................................................... 16

5 Filament lamp data ........................................................................................................ 16

6 Requirements and test conditions for discharge lamps .................................................. 19

6.1 Basic function and interchangeability .................................................................... 19

6.2 Mechanical strength .............................................................................................. 20

6.2.1 Bulb-to-cap connection .................................................................................. 20

6.2.2 Cable-to-cap connection (if any) .................................................................... 20

6.3 Characteristic life T ............................................................................................... 20

6.4 Life B3 .................................................................................................................. 20

6.5 Luminous flux maintenance ................................................................................... 20

6.6 Resistance to vibration and shock ......................................................................... 20

6.7 Discharge lamps with integrated starting device .................................................... 20

6.8 Discharge lamps with integrated starting device and integrated ballast ................. 20

7 Requirements and test conditions for LED light sources ................................................ 21

7.1 Basic function and interchangeability .................................................................... 21

7.2 UV radiation .......................................................................................................... 22

7.3 Luminous flux and colour maintenance ................................................................. 22

7.4 Resistance to vibration and shock ......................................................................... 23

7.5 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................ 23

7.6 Powered thermal cycling test ................................................................................ 23

8 Requirements and test conditions for LED packages ..................................................... 25

8.1 LED package stress test qualification .................................................................... 25

8.2 Test samples ........................................................................................................ 25

8.2.1 Lot requirements............................................................................................ 25

8.2.2 Production requirements ................................................................................ 25

8.2.3 Pre- and post-stress test requirements .......................................................... 26

8.2.4 Assembly of LED packages on test boards .................................................... 26

8.2.5 Moisture pre-conditioning (MP) ...................................................................... 26

8.2.6 Thermal resistance (TR) test ......................................................................... 26

8.3 Definition of failure criteria .................................................................................... 26

8.4 Choice between test conditions ............................................................................. 27

8.5 Criteria for passing qualification/requalification ..................................................... 27

8.6 Qualification test definition .................................................................................... 27

8.6.1 Pre- and post- electrical and photometric test ................................................ 27

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SIST EN 60810:2015
IEC 60810:2014 © IEC 2014 – 3 –

8.6.2 Pre- and post- external visual (EV) test ......................................................... 27

8.6.3 High temperature operating life (HTOL) test .................................................. 27

8.6.4 Temperature cycling (TMCL) test ................................................................... 28

8.6.5 Wet high temperature operating life (WHTOL) test ......................................... 28

8.6.6 Power temperature cycling (PTMCL) test ....................................................... 28

8.6.7 Electrostatic discharge, human body model (ESD-HBM) test ......................... 29

8.6.8 Electrostatic discharge, machine model (ESD-MM) test ................................. 29

8.6.9 Destructive physical analysis (DPA) test ........................................................ 29

8.6.10 Physical dimensions (PD) test ....................................................................... 29

8.6.11 Vibrations variable frequency (VVF) test ........................................................ 29

8.6.12 Mechanical shock (MS) test ........................................................................... 29

8.6.13 Resistance to soldering heat (RSH-TTW) test ................................................ 29

8.6.14 Resistance to soldering heat (RSH-reflow) test .............................................. 30

8.6.15 Solderability (SO) test.................................................................................... 30

8.6.16 Thermal shock (TMSK) test ........................................................................... 30

8.6.17 Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) test ........................................................................ 30

8.6.18 Pulsed operating life (PLT) test ...................................................................... 30

8.6.19 Dew (DEW) test ............................................................................................. 31

8.6.20 Flowing mixed gas corrosion (FMGC) test ..................................................... 31

Annex A (normative) Life test conditions for filament lamps ................................................. 32

A.1 Ageing .................................................................................................................. 32

A.2 Test voltage .......................................................................................................... 32

A.3 Operating position and operating conditions .......................................................... 32

A.4 Switching cycle ..................................................................................................... 32

A.4.1 Single-filament lamps .................................................................................... 32

A.4.2 Dual-filament lamps for headlamps ................................................................ 33

A.4.3 Dual-filament lamps for light signalling equipment ......................................... 33

A.5 Luminous flux and colour maintenance ................................................................. 33

Annex B (normative) Vibration tests ..................................................................................... 34

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 34

B.2 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 35

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 35

B.2.2 Mounting (see IEC 60068-2-47) ..................................................................... 35

B.2.3 Measuring points ........................................................................................... 35

B.2.4 Control point .................................................................................................. 35

B.2.5 Conditioning .................................................................................................. 35

B.2.6 Axis of vibration ............................................................................................. 35

B.2.7 WBR test – Basic motion ............................................................................... 36

B.3 Test conditions ..................................................................................................... 36

B.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 36

B.3.2 Narrowband random vibration tests................................................................ 36

B.3.3 Wideband random vibration tests ................................................................... 37

Annex C (normative) Glass-bulb strength test ...................................................................... 39

C.1 General ................................................................................................................. 39

C.2 Test equipment and procedure .............................................................................. 39

C.2.1 Principle of the test equipment (see Figure C.1) ............................................ 39

C.2.2 Test conditions .............................................................................................. 39

C.2.3 Requirements for plates ................................................................................. 40

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SIST EN 60810:2015
– 4 – IEC 60810:2014 © IEC 2014

C.3 Requirements ....................................................................................................... 40

C.4 Evaluation ............................................................................................................. 40

C.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 40

C.4.2 Assessment based on attributes .................................................................... 40

C.4.3 Assessment based on variables ..................................................................... 41

Annex D (normative) Life and luminous flux maintenance test conditions for discharge

lamps .................................................................................................................................... 42

D.1 Ageing .................................................................................................................. 42

D.2 Test circuit and test voltage .................................................................................. 42

D.3 Burning position and operating conditions ............................................................. 42

D.4 Switching cycle ..................................................................................................... 42

D.5 Luminous flux maintenance ................................................................................... 43

Annex E (normative) Bulb deflection test.............................................................................. 44

E.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

E.2 Test set-up and procedure .................................................................................... 44

E.3 Requirement ......................................................................................................... 44

Annex F (informative) Guidance for equipment design ......................................................... 45

F.1 Pinch temperature limit ......................................................................................... 45

F.2 Solder temperature limit ........................................................................................ 45

F.3 Maximum filament lamp outline ............................................................................. 45

F.4 Maximum surge voltage ........................................................................................ 45

F.5 Recommended instructions for use and handling of halogen filament lamps ......... 45

F.6 Recommended instructions for use and handling of discharge lamps .................... 46

Annex G (informative) Information for ballast design ............................................................ 51

Annex H (informative) Symbols ........................................................................................... 52

H.1 General ................................................................................................................. 52

H.2 Symbol indicating that lamps operate at high temperatures ................................... 52

H.3 Symbol indicating that care should be taken to avoid touching the bulb................. 52

H.4 Symbol indicating that the use of protective gloves is advised ............................... 52

H.5 Symbol indicating that lamps with scratched or otherwise damaged bulbs

should not be used................................................................................................ 52

H.6 Symbol indicating that before handling, the lamp shall be switched off .................. 52

H.7 Symbol indicating that the use of eye protection is advised ................................... 53

H.8 Symbol indicating that during operation, the lamp emits UV-radiation ................... 53

H.9 Symbol indicating that the lamp shall be operated only in a luminaire with a

protective shield .................................................................................................... 53

H.10 Symbol indicating dangerous voltage .................................................................... 53

Annex I (normative) Luminous flux maintenance test conditions for LED light sources ......... 54

I.1 Ageing .................................................................................................................. 54

I.2 Test voltage .......................................................................................................... 54

I.3 Operating conditions ............................................................................................. 54

I.3.1 Test rack ....................................................................................................... 54

I.3.2 LED light sources with integrated thermal management ................................. 54

I.3.3 LED light sources with external thermal management .................................... 54

I.4 Switching cycle ..................................................................................................... 55

I.4.1 Single-function LED light sources .................................................................. 55

I.4.2 Dual-function LED light sources for headlamps .............................................. 55

I.4.3 Multiple-function LED light sources for light signalling equipment .................. 55

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SIST EN 60810:2015
IEC 60810:2014 © IEC 2014 – 5 –

I.5 Luminous flux maintenance measurements ........................................................... 56

I.6 Colour measurement ............................................................................................. 56

Annex J (normative) Destructive physical analysis for LED packages .................................. 57

J.1 Description ........................................................................................................... 57

J.2 Equipment ............................................................................................................ 57

J.3 Procedure ............................................................................................................. 57

J.4 Failure criteria ....................................................................................................... 57

Annex K (informative) Communication sheet LED package testing ....................................... 58

Annex L (normative) Re-testing matrix for LED package testing ........................................... 61

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 62

Figure 1 – Examples of LED packages .................................................................................. 12

Figure 2 – Example for an LED module without integrated heatsink ...................................... 13

Figure 3 – Example for an LED module with integrated heatsink ........................................... 13

Figure 4 – Example for a replaceable LED light source ......................................................... 13

Figure 5 – Example for a non-replaceable LED light source .................................................. 14

Figure 6 – Position of the centre of gravity (shaded areas).................................................... 21

Figure 7 – Extract from IEC 60068-2-14 Test Nb, showing the temperature cycle

profile ................................................................................................................................... 24

Figure B.1 – Recommended equipment layout for vibration testing ....................................... 38

Figure C.1 – Diagrammatic sketch of the principle of the test equipment ............................... 39

Figure E.1 – Sketch of the test set-up ................................................................................... 44

Figure F.1 – Voltage surges for 12 V filament lamps − Maximum tolerable duration for

a voltage surge as a function of its height ............................................................................. 46

Figure F.2 – Maximum filament lamp outlines H1 ...............................
...

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