Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 2: Principles for a classification (ISO 14688-2:2017)

This document specifies the basic principles for classification of those material characteristics
most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. It is intended to be read in conjunction
with ISO 14688-1, which gives rules for the identification and description of soils. The relevant
characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions
of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. Due to differences in local geological
conditions, practices to enhance relevant classification criteria are used.
The classification principles established in this document allow soils to be classified into groups of
similar composition and geotechnical properties, based on the results of field and laboratory tests with
respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes.
This document is applicable to natural soil in situ, natural soil reworked artificially and synthetic
materials. A more detailed classification specific to use in earthworks is given in EN 16907-2.
NOTE 1 Identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689. Identification and description of
materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688-1, this document
and ISO 14689, as appropriate.
NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of
measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Boden - Teil 2: Grundlagen für Bodenklassifizierungen (ISO 14688-2:2017)

Dieses Dokument legt die Grundlagen zur Klassifizierung der Eigenschaften von Bodenmaterialien, die im Hinblick auf die bautechnische Eignung von Böden üblicherweise herangezogen werden, fest. Die Anwendung erfolgt zusammen mit ISO 14688-1, die die Regeln für die Benennung und Beschreibung von Böden enthält. Da die relevanten Eigenschaften variieren könnten, könnte es sein, dass für besondere Projekte und Bodenmaterialien detailliertere Untergliederungen der beschreibenden und klassifizierenden Bezeichnungen erforderlich werden. Aufgrund der unterschiedlichen lokalen Geologie werden weitere Verfahren angewendet, um die Klassifizierung zu verbessern.
Die in diesem Dokument dargestellten Grundlagen zur Klassifizierung erlauben es, Böden in Gruppen mit annähernd gleicher stofflicher Zusammensetzung und ähnlichen bautechnischen Eigenschaften im Hinblick auf ihre bautechnische Eignung einzuteilen. Die Klassifizierung basiert auf den  Ergebnissen von Feld- und Laborversuchen.
Dieses Dokument gilt für natürlichen Boden in situ, künstlich aufbereiteten natürlichen Boden und Böden aus künstlichen Stoffen. Eine detailliertere Klassifizierung speziell für die Anwendung bei Erdarbeiten ist in EN 16907 2 enthalten.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die Benennung und Beschreibung von Fels wird in der ISO 14689 behandelt. Die Benennung und Beschreibung von Materialien, die zwischen Boden und Fels einzuordnen sind, wird je nach Beschaffenheit nach den Festlegungen dieses Dokumentes, der ISO 14688-1 oder der ISO 14689 durchgeführt.
ANMERKUNG 2   Die Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von Böden für pedologische Zwecke sowie im Rahmen von Maßnahmen für den Bodenschutz und die Sanierung von Altlasten erfolgt nach ISO 25177.

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification et classification des sols - Partie 2: Principes pour une classification (ISO 14688-2:2017)

ISO 14688-2:2017 présente les principes fondamentaux de classification des sols, sur la base des caractéristiques des constituants les plus couramment utilisées pour les sols dans les projets d'ingénierie. Il doit être lu conjointement avec l'ISO 14688‑1 qui établit les règles d'identification et de description des sols. Les caractéristiques utiles peuvent varier, par conséquent, pour des projets ou matériaux particuliers, des subdivisions plus détaillées des termes descriptifs et de classification peuvent s'avérer plus appropriées. En raison des différences entre les conditions géologiques locales, des méthodes d'amélioration des critères de classification sont utilisées.
Les principes de classification établis dans ce document permettent de classer les sols en groupes présentant des compositions et des propriétés géotechniques similaires, basés sur les résultats d'essais en place et de laboratoire en ce qui concerne leur aptitude pour les projets d'ingénierie géotechnique.
ISO 14688-2:2017 s'applique aux sols naturels in situ, aux sols naturels remaniés artificiellement et aux matériaux synthétiques. Une classification plus détaillée spécifiquement utilisée dans les terrassements est donné en EN 16907‑2.
Note 1       L'identification et la description des roches sont traitées dans l'ISO 14689. L'identification et la description des matériaux intermédiaires entre le sol et la roche sont réalisées conformément aux procédures indiquées dans l'ISO 14688‑1, ce document et l'ISO 14689 selon le cas.
Note 2       L'identification et la classification des sols à des fins pédologiques, ainsi qu'à des fins de mesures pour la protection du sol et pour la remédiation de sols pollués, sont traitées dans l'ISO 25177.

Geotehnično preiskovanje in preskušanje - Prepoznavanje in razvrščanje zemljin - 2. del: Načela za razvrščanje (ISO 14688-2:2017)

Ta dokument določa osnovna načela za razvrščanje značilnosti materialov, ki se najpogosteje uporabljajo za zemljine, namenjene za uporabo v gradbeništvu. Ta standard je treba brati v povezavi s standardom ISO 14688-1, ki določa pravila za prepoznavanje in opisovanje zemljin. Pomembne značilnosti materialov se lahko razlikujejo, zato sta pri nekaterih projektih in materialih primerna podrobnejši opis in opredelitev. Zaradi razlik v lokalnih geoloških pogojih se uporabljajo prakse za izboljšanje ustreznih meril razvrščanja.
Načela za razvrščanje, določena v tem dokumentu, omogočajo razvrščanje zemljin v skupine s podobno sestavo in geotehničnimi lastnostmi na podlagi rezultatov preskusov, izvedenih na terenu in v laboratoriju,
v zvezi z njihovo ustreznostjo za geotehnične namene uporabe v gradbeništvu.
Ta dokument se uporablja za naravne zemljine na mestu uporabe, naravne zemljine, ki so umetno predelane, in za sintetične materiale. Podrobnejša razvrstitev glede na vrsto uporabe pri zemeljskih delih je podana v standardu EN 16907-2.
OPOMBA 1: Prepoznavanje in opisovanje kamnin sta zajeta v standardu ISO 14689. Prepoznavanje in opisovanje vmesnih materialov med zemljinami in kamninami sta izvedena z ustreznimi postopki v standardu ISO 14688-1, tem dokumentu in standardu ISO 14689.
OPOMBA 2: Prepoznavanje in razvrščanje zemljin za pedološke namene ter v okviru meritev za zaščito zemljin in za sanacijo kontaminiranih območij sta zajeta v standardu ISO 25177.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Sep-2016
Publication Date
19-Mar-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Feb-2018
Due Date
28-Apr-2018
Completion Date
20-Mar-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
01-april-2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2004
SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2004/A1:2013
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Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and classification of soil - Part 2:

Principles for a classification (ISO 14688-2:2017)
Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung - Benennung, Beschreibung und

Klassifizierung von Boden - Teil 2: Grundlagen für Bodenklassifizierungen (ISO 14688-

2:2017)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification et classification des sols - Partie

2: Principes pour une classification (ISO 14688-2:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 14688-2:2018
ICS:
13.080.05 Preiskava tal na splošno Examination of soils in
general
93.020 Zemeljska dela. Izkopavanja. Earthworks. Excavations.
Gradnja temeljev. Dela pod Foundation construction.
zemljo Underground works
SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
EN ISO 14688-2
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.05; 93.020 Supersedes EN ISO 14688-2:2004
English Version
Geotechnical investigation and testing - Identification and
classification of soil - Part 2: Principles for a classification
(ISO 14688-2:2017)

Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques - Identification Geotechnische Erkundung und Untersuchung -

et classification des sols - Partie 2: Principes pour une Benennung, Beschreibung und Klassifizierung von

classification (ISO 14688-2:2017) Boden - Teil 2: Grundlagen für Bodenklassifizierungen

(ISO 14688-2:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 20 November 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 14688-2:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
EN ISO 14688-2:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
EN ISO 14688-2:2018 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 14688-2:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182

“Geotechnics” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 341 “Geotechnical Investigation and

Testing” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 14688-2:2004.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 14688-2:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 14688-2:2018 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 14688-2
Second edition
2017-12
Geotechnical investigation and
testing — Identification and
classification of soil —
Part 2:
Principles for a classification
Reconnaissance et essais géotechniques — Identification et
classification des sols —
Partie 2: Principes pour une classification
Reference number
ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
ISO 2017
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2  Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3  Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4  Principles of soil classifications ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Particle size fractions ........................................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.3 Particle size distribution (grading) ....................................................................................................................................... 6

4.4 Plasticity ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.5 Organic content ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

4.6 Carbonate content ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

5  Other principles suitable for soil classification ................................................................................................................... 8

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Correlations of relative density terms for coarse soils ......................................................................................... 8

5.3 Undrained shear strength of fine soils ............................................................................................................................... 9

5.4 Sensitivity .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.5 Consistency index ................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

5.6 Other parameters...............................................................................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 182, Geotechnics.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14688-2:2004), which has been

technically revised. It also incorporates the Amendment ISO 14688-2:2004/Amd 1:2013.

A list of all parts in the ISO 14688 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
Introduction

This document gives the means by which soils can be classified into groups of similar composition

and geotechnical properties based on the results of field and laboratory tests with respect to their

suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes.

Prior to classification, ISO 14688-1 gives details of the procedures that should be followed in the

identification and description of soils.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
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SIST EN ISO 14688-2:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 14688-2:2017(E)
Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and
classification of soil —
Part 2:
Principles for a classification
1 Scope

This document specifies the basic principles for classification of those material characteristics

most commonly used for soils for engineering purposes. It is intended to be read in conjunction

with ISO 14688-1, which gives rules for the identification and description of soils. The relevant

characteristics could vary and therefore, for particular projects or materials, more detailed subdivisions

of the descriptive and classification terms could be appropriate. Due to differences in local geological

conditions, practices to enhance relevant classification criteria are used.

The classification principles established in this document allow soils to be classified into groups of

similar composition and geotechnical properties, based on the results of field and laboratory tests with

respect to their suitability for geotechnical engineering purposes.

This document is applicable to natural soil in situ, natural soil reworked artificially and synthetic

materials. A more detailed classification specific to use in earthworks is given in EN 16907-2.

NOTE 1 Identification and description of rocks are covered by ISO 14689. Identification and description of

materials intermediate between soil and rock are carried out using the procedures in ISO 14688-1, this document

and ISO 14689, as appropriate.

NOTE 2 The identification and classification of soil for pedological purposes, as well as in the framework of

measurements for soil protection and for remediation of contaminated areas, is covered by ISO 25177.

2  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14688-1:2017, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification and classification of soil —

Part 1: Identification and description

ISO 14689, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Identification, description and classification of rock

ISO 17892-1, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 1: Determination

of water content

ISO 17892-2, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 2: Determination

of bulk density

ISO 17892-3, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 3: Determination

of particle density

ISO 17892-4, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Laboratory testing of soil — Part 4: Determination

of particle size distribution
ISO 17892-5, Geotechnical investigation and testing — Labo
...

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