Welding - Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel alloys - Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 12932:2013)

This International Standard provides quality levels of imperfections in laser-arc hybrid welded joints for all types of steel, nickel and its alloys. Three quality levels are given in order to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrication. They are designated by symbols B, C and D. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement on the finished weld. The quality levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose (see 3.2) of the product manufactured.

Schweißen - Laserstrahl-Lichtbogen-Hybridschweißen von Stählen, Nickel und Nickellegierungen - Bewertungsgruppen für Unregelmäßigkeiten (ISO 12932:2013)

Diese Internationale Norm enthält Bewertungsgruppen von Unregelmäßigkeiten in Laserstrahl-Lichtbogen-Hybridschweißverbindungen für alle Arten von Stahl, Nickel und seinen Legierungen.
Die drei Bewertungsgruppen sind so angelegt, dass sie eine breite Anwendung in der schweißtechnischen Fertigung erlauben. Sie werden bezeichnet durch Kennbuchstaben B, C und D. Die Bewertungsgruppe B entspricht den höchsten Anforderungen an die Schweißnaht. Die Bewertungsgruppen beziehen sich auf die Fertigungsqualität und nicht auf die Gebrauchstauglichkeit (siehe 3.2) des gefertigten Erzeugnisses.

Soudage - Soudage hybride laser-arc des aciers au nickel et aux alliages de nickel - Niveaux de qualité par rapport aux défauts (ISO 12932:2013)

L'ISO 12932:2013 fournit des niveaux de qualité par rapport aux défauts dans les assemblages réalisés par soudage hybride laser-arc sur tous types d'acier, de nickel et ses alliages. Elle s'applique à des épaisseurs de matériau supérieures à 0,5 mm.
Trois niveaux de qualité sont donnés dans le but de permettre son application à une large gamme de fabrications soudées. Ils sont désignés par B, C et D. Le niveau de qualité B correspond à l'exigence la plus élevée pour la soudure terminée. Les niveaux de qualité se rapportent à la qualité de la fabrication et non à l'aptitude à l'emploi du produit fini.

Varjenje - Obločno hibridno varjenje jekel, niklja in nikljevih zlitin z laserjem - Stopnje sprejemljivosti napak (ISO 12932:2013)

Ta mednarodni standard določa stopnje sprejemljivosti napak pri spojih, varjenih z obločnim hibridnim varjenjem z laserjem, za vse vrste jekla, niklja in nikljevih zlitin. Za uporabo širokega nabora varjenih izdelkov so določene tri stopnje sprejemljivosti. Označene so s simboli B, C in D. Stopnja sprejemljivosti B ustreza najvišjim zahtevam za končne izdelke po varjenju. Stopnje sprejemljivosti zadevajo kakovost izdelave in ne primernosti za namen (glejte razdelek 3.2) izdelanega izdelka.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Aug-2010
Publication Date
03-Jul-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Jul-2013
Due Date
06-Sep-2013
Completion Date
04-Jul-2013

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
01-september-2013

9DUMHQMH2EORþQRKLEULGQRYDUMHQMHMHNHOQLNOMDLQQLNOMHYLK]OLWLQ]ODVHUMHP

6WRSQMHVSUHMHPOMLYRVWLQDSDN ,62

Welding - Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel alloys - Quality levels for

imperfections (ISO 12932:2013)
Schweißen - Laserstrahl-Lichtbogen-Hybridschweißen von Stählen, Nickel und
Nickellegierungen - Bewertungsgruppen für Unregelmäßigkeiten (ISO 12932:2013)

Soudage - Soudage hybride laser-arc des aciers au nickel et aux alliages de nickel -

Niveaux de qualité par rapport aux défauts (ISO 12932:2013)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12932:2013
ICS:
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
77.080.20 Jekla Steels
77.120.40 Nikelj, krom in njune zlitine Nickel, chromium and their
alloys
SIST EN ISO 12932:2013 en,fr

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 12932
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
June 2013
ICS 25.160.40
English Version
Welding - Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and nickel
alloys - Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 12932:2013)

Soudage - Soudage hybride laser-arc des aciers, du nickel Schweißen - Laserstrahl-Lichtbogen-Hybridschweißen von

et des alliages de nickel - Niveaux de qualité par rapport Stählen, Nickel und Nickellegierungen -

aux défauts (ISO 12932:2013) Bewertungsgruppen für Unregelmäßigkeiten (ISO
12932:2013)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 March 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12932:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
EN ISO 12932:2013 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
EN ISO 12932:2013 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 12932:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44 "Welding and

allied processes" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding and allied processes” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2013, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn

at the latest by December 2013.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12932:2013 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12932:2013 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12932
First edition
2013-06-15
Welding — Laser-arc hybrid welding
of steels, nickel and nickel alloys —
Quality levels for imperfections
Soudage — Soudage hybride laser-arc des aciers, du nickel et des
alliages de nickel — Niveaux de qualité par rapport aux défauts
Reference number
ISO 12932:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Assessment of imperfections ................................................................................................................................................................... 4

Annex A (informative) Examples of determination of percentage (%) porosity .................................................22

Annex B (informative) Additional information and guidelines for use of this

International Standard ...............................................................................................................................................................................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12932 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes, Subcommittee

SC 10, Unification of requirements in the field of metal welding.

Requests for official interpretation of any aspect of this International Standard should be directed to the

secretariat of ISO/TC 44/SC 10 via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can

be found at www.iso.org.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
Introduction

This International Standard is intended to be used as a reference in drafting application codes and/or

other application standards. It contains a simplified selection of laser-arc hybrid welding imperfections

based on the designations given in ISO 6520-1.

Some imperfections described in ISO 6520-1 have been used directly and some have been grouped

together. The basic numerical referencing system from ISO 6520-1 has been used.

The purpose of this International Standard is to define the dimensions of typical imperfections which

can be expected in normal fabrication. It can be used within a quality system for the production of

welded joints. It provides three sets of dimensional values from which a selection can be made for a

particular application. The quality level necessary in each case is defined by the application standard

or the responsible designer in conjunction with the manufacturer, user and/or other parties concerned.

The quality level is expected to be prescribed prior to the start of production, preferably at the enquiry

or order stage. For special purposes, additional details can be prescribed.

The quality levels given in this International Standard provide basic reference data and are not

specifically related to any particular application. They refer to the types of welded joint in fabrication

and not to the complete product or component itself. It is possible, therefore, that different quality levels

are applied to individual welded joints in the same product or component.

It would normally be expected that for a particular welded joint the dimensional limits for imperfections

can all be covered by specifying one quality level. In some cases, it can be necessary to specify different

quality levels for different imperfections in the same welded joint.

The choice of quality level for any application is expected to take account of design considerations,

subsequent processing (e.g. surfacing), mode of stressing (e.g. static, dynamic), service conditions (e.g.

temperature, environment) and consequences of failure. Economic factors are also important and are

intended to include not only the cost of welding, but also of inspection, test and repair.

Although this International Standard includes types of imperfection relevant to the laser-arc hybrid

welding processes given in Clause 1, only those which are applicable to the process and application in

question need to be considered.

Imperfections are quoted in terms of their actual dimensions, and their detection and evaluation

may require the use of one or more methods of non-destructive testing. The detection and sizing of

imperfections are dependent on the inspection methods and the extent of testing specified in the

application standard or contract.

This International Standard does not address the methods used for the detection of imperfections. However,

ISO 17635 contains a correlation between the quality level and acceptance level for different NDT methods.

This International Standard is directly applicable to visual examination of welds and does not include

details of recommended methods of detection or sizing by other non-destructive means. There are

difficulties in using these limits to establish appropriate criteria applicable to non-destructive testing

methods, such as ultrasonic, radiographic and penetrant testing, and they can need to be supplemented

by requirements for inspection, examination and testing.

The values given for imperfections are for welds produced using normal welding practice. More stringent

requirements as stated in quality level B can include additional manufacturing processes, e.g. grinding,

TIG dressing.
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12932:2013(E)
Welding — Laser-arc hybrid welding of steels, nickel and
nickel alloys — Quality levels for imperfections
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies quality levels of imperfections in laser-arc hybrid welded joints

for all types of steel, nickel and its alloys. It applies to material thickness ≥0,5 mm.

Three quality levels are given in order to permit application for a wide range of welded fabrication. They

are designated by B, C and D. Quality level B corresponds to the highest requirement on the finished

weld. The quality levels refer to production quality and not to the fitness-for-purpose (see 3.3) of the

product manufactured.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable to its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 2553, Welding and allied processes — Symbolic representation on drawings — Welded, brazed and

soldered joints

ISO 5817:2003, Welding — Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding

excluded) — Quality levels for imperfections

ISO 6520-1, Welding and allied processes — Classification of geometric imperfections in metallic materials —

Part 1: Fusion welding
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
hybrid welding

welding in which two or more welding processes are used simultaneously in the same weld pool

Note 1 to entry: Hybrid welding differs from combinations of processes where at least two melt pools exist which

are completely separated by a solid component in the solidification phases. Examples of a combined process (a)

and a laser-arc hybrid welding process (b) are given in Figure 1 by using a laser beam and the additional energy

source of an arc.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
a) Combined process b) Hybrid process
Key
1 laser beam
2 torch
Figure 1 — Combination of welding processes
3.2
quality level

description of the quality of a weld on the basis of type, size and amount of selected imperfections

[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.1]
3.3
fitness-for-purpose

ability of a product, process or service to serve a defined purpose under specific conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.2]
3.4
short imperfection

imperfection for which, in the 100 mm which contains

the greatest number of imperfections, the total length of the imperfections is not greater than 25 mm

[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.3, modified.]
3.5
short imperfection

imperfection in which the total length of the imperfections

is not greater than 25 % of the length of the weld
[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.3, modified.]
3.6
systematic imperfection

imperfection that is repeatedly distributed in the weld over the weld length to be examined, the size of

the single imperfection being within the specified limits
[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.4, modified.]
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
3.7
projected area

area where imperfections distributed along the volume of the weld under consideration are imaged

two-dimensionally

Note 1 to entry: In contrast to the cross-sectional area, the occurrence of imperfections is dependent on the weld

thickness when exposed radiographically (see Figure 2).

[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.5, modified — “Figure 1” has been replaced by “Figure 2”.]

Key
1 direction of X-rays
2 four pores per volume unit
3 six-fold thickness
4 three-fold thickness
5 two-fold thickness
6 one-fold thickness

Figure 2 — Radiographic films of specimens with identical occurrence of pores per volume unit

3.8
cross-sectional area
area to be considered after fracture or sectioning
[SOURCE: ISO 5817:2003, 3.6.]
4 Symbols
For the purposes of this document, the following symbols apply.
a nominal throat thickness of the fillet weld (given in ISO 2553)
A area surrounded by pores
b width of weld reinforcement
d diameter of pore
d diameter of pore within area surrounded by pores
h height or width of imperfection
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SIST EN ISO 12932:2013
ISO 12932:2013(E)
l length of imperfection in longitudinal direction of the weld
l length of projected or fracture surface area
s connected cross-section or nominal butt weld thickness (given in ISO 2553)
t wall or plate thickness (nominal size)
w width of the weld or width or height in case of fracture area
z leg length of a fillet weld (given in ISO 2553)
α angle of weld toe
β angle of angular misalignment
5 Assessment of imperfections

Limits to imperfections are given in Table 1. These limits apply to the finished weld and may also be

applied to an intermediate stage of fabrication.

If a method other than macro examination is used for the detection of imperfections, only those

imperfections which can be detected with a maximum magnification of tenfold, shall be considered.

Microcracks (see Table 1, No 2.2) and micro lack of fusion (see Table 1, No 1.5)are excluded.

Systematic imperfections are only permitted in quality level D, provided other requirements of Table 1

are fulfilled.

A welded joint should normally be assessed separately for each individual type of imperfection.

Different types of imperfection occurring at any cross-section of the joint, which weaken the cross-

section, may need special consideration (see Table 1, multiple imperfections).

The limits for multiple imperfections (see Table 1) are only applicable to cases where the requirements

for a single imperfection are not exceeded.

Any two adjacent imperfections separated by a distance lesser than the major dimension of the smaller

imperfection shall be considered a single imperfection.
4 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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