Powder metallurgy - Vocabulary (ISO 3252:2019)

This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and sintering processes.

Pulvermetallurgie - Begriffe (ISO 3252:2019)

Dieses Dokument definiert die Begriffe aus dem Gebiet Pulvermetallurgie. Die Pulvermetallurgie ist ein Zweig der Metallurgie, der sich mit der Herstellung metallischer Pulver oder der Herstellung von Teilen, die aus solchen Pulvern mit oder ohne Zusätze nichtmetallischer Pulver durch Formen und Sintern erzeugt werden, beschäftigt.

Métallurgie des poudres - Vocabulaire (ISO 3252:2019)

Le présent document définit des termes relatifs à la métallurgie des poudres. La métallurgie des poudres est la branche de la métallurgie qui a trait à la fabrication de poudres métalliques, ou d'articles fabriqués à partir des dites poudres, avec ou sans addition de poudres non métalliques, par application de procédés de formage et de frittage.

Metalurgija prahov - Slovar (ISO 3252:2019)

Ta dokument določa izraze, povezane z metalurgijo prahov. Metalurgija prahov je veja metalurgije, ki je povezana s proizvodnjo kovinskih prahov ali artiklov, izdelanih iz takih prahov, in sicer z dodatkom nekovinskih prahov ali brez njih, z uporabo procesov oblikovanja in sintranja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
24-Sep-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
25-Sep-2019
Completion Date
25-Sep-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
01-december-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 3252:2001
Metalurgija prahov - Slovar (ISO 3252:2019)
Powder metallurgy - Vocabulary (ISO 3252:2019)
Pulvermetallurgie - Begriffe (ISO 3252:2019)
Métallurgie des poudres - Vocabulaire (ISO 3252:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3252:2019
ICS:
01.040.77 Metalurgija (Slovarji) Metallurgy (Vocabularies)
77.160 Metalurgija prahov Powder metallurgy
SIST EN ISO 3252:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.77; 77.160 Supersedes EN ISO 3252:2000
English Version
Powder metallurgy - Vocabulary (ISO 3252:2019)

Métallurgie des poudres - Vocabulaire (ISO 3252:2019) Pulvermetallurgie - Begriffe (ISO 3252:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 August 2019.

This European Standard was corrected and reissued by the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre on 23 October 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIO N
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUN G
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 3252:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 3252:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder

metallurgy" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/SS M11 “Powder metallurgy” the

secretariat of which is held by CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 3252:2000.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3252:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 3252:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3252
Fifth edition
2019-08
Powder metallurgy — Vocabulary
Métallurgie des poudres — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 3252:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to powders ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to forming ...........................................................................................................................................................14

3.3 Terms relating to sintering and characteristics of sintered materials .................................................24

3.4 Terms relating to post-sintering treatments ..............................................................................................................30

3.5 Terms relating to powder metallurgy materials .....................................................................................................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 3252:1999), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— addition of the mandatory Clause 2 (Normative references);
— addition of terms in current use.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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Introduction
The terms are classified alphabetically under the following main headings:
— powders;
— forming;
— sintering and characteristics of sintered materials;
— post-sintering treatments;
— powder metallurgy materials.

NOTE Additional information on certain terms defined can be found in the standards given in Notes to entry.

These are listed in the Bibliography.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3252:2019(E)
Powder metallurgy — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of

metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such

powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and

sintering processes.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to powders
3.1.1
acicular
needle-shaped
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Acicular
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3.1.2
agglomerate
several particles adhering together
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
Key
1 grain
2 particle
3 agglomerate
Figure 2 — Diagramatic representation of grain, particle and agglomerate
3.1.3
alloyed powder

metal powder consisting of at least two constituents that are partially or completely alloyed with

each other
3.1.4
angle of repose

basal angle of a pile formed by a powder when freely poured under specified conditions on to a

horizontal surface
3.1.5
angular
sharp-edged or roughly polyhedral
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3.
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Figure 3 — Angular
3.1.6
apparent density
mass per unit volume of a powder obtained following specific methods

Note 1 to entry: For example, ISO 3923-1 related to free-flowing powders and ISO 3923-2 related to non-free-

flowing powders.
3.1.7
atomization

dispersion of a molten metal into particles by a rapidly moving gas or liquid stream or by mechanical

means
[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.8
atomized metal powder
metal powder produced by atomization (3.1.7)
3.1.9
binder

material added to the powder mix to increase the green strength (3.2.47) of the compact or to counteract

dusting and segregation (3.1.75) of fine particulate mix constituents, and which is expelled during

sintering

Note 1 to entry: In hard metals, it is also used for material (binder metal, usually of lower melting point) added to

a powder mixture for the specific purpose of cementing together powder particles which alone would not sinter

into a strong body.
Note 2 to entry: Cementing medium is also used in the field of hard metals.
3.1.10
blended powder
powder made by blending (3.1.11) powders
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3.1.11
blending
thorough intermingling of powders of the same nominal composition
Note 1 to entry: Not to be confused with mixing (3.1.53).
3.1.12
bridging
formation of arched cavities in a powder mass
3.1.13
bulk density
mass per unit volume of a powder under nonstandard conditions
3.1.14
cake
bonded mass of unpressed metal powder
EXAMPLE The condition of a powder mass as it exits an annealing furnace.
3.1.15
carbonyl powder
powder produced by the thermal decomposition of a metal carbonyl
3.1.16
chill-block cooling

process for producing rapidly solidified powders by cooling a thin layer of molten material on a solid

substrate
3.1.17
chopped powder
powder produced by chopping material such as sheet, ribbon, fibre or filament
3.1.18
classification
separation of powder into fractions according to particle size
3.1.19
coated powder
powder consisting of particles having a surface layer of different composition
3.1.20
comminuted powder
powder produced by mechanical disintegration of solid metal
3.1.21
compactability

conceptual term, encompassing the powder characteristics of compressibility (3.1.24), green strength

(3.2.47), edge retention, and lamination tendency, that relates to the ability of a powder to be

consolidated into a usable green compact (3.2.13)

Note 1 to entry: Compactability may be a function of flowability, compressibility and green strength.

3.1.22
completely alloyed powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3) in which each powder particle has a homogeneous chemical composition being

that of the entire powder
3.1.23
composite powder
powder in which each particle consists of two or more different constituents
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ISO 3252:2019(E)
3.1.24
compressibility
capacity of a powder to be densified under an uniaxially applied pressure

Note 1 to entry: The pressure applied is usually a uniaxial pressure in a closed die. Compressibility may be

expressed as the pressure needed to reach a required density or as the density obtained at a given pressure.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 3927.
3.1.25
compression ratio

ratio of the volume of the loose powder to the volume of the compact made from it

3.1.26
cut
fraction of a powder nominally within stated particle size limits
3.1.27
dehydrided powder
powder made by removal of hydrogen from metal hydride
3.1.28
demixing
loss of homogeneity of a powder mix due to excessive mixing time
3.1.29
dendritic
of branched shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
Figure 4 — Dendritic
3.1.30
diffusion-alloyed powder
partially alloyed powder (3.1.3) produced by means of a thermal process
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3.1.31
dopant

substance added in small quantity to a metallic powder to prevent or control recrystallization or grain

growth either during sintering (3.3.60) or during use of the resultant sintered object

Note 1 to entry: This term is especially used in the powder metallurgy of tungsten.

3.1.32
electrolytic powder
powder produced by an electrolytic process
3.1.33
elutriation

classification (3.1.18) of a powder through movement of the particles through a fluid medium

EXAMPLE Air classification and liquid classification.
3.1.34
feedstock

moldable mixture of metal powder and binder (3.1.9) used for injection moulding or powder extrusion

3.1.35
fibrous
having the appearance of regularly or irregularly shaped threads
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
Figure 5 — Fibrous
3.1.36
fill factor

ratio of the height to which a powder fills a die to the height of the compact,

measured after ejection from the die
3.1.37
fines

fraction of a powder that passes through the smallest sieve size used in the sieve analysis (3.1.76)

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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3.1.38
flaky
platelike shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 6.
Figure 6 — Flaky
3.1.39
flowability

qualitative term describing the behaviour of a powder when flowing through a funnel of defined

dimension
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 4490 and ISO 13517.
3.1.40
flowmeter

standardized funnel and cylindrical cup used for the determination of apparent density (3.1.6) and flow

rate (3.1.41)
Note 1 to entry: For apparent density see ISO 3923-1 and ISO 3923-2.
Note 2 to entry: For flow rate see ISO 4490 and ISO 13517.
3.1.41
flow rate

time required for a powder sample of standard weight to flow through an orifice in a standard

instrument according to a specified procedure
[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.42
granular
approximately equidimensional nonspherical shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 7.
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Figure 7 — Granular
3.1.43
granulation

agglomeration of fine particles to obtain a coarser powder with improved flowability

3.1.44
hydrogen loss

loss in weight of metal powder or of a compact caused by heating a representative sample for a specified

time and temperature in a purified hydrogen atmosphere

Note 1 to entry: Broadly, a measure of the oxygen content of the sample when applied to materials containing

only such oxides as are reducible with hydrogen and no hydride forming element. See also ISO 4491-2.

3.1.45
hydrogen-reducible oxygen

oxygen content of a powder emanating from oxygen-bearing constituents reduced by hydrogen under

standardized conditions
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4491-3.
3.1.46
irregular
lacking any symmetry
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 8.
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Figure 8 — Irregular
3.1.47
lubricant

material used to reduce inter-particle friction and the friction between the powder mass and the tooling

3.1.48
master alloy powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3) containing a relatively high concentration of one or more elements that may be

difficult to introduce in their unalloyed states

Note 1 to entry: The master alloy powder is mixed with other powders to produce the required final composition.

3.1.49
mechanical alloying
process of alloying in the solid state by high-energy attritor or ball-mill
3.1.50
mechanically alloyed powder

composite powder (3.1.23) produced by mechanically incorporating other constituents which are

generally insoluble within the deformable particles of the matrix metal
3.1.51
milling

mechanical treatment of metal powder, or metal powder mixtures, as in a ball mill, to alter the size or

shape of the individual particles or to coat one component of the mixture with another

3.1.52
mixed powder

powder made by mixing powders, where the constituent powders differing in composition

3.1.53
mixing
thorough intermingling of powders of two or more materials
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3.1.54
nodular
of rounded irregular shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 9.
Figure 9 — Nodular
3.1.55
oversize

fraction of a powder sample with particle size larger than any specified upper limit

3.1.56
oversize particle
particle larger than any specified upper limit
3.1.57
partially alloyed powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3), the particles of which have not reached the completely alloyed state

3.1.58
particle

unit of powder that cannot readily be subdivided by the usual separation processes

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.

Note 2 to entry: The term “grain” is not synonymous with “particle” and should be used in its normal

metallurgical sense.
3.1.59
particle shape
external geometric form of a powder particle
3.1.60
particle size

linear dimension of an individual particle as determined by analysis with sieves or other suitable means

10 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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3.1.61
particle size distribution

percentage by mass, by numbers or by volume, of each fraction into which a powder sample has been

classified with respect to size
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.62
plasticizer

thermoplastic material used as a binder (3.1.9) for improving formability of powders

3.1.63
powder
particles that are usually less than 1 mm in size
3.1.64
pre-alloyed powder
completely alloyed powder (3.1.3) usually made by atomization of melt (3.1.7)
3.1.65
precipitated powder
powder produced by chemical precipitation from solution
3.1.66
press-ready mix
premix

mixture of powders with other ingredients designed to make the mixture ready for compaction

3.1.67
pulverization

reduction in particle size (3.1.60) of metal powder by mechanical means, a specific type of disintegration

[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.68
pulverized powder
powder made by pulverization (3.1.67)
3.1.69
rapidly solidified powder

powder produced directly or in-directly at high solidification rates such that the particles have a

modified or metastable microstructure
3.1.70
reaction milling

process of mechanical alloying (3.1.49) in which a reaction takes place between the metal and additives,

the atmosphere or both
3.1.71
reduced powder
powder produced by chemical reduction of a metal compound without melting
3.1.72
sample splitter

device by means of which a previously obtained powder sample is split into representative portions

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3954.
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3.1.73
sample thief

device used to draw a representative powder sample from a bulk quantity of powder

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3954.
3.1.74
sedimentation

settling of particles, suspended in a liquid, through the influence of an external force, such as gravity or

centrifugal force
3.1.75
segregation

unintentional separation of one or more constituents of a powder, for example, by particle size or

chemical composition
3.1.76
sieve analysis
screen analysis
screen classification

particle size distribution (3.1.61), usually expressed as the weight percentage retained upon each of a

series of standard sieves of decreasing size and the percentage passed by the sieve of finest size

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.77
sieve set
calibrated series of non-magnetic wire-cloth sieves
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.78
slurry
pourable viscous dispersion of powder in a liquid
3.1.79
specific surface area
total surface area of the particles per unit mass of powder
3.1.80
spheroidal
roughly spherical
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 10.
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ISO 3252:2019(E)
Figure 10 — Spheroidal
3.1.81
sponge powder

porous, reduced powder (3.1.71) produced by comminution of a metal sponge which is in itself a

coherent, highly porous metal
3.1.82
spray drying

process for granulating powders by the rapid evaporation of the liquid from the droplets of a slurry

(3.1.78)
3.1.83
tap density

mass per unit volume of a powder in a container that has been tapped under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3953.
3.1.84
tapping apparatus
device for the determination of tap density (3.1.83)
3.1.85
ultrasonically gas-atomized powder

powder produced by a gas atomization (3.1.7) process in which ultrasonic vibration is applied to

the gas jet
3.1.86
ultrasonic gas-atomizing

atomization (3.1.7) process in which ultrasonic vibration is applied to the gas jet

3.1.87
undersize

fraction of a powder sample with particle size (3.1.60) smaller than any specified lower limit

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3.1.88
undersize particle
particle smaller than any specified lower limit
3.2 Terms relating to forming
3.2.1
adaptor
device in which the press tools are mounted outside the press
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
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Key
1 die 8 inner lower punch
2 upper punch 9 core rod
3 column 10 base plate (lower coupler plate)
4 bolster 11 fork
5 die plate 12 lifting rod
6 clamp ring 13 punch plate
7 wedge 14 adaptor table
NOTE Other types and arrangements exist.
Figure 11 — One type of withdrawal tool set (3.2.78) and press adaptor (3.2.1)
3.2.2
adaptor table
member of the tool set designed to hold the bolster (3.2.6)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
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3.2.3
back relief
undesired dimensional reduction of the die (3.2.23) in the ejection direction
3.2.4
base plate
lower coupler plate

part of the tool set adaptor transmitting the movement of the machine lower ram to the tool set

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.5
blank

pressed, presintered, or fully sintered compact, usually in the unfinished condition, requiring cutting,

machining, or some other operation to give it its final shape
3.2.6
bolster
shrink ring
member of the tool set designed to hold the die (3.2.23)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.7
brown body
debinded body ready to be sintered
3.2.8
canning

encapsulation (3.2.34) in a metallic container which is usually evacuated prior to sealing

3.2.9
clamp ring

member of the tool set ring designed to clamp a die (3.2.23), punch or a core rod (3.2.20)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.10
cold isostatic pressing
CIP

isostatic pressing at ambient temperature, the pressure-transmitting medium normally being a liquid

3.2.11
cold pressing
cold compacting

pressing metal powder using either compacting tools or CIP mold at ambient temperature

3.2.12
column

part of the tool set adaptor guiding the moving parts of the tool set (die plate (3.2.24) and base plate

(3.2.4)) in the compacting direction
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.13
compact
green compact
object prepared from powder by cold-pressing or by injection-moulding
3.2.14
compacting
process of making a compact (3.2.13)
16 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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3.2.15
compacting pressure

specific compacting force related to the projected area of contact with the press punch(es)

3.2.16
composite compact
compound compact

metal powder compact consisting of two or more adhering layers, rings or other shapes of different

metals or alloys with each material retaining its original identity
3.2.17
compound
feed stock
mixture of metal powder, binder (3.1.9) and other additives
3.2.18
consolidation
process in which a powder or compact is densified
3.2.19
continuous-spray deposition

process for the production of a solid object by atomizing a molten or partially molten metallic stream

which, before solidification, impinges on a substrate, where solidification subsequently occurs

3.2.20
core rod

member of the tool set or mould forming the inner profile of a compacted or sintered object in the

compaction direction
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.21
counter-pressure
top-punch hold-down pressure

pressure at which a compact is held between an upper and a lower punch (3.2.53) during a withdrawal

or ejection process (3.2.32)
3.2.22
debinding

remove binder (3.1.7) from injection moulded body before sintering (3.3.60)

3.2.23
die

member of the tool set forming the cavity in which the powder is compacted or the sintered object is

re-pressed
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.24
die plate

upper plate of the tool set adaptor holding the clamp ring (3.2.9), bolster (3.2.6) and die (3.2.23)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.25
die wall lubrication
lubrication of die
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
01-december-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 3252:2001
Metalurgija prahov - Slovar (ISO 3252:2019)
Powder metallurgy - Vocabulary (ISO 3252:2019)
Pulvermetallurgie - Begriffe (ISO 3252:2019)
Métallurgie des poudres - Vocabulaire (ISO 3252:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 3252:2019
ICS:
01.040.77 Metalurgija (Slovarji) Metallurgy (Vocabularies)
77.160 Metalurgija prahov Powder metallurgy
SIST EN ISO 3252:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.77; 77.160 Supersedes EN ISO 3252:2000
English Version
Powder metallurgy - Vocabulary (ISO 3252:2019)

Métallurgie des poudres - Vocabulaire (ISO 3252:2019) Pulvermetallurgie - Begriffe (ISO 3252:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 9 August 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 3252:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
EN ISO 3252:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 3252:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119 "Powder

metallurgy" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/SS M11 “Powder metallurgy” the

secretariat of which is held by CCMC.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 3252:2000.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 3252:2019 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 3252:2019 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 3252
Fifth edition
2019-08
Powder metallurgy — Vocabulary
Métallurgie des poudres — Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 3252:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Terms relating to powders ............................................................................................................................................................ 1

3.2 Terms relating to forming ...........................................................................................................................................................14

3.3 Terms relating to sintering and characteristics of sintered materials .................................................24

3.4 Terms relating to post-sintering treatments ..............................................................................................................30

3.5 Terms relating to powder metallurgy materials .....................................................................................................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................34

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
ISO 3252:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.
This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 119, Powder metallurgy.

This fifth edition cancels and replaces the fourth edition (ISO 3252:1999), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— addition of the mandatory Clause 2 (Normative references);
— addition of terms in current use.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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Introduction
The terms are classified alphabetically under the following main headings:
— powders;
— forming;
— sintering and characteristics of sintered materials;
— post-sintering treatments;
— powder metallurgy materials.

NOTE Additional information on certain terms defined can be found in the standards given in Notes to entry.

These are listed in the Bibliography.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 3252:2019(E)
Powder metallurgy — Vocabulary
1 Scope

This document defines terms relating to powder metallurgy. Powder metallurgy is the branch of

metallurgy which relates to the manufacture of metallic powders, or of articles made from such

powders with or without the addition of non-metallic powders, by the application of forming and

sintering processes.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms relating to powders
3.1.1
acicular
needle-shaped
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
Figure 1 — Acicular
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3.1.2
agglomerate
several particles adhering together
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
Key
1 grain
2 particle
3 agglomerate
Figure 2 — Diagramatic representation of grain, particle and agglomerate
3.1.3
alloyed powder

metal powder consisting of at least two constituents that are partially or completely alloyed with

each other
3.1.4
angle of repose

basal angle of a pile formed by a powder when freely poured under specified conditions on to a

horizontal surface
3.1.5
angular
sharp-edged or roughly polyhedral
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 3.
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Figure 3 — Angular
3.1.6
apparent density
mass per unit volume of a powder obtained following specific methods

Note 1 to entry: For example, ISO 3923-1 related to free-flowing powders and ISO 3923-2 related to non-free-

flowing powders.
3.1.7
atomization

dispersion of a molten metal into particles by a rapidly moving gas or liquid stream or by mechanical

means
[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.8
atomized metal powder
metal powder produced by atomization (3.1.7)
3.1.9
binder

material added to the powder mix to increase the green strength (3.2.47) of the compact or to counteract

dusting and segregation (3.1.75) of fine particulate mix constituents, and which is expelled during

sintering

Note 1 to entry: In hard metals, it is also used for material (binder metal, usually of lower melting point) added to

a powder mixture for the specific purpose of cementing together powder particles which alone would not sinter

into a strong body.
Note 2 to entry: Cementing medium is also used in the field of hard metals.
3.1.10
blended powder
powder made by blending (3.1.11) powders
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3.1.11
blending
thorough intermingling of powders of the same nominal composition
Note 1 to entry: Not to be confused with mixing (3.1.53).
3.1.12
bridging
formation of arched cavities in a powder mass
3.1.13
bulk density
mass per unit volume of a powder under nonstandard conditions
3.1.14
cake
bonded mass of unpressed metal powder
EXAMPLE The condition of a powder mass as it exits an annealing furnace.
3.1.15
carbonyl powder
powder produced by the thermal decomposition of a metal carbonyl
3.1.16
chill-block cooling

process for producing rapidly solidified powders by cooling a thin layer of molten material on a solid

substrate
3.1.17
chopped powder
powder produced by chopping material such as sheet, ribbon, fibre or filament
3.1.18
classification
separation of powder into fractions according to particle size
3.1.19
coated powder
powder consisting of particles having a surface layer of different composition
3.1.20
comminuted powder
powder produced by mechanical disintegration of solid metal
3.1.21
compactability

conceptual term, encompassing the powder characteristics of compressibility (3.1.24), green strength

(3.2.47), edge retention, and lamination tendency, that relates to the ability of a powder to be

consolidated into a usable green compact (3.2.13)

Note 1 to entry: Compactability may be a function of flowability, compressibility and green strength.

3.1.22
completely alloyed powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3) in which each powder particle has a homogeneous chemical composition being

that of the entire powder
3.1.23
composite powder
powder in which each particle consists of two or more different constituents
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3.1.24
compressibility
capacity of a powder to be densified under an uniaxially applied pressure

Note 1 to entry: The pressure applied is usually a uniaxial pressure in a closed die. Compressibility may be

expressed as the pressure needed to reach a required density or as the density obtained at a given pressure.

Note 2 to entry: See ISO 3927.
3.1.25
compression ratio

ratio of the volume of the loose powder to the volume of the compact made from it

3.1.26
cut
fraction of a powder nominally within stated particle size limits
3.1.27
dehydrided powder
powder made by removal of hydrogen from metal hydride
3.1.28
demixing
loss of homogeneity of a powder mix due to excessive mixing time
3.1.29
dendritic
of branched shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 4.
Figure 4 — Dendritic
3.1.30
diffusion-alloyed powder
partially alloyed powder (3.1.3) produced by means of a thermal process
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3.1.31
dopant

substance added in small quantity to a metallic powder to prevent or control recrystallization or grain

growth either during sintering (3.3.60) or during use of the resultant sintered object

Note 1 to entry: This term is especially used in the powder metallurgy of tungsten.

3.1.32
electrolytic powder
powder produced by an electrolytic process
3.1.33
elutriation

classification (3.1.18) of a powder through movement of the particles through a fluid medium

EXAMPLE Air classification and liquid classification.
3.1.34
feedstock

moldable mixture of metal powder and binder (3.1.9) used for injection moulding or powder extrusion

3.1.35
fibrous
having the appearance of regularly or irregularly shaped threads
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 5.
Figure 5 — Fibrous
3.1.36
fill factor

ratio of the height to which a powder fills a die to the height of the compact,

measured after ejection from the die
3.1.37
fines

fraction of a powder that passes through the smallest sieve size used in the sieve analysis (3.1.76)

6 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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3.1.38
flaky
platelike shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 6.
Figure 6 — Flaky
3.1.39
flowability

qualitative term describing the behaviour of a powder when flowing through a funnel of defined

dimension
Note 1 to entry: See ISO 4490 and ISO 13517.
3.1.40
flowmeter

standardized funnel and cylindrical cup used for the determination of apparent density (3.1.6) and flow

rate (3.1.41)
Note 1 to entry: For apparent density see ISO 3923-1 and ISO 3923-2.
Note 2 to entry: For flow rate see ISO 4490 and ISO 13517.
3.1.41
flow rate

time required for a powder sample of standard weight to flow through an orifice in a standard

instrument according to a specified procedure
[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.42
granular
approximately equidimensional nonspherical shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 7.
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Figure 7 — Granular
3.1.43
granulation

agglomeration of fine particles to obtain a coarser powder with improved flowability

3.1.44
hydrogen loss

loss in weight of metal powder or of a compact caused by heating a representative sample for a specified

time and temperature in a purified hydrogen atmosphere

Note 1 to entry: Broadly, a measure of the oxygen content of the sample when applied to materials containing

only such oxides as are reducible with hydrogen and no hydride forming element. See also ISO 4491-2.

3.1.45
hydrogen-reducible oxygen

oxygen content of a powder emanating from oxygen-bearing constituents reduced by hydrogen under

standardized conditions
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4491-3.
3.1.46
irregular
lacking any symmetry
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 8.
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Figure 8 — Irregular
3.1.47
lubricant

material used to reduce inter-particle friction and the friction between the powder mass and the tooling

3.1.48
master alloy powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3) containing a relatively high concentration of one or more elements that may be

difficult to introduce in their unalloyed states

Note 1 to entry: The master alloy powder is mixed with other powders to produce the required final composition.

3.1.49
mechanical alloying
process of alloying in the solid state by high-energy attritor or ball-mill
3.1.50
mechanically alloyed powder

composite powder (3.1.23) produced by mechanically incorporating other constituents which are

generally insoluble within the deformable particles of the matrix metal
3.1.51
milling

mechanical treatment of metal powder, or metal powder mixtures, as in a ball mill, to alter the size or

shape of the individual particles or to coat one component of the mixture with another

3.1.52
mixed powder

powder made by mixing powders, where the constituent powders differing in composition

3.1.53
mixing
thorough intermingling of powders of two or more materials
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SIST EN ISO 3252:2019
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3.1.54
nodular
of rounded irregular shape
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 9.
Figure 9 — Nodular
3.1.55
oversize

fraction of a powder sample with particle size larger than any specified upper limit

3.1.56
oversize particle
particle larger than any specified upper limit
3.1.57
partially alloyed powder

alloyed powder (3.1.3), the particles of which have not reached the completely alloyed state

3.1.58
particle

unit of powder that cannot readily be subdivided by the usual separation processes

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.

Note 2 to entry: The term “grain” is not synonymous with “particle” and should be used in its normal

metallurgical sense.
3.1.59
particle shape
external geometric form of a powder particle
3.1.60
particle size

linear dimension of an individual particle as determined by analysis with sieves or other suitable means

10 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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3.1.61
particle size distribution

percentage by mass, by numbers or by volume, of each fraction into which a powder sample has been

classified with respect to size
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.62
plasticizer

thermoplastic material used as a binder (3.1.9) for improving formability of powders

3.1.63
powder
particles that are usually less than 1 mm in size
3.1.64
pre-alloyed powder
completely alloyed powder (3.1.3) usually made by atomization of melt (3.1.7)
3.1.65
precipitated powder
powder produced by chemical precipitation from solution
3.1.66
press-ready mix
premix

mixture of powders with other ingredients designed to make the mixture ready for compaction

3.1.67
pulverization

reduction in particle size (3.1.60) of metal powder by mechanical means, a specific type of disintegration

[SOURCE: ASTM B243-17]
3.1.68
pulverized powder
powder made by pulverization (3.1.67)
3.1.69
rapidly solidified powder

powder produced directly or in-directly at high solidification rates such that the particles have a

modified or metastable microstructure
3.1.70
reaction milling

process of mechanical alloying (3.1.49) in which a reaction takes place between the metal and additives,

the atmosphere or both
3.1.71
reduced powder
powder produced by chemical reduction of a metal compound without melting
3.1.72
sample splitter

device by means of which a previously obtained powder sample is split into representative portions

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3954.
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ISO 3252:2019(E)
3.1.73
sample thief

device used to draw a representative powder sample from a bulk quantity of powder

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3954.
3.1.74
sedimentation

settling of particles, suspended in a liquid, through the influence of an external force, such as gravity or

centrifugal force
3.1.75
segregation

unintentional separation of one or more constituents of a powder, for example, by particle size or

chemical composition
3.1.76
sieve analysis
screen analysis
screen classification

particle size distribution (3.1.61), usually expressed as the weight percentage retained upon each of a

series of standard sieves of decreasing size and the percentage passed by the sieve of finest size

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.77
sieve set
calibrated series of non-magnetic wire-cloth sieves
Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 4497.
3.1.78
slurry
pourable viscous dispersion of powder in a liquid
3.1.79
specific surface area
total surface area of the particles per unit mass of powder
3.1.80
spheroidal
roughly spherical
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 10.
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ISO 3252:2019(E)
Figure 10 — Spheroidal
3.1.81
sponge powder

porous, reduced powder (3.1.71) produced by comminution of a metal sponge which is in itself a

coherent, highly porous metal
3.1.82
spray drying

process for granulating powders by the rapid evaporation of the liquid from the droplets of a slurry

(3.1.78)
3.1.83
tap density

mass per unit volume of a powder in a container that has been tapped under specified conditions

Note 1 to entry: See also ISO 3953.
3.1.84
tapping apparatus
device for the determination of tap density (3.1.83)
3.1.85
ultrasonically gas-atomized powder

powder produced by a gas atomization (3.1.7) process in which ultrasonic vibration is applied to

the gas jet
3.1.86
ultrasonic gas-atomizing

atomization (3.1.7) process in which ultrasonic vibration is applied to the gas jet

3.1.87
undersize

fraction of a powder sample with particle size (3.1.60) smaller than any specified lower limit

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 13
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3.1.88
undersize particle
particle smaller than any specified lower limit
3.2 Terms relating to forming
3.2.1
adaptor
device in which the press tools are mounted outside the press
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
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ISO 3252:2019(E)
Key
1 die 8 inner lower punch
2 upper punch 9 core rod
3 column 10 base plate (lower coupler plate)
4 bolster 11 fork
5 die plate 12 lifting rod
6 clamp ring 13 punch plate
7 wedge 14 adaptor table
NOTE Other types and arrangements exist.
Figure 11 — One type of withdrawal tool set (3.2.78) and press adaptor (3.2.1)
3.2.2
adaptor table
member of the tool set designed to hold the bolster (3.2.6)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
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3.2.3
back relief
undesired dimensional reduction of the die (3.2.23) in the ejection direction
3.2.4
base plate
lower coupler plate

part of the tool set adaptor transmitting the movement of the machine lower ram to the tool set

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.5
blank

pressed, presintered, or fully sintered compact, usually in the unfinished condition, requiring cutting,

machining, or some other operation to give it its final shape
3.2.6
bolster
shrink ring
member of the tool set designed to hold the die (3.2.23)
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.7
brown body
debinded body ready to be sintered
3.2.8
canning

encapsulation (3.2.34) in a metallic container which is usually evacuated prior to sealing

3.2.9
clamp ring

member of the tool set ring designed to clamp a die (3.2.23), punch or a core rod (3.2.20)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.10
cold isostatic pressing
CIP

isostatic pressing at ambient temperature, the pressure-transmitting medium normally being a liquid

3.2.11
cold pressing
cold compacting

pressing metal powder using either compacting tools or CIP mold at ambient temperature

3.2.12
column

part of the tool set adaptor guiding the moving parts of the tool set (die plate (3.2.24) and base plate

(3.2.4)) in the compacting direction
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.13
compact
green compact
object prepared from powder by cold-pressing or by injection-moulding
3.2.14
compacting
process of making a compact (3.2.13)
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3.2.15
compacting pressure

specific compacting force related to the projected area of contact with the press punch(es)

3.2.16
composite compact
compound compact

metal powder compact consisting of two or more adhering layers, rings or other shapes of different

metals or alloys with each material retaining its original identity
3.2.17
compound
feed stock
mixture of metal powder, binder (3.1.9) and other additives
3.2.18
consolidation
process in which a powder or compact is densified
3.2.19
continuous-spray deposition

process for the production of a solid object by atomizing a molten or partially molten metallic stream

which, before solidification, impinges on a substrate, where solidification subsequently occurs

3.2.20
core rod

member of the tool set or mould forming the inner profile of a compacted or sintered object in the

compaction direction
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.21
counter-pressure
top-punch hold-down pressure

pressure at which a compact is held between an upper and a lower punch (3.2.53) during a withdrawal

or ejection process (3.2.32)
3.2.22
debinding

remove binder (3.1.7) from injection moulded body before sintering (3.3.60)

3.2.23
die

member of the tool set forming the cavity in which the powder is compacted or the sintered object is

re-pressed
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.24
die plate

upper plate of the tool set adaptor holding the clamp ring (3.2.9), bolster (3.2.6) and die (3.2.23)

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 11.
3.2.25
die wall lubrication

lubrication of die wall with solid or liquid lubricant (3.1.47) to eliminate and/or minimize the need for

admixed lubricant to the powder
© ISO
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