Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys (ISO 22825:2017)

This document specifies the approach to be followed when developing procedures for the ultrasonic
testing of the following welds:
— welds in stainless steels;
— welds in nickel-based alloys;
— welds in duplex steels;
— dissimilar metal welds;
— austenitic welds.
The purposes of the testing can be very different, for example:
— for the assessment of quality level (manufacturing);
— for the detection of specific discontinuities induced in service.
Acceptance levels are not included in this document, but can be applied in accordance with the scope of
the testing (see 4.1).
The requirements of this document are applicable to both manual and mechanized testing.

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen - Ultraschallprüfung - Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen in austenitischen Stählen und Nickellegierungen (ISO 22825:2017)

Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés - Contrôle par ultrasons - Contrôle des soudures en aciers austénitiques et en alliages à base nickel (ISO 22825:2017)

L'ISO 22825:2017 spécifie l'approche à suivre pour la mise au point des modes opératoires de contrôle par ultrasons des soudures suivantes:
- soudures sur aciers inoxydables;
- soudures sur alliages à base de nickel;
- soudures sur aciers duplex;
- soudures sur métaux dissemblables;
- soudures sur aciers austénitiques.
Les objectifs des essais peuvent être très différents, par exemple:
- évaluation du niveau de qualité (fabrication);
- détection de discontinuités spécifiques produites au cours du service.
Les niveaux d'acceptation ne sont pas inclus dans l'ISO 22825:2017, mais ils peuvent être appliqués selon le domaine d'application des essais (voir 4.1).
Les exigences de l'ISO 22825:2017 sont applicables à la fois au contrôle manuel et au contrôle mécanisé.

Neporušitveno preskušanje zvarnih spojev - Ultrazvočno preskušanje - Preskušanje zvarnih spojev iz avstenitnih jekel in nikljevih zlitin (ISO 22825:2017)

Ta dokument določa pristop k razvoju postopkov za ultrazvočno preskušanje naslednjih zvarnih spojev:
– zvarni spoji iz nerjavnega jekla;
– zvarni spoji iz nikljevih litin;
– zvarni spoji iz dvojnega jekla;
– zvarni spoji iz različnih kovin;
– avstenitni zvarni spoji.
Nameni preskušanja so lahko zelo različni, na primer:
– vrednotenje ravni kakovosti (proizvodnje);
– ugotavljanje posebnih nehomogenosti, ki se pojavijo pri uporabi.
Ta dokument ne zajema stopenj spremenljivosti, vendar se lahko te uporabijo v skladu s področjem uporabe preskušanja (glej točko 4.1).
Zahteve iz tega dokumenta se uporabljajo za ročno in mehansko preskušanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Nov-2016
Publication Date
14-Feb-2018
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
10-Jan-2018
Due Date
17-Mar-2018
Completion Date
15-Feb-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
01-marec-2018
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN ISO 22825:2012
1HSRUXãLWYHQRSUHVNXãDQMH]YDUQLKVSRMHY8OWUD]YRþQRSUHVNXãDQMH

3UHVNXãDQMH]YDUQLKVSRMHYL]DYVWHQLWQLKMHNHOLQQLNOMHYLK]OLWLQ ,62

Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Testing of welds in austenitic steels

and nickel-based alloys (ISO 22825:2017)

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen - Ultraschallprüfung - Prüfung von

Schweißverbindungen in austenitischen Stählen und Nickellegierungen (ISO
22825:2017)

Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés - Contrôle par ultrasons - Contrôle des

soudures en aciers austénitiques et en alliages à base nickel (ISO 22825:2017)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 22825:2017
ICS:
25.160.40 Varjeni spoji in vari Welded joints and welds
77.080.20 Jekla Steels
77.120.40 Nikelj, krom in njune zlitine Nickel, chromium and their
alloys
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
EN ISO 22825
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
November 2017
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 25.160.40 Supersedes EN ISO 22825:2012
English Version
Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing -
Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based
alloys (ISO 22825:2017)

Essais non destructif des assemblages soudés - Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen -

Contrôle par ultrasons - Contrôle des soudures en Ultraschallprüfung - Prüfung von

aciers austénitiques et en alliages à base nickel (ISO Schweißverbindungen in austenitischen Stählen und

22825:2017) Nickellegierungen (ISO 22825:2017)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 August 2017.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2017 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 22825:2017 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
EN ISO 22825:2017 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
EN ISO 22825:2017 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 22825:2017) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44 “Welding

and allied processes” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding and allied

processes” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2018 and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by May 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 22825:2012.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 22825:2017 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 22825:2017 without any modification.

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22825
Third edition
2017-09
Non-destructive testing of welds —
Ultrasonic testing — Testing of welds
in austenitic steels and nickel-based
alloys
Essais non destructifs des assemblages soudés — Contrôle par
ultrasons — Contrôle des soudures en aciers austénitiques et en
alliages à base nickel
Reference number
ISO 22825:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Information required prior to testing ............................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Items to be defined by specification ..................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Specific information required by the operator prior to testing .................................................................... 2

5 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test equipment....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.1 Conventional equipment ................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6.2 Phased array equipment................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Range setting for compression waves ............................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Sensitivity setting ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 Use of side-drilled holes .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.3 Use of other reference reflectors ............................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Test procedure and ultrasonic techniques ................................................................................................................................ 5

9.1 Development of the test procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Content of the test procedure .................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.3 Selection of ultrasonic technique(s) ..................................................................................................................................... 7

9.4 Optimization of test technique and draft of test procedure ............................................................................. 8

9.5 Practical implications of the use of refracted compression waves ............................................................ 8

10 Classification and sizing of indications ......................................................................................................................................... 9

11 Testing of welds ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11.2 Surface condition and couplant fluid ................................................................................................................................... 9

11.3 Parent metal testing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 9

11.4 Scanning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

11.5 Evaluation of indications .............................................................................................................................................................10

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

12.1 General data ............................................................................................................................................................................................10

12.2 Information related to the test equipment ..................................................................................................................10

12.3 Information related to the testing technique.............................................................................................................11

12.4 Results of testing ................................................................................................................................................................................11

Annex A (informative) Compression wave angle-beam techniques ..................................................................................12

Annex B (informative) Stainless steel calibration blocks for range setting ..............................................................18

Annex C (informative) Reference blocks for sensitivity setting ............................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes,

Subcommittee SC 5, Testing and inspection of welds.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 22825:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— correction of an incorrect equation;
— update of the normative references and the bibliography;
— editorial modifications in the whole document;
— inclusion of the phased array technique.

Requests for official interpretations of any aspect of this document should be directed to the Secretariat

of ISO/TC 44/SC 5 via your national standards body. A complete listing of these bodies can be found at

www.iso.org.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)
Introduction

Welds in austenitic steel components and dissimilar metal welds are widely regarded as very difficult to

test by ultrasound. The problems are mainly associated with unfavourable structure and grain size, as

well as with different material properties which result in inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical

and acoustic properties that contrast with the relatively homogeneous and isotropic behaviour in low-

alloy steel welds.

Austenitic weld metal and other coarse-grained, anisotropic materials can significantly affect the

propagation of ultrasound. In addition, beam distortion, unexpected reflections and wave mode

conversions on the fusion line and/or columnar grains can occur. Therefore it can be difficult and

sometimes impossible for ultrasonic waves to penetrate the weld metal.

Ultrasonic testing of these metals may require techniques that differ from conventional testing

techniques. These special techniques often include the use of dual-element probes designed for

refracted compression (longitudinal) waves or creeping waves rather than for conventional shear

(transverse) waves.

In addition, it is necessary to produce representative reference blocks with welds in order to develop

a testing procedure, set a preliminary sensitivity level, assess the procedure and demonstrate

effectiveness before a definitive procedure is written. Material, weld preparation and welding

procedure, as well as the geometry and surface condition of reference blocks are the same as for the

component being tested.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22825:2017(E)
Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing —
Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys
1 Scope

This document specifies the approach to be followed when developing procedures for the ultrasonic

testing of the following welds:
— welds in stainless steels;
— welds in nickel-based alloys;
— welds in duplex steels;
— dissimilar metal welds;
— austenitic welds.
The purposes of the testing can be very different, for example:
— for the assessment of quality level (manufacturing);
— for the detection of specific discontinuities induced in service.

Acceptance levels are not included in this document, but can be applied in accordance with the scope of

the testing (see 4.1).

The requirements of this document are applicable to both manual and mechanized testing.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5577, Non-destructive testing — Ultrasonic testing — Vocabulary

ISO 7963, Non-destructive testing — Ultrasonic testing — Specification for calibration block No. 2

ISO 9712, Non-destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel

EN 12668-1, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 1: Instruments

EN 12668-2, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 2: Probes

EN 12668-3, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 3: Combined equipment

ISO 17635, Non-destructive testing of welds — General rules for metallic materials

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5577, ISO 17635 and the

following apply.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
dual-element probe

ultrasonic probe in which the transmit and receive transducers are separate and are electrically and

acoustically isolated from each other
3.2
focal distance

〈dual-element probes〉 distance between probe and focal point on the acoustical axis where the acoustic

pressure is at its maximum
3.3
focal curve

〈dual-element probes〉 curve, representing the relationship between sound path and sensitivity of a

probe on a specified material containing specified reflectors
4 Information required prior to testing
4.1 Items to be defined by specification
Information on the following items is required:
a) material type and grade;

b) purpose and extent of testing, including testing for transverse discontinuities, if required;

c) testing levels (see Clause 10);
d) manufacturing or operation stage at which the testing shall be carried out;
e) requirements for access, the surface condition (see 11.2) and temperature;

f) whether or not parent metal testing shall be carried out prior to and/or after welding (see 11.3);

g) reference blocks (see Clauses 6 and 7);
h) personnel qualifications (see Clause 5);
i) reporting requirements (see Clause 12);
j) acceptance criteria and/or recording level.
4.2 Specific information required by the operator prior to testing

Before any testing of a welded joint, the operator shall have access to all the information as specified in

4.1, together with the following additional information:
a) the written testing procedure (see Clause 9);
b) type(s) of parent material and product form (i.e. cast, forged, rolled);
c) the joint preparation and dimensions;
d) the welding procedure or relevant information on the welding process;
e) the time of the testing with regard to any post-weld heat treatment;
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)

f) the result of any parent metal testing carried out prior to and/or after welding;

g) reference points and details of coordinate systems for the test object.
5 Personnel

Personnel performing testing in accordance with this document shall be qualified to an appropriate

level in accordance with ISO 9712 or equivalent in the relevant industrial sector.

In addition to a general knowledge of ultrasonic weld testing, the operators shall be familiar with

and have practical experience in testing problems specifically associated with the type of materials

and weld joints to be tested. Specific training and examination of personnel should be performed on

representative pieces (duplex, austenitic, stainless steel) containing welds and using dual-element

longitudinal wave probes. This training and the examination results should be documented.

If this is not the case, specific training and examination should be performed with the finalized

ultrasonic testing procedures and selected ultrasonic testing equipment on representative samples

containing natural or artificial reflectors similar to those expected. This training and the examination

results should be documented.
6 Test equipment
6.1 Conventional equipment

The equipment used for testing shall fulfil the requirements of EN 12668-1 and EN 12668-2. The

verification of the combined equipment shall be done in accordance with EN 12668-3, with the exception

of dual-element compression wave angle-beam probes, which may be verified on appropriate reference

blocks other than the blocks mentioned in EN 12668-3.

Focal curves shall be available for the dual-element probes to be used, determined on a material

representative of the material to be tested.
6.2 Phased array equipment
Phased array equipment may be used provided that:

— the combination of probe, wedge and focal laws is able to produce sound beams allowing the

implementation of techniques defined in A.1 to A.6;

— the phased array equipment is compliant to the requirements of ISO 18563-1 and ISO 18563-2;

— the verification of the combined equipment shall be done in accordance with ISO 18563-3, with

the exception of dual-element compression wave angle-beam probes, which may be verified on

appropriate reference blocks other than the blocks mentioned in ISO 18563-3.

Focal curves shall be available for the phased array probes to be used, determined on a material

representative of the material to be tested.
7 Range setting for compression waves

Range setting shall be carried out on appropriate calibration blocks, e.g. as shown in Annex B, which

are designed to be similar in dimension to Block No. 2 in accordance with ISO 7963. The dimension of at

least one of the radii of the block used shall be close to the focal distance of the probes.

The index point of each probe shall be marked on the probe’s side, after having optimized the echo

amplitude on the radius closest to its focal distance. Since echo optimization can be difficult for high-

angle probes and creeping wave probes, the shear wave component may be used for optimization

instead. In that case, the calibration methodology shall be included in the test procedure.

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)

Optimization of the echoes shall be done on the two radii separately, and by iteration until the signals

from the smaller and the larger radius are on their correct positions.

Alternatively, the time base may be set with the aid of a single-element straight-beam probe on the

width of the calibration block, and subsequent zero point adjustment with the angle-beam probe placed

on the calibration block, on the radius which is closest to the probe’s focal distance.

For correct geometrical positioning of indications the influence of different sound velocities between

base material and weld material may be taken into account, using the reflectors as used in 8.2 or 8.3.

Range setting shall be carried out prior to each testing. Checks to confirm these settings shall be

performed at least every 4 h and on completion of testing.

Checks shall also be carried out whenever a system parameter is changed or whenever changes in the

equivalent settings are suspected.

If deviations are found during these checks, corrective actions shall be carried out as specified in

Table 1.
Table 1 — Range deviations
1 Deviations ≤ 5 % of the range No correction is needed, test can be continued

2 Deviations > 5 % of the range The setting shall be corrected and all tests carried out over the pre-

vious period shall be repeated
8 Sensitivity setting
8.1 General

Sensitivity setting shall be performed on a reference block with a weld. Annex C shows examples for

reference blocks. The wall thickness of the reference block shall be similar to the wall thickness of the

object to be tested within 10 % or 3 mm, whichever is the larger.

Reference reflectors may be side-drilled holes in the weld centre and/or on the fusion line. Alternatively,

flat-bottomed holes on the fusion line may be used, having the flat bottom in the plane of the fusion line

(weld bevel). Surface notches shall be used as references for near-surface defects. See Figures C.1, C.2

and C.3.

Zone coverage related to wall thickness shall be established on the basis of the focal curves as shown

in Figure A.6 when dual-element probes are used. Zone overlap shall be documented in the procedure.

Setting of sensitivity shall be carried out prior to each testing in accordance with this document.

The gap, g, between test surface and bottom of the probe shoe shall not be greater than 0,5 mm.

For cylindrical or spherical surfaces, this requirement can be checked with Formula (1):

g = (1)
where
D is the diameter, in millimetres, of the test object;

a is the dimension, in millimetres, of the probe shoe in the direction of testing.

If a value for g larger than 0,5 mm results from Formula (1), the probe shoe shall be adapted to the

surface, and the sensitivity and range shall be set accordingly.
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 22825:2018
ISO 22825:2017(E)

Checks to confirm these settings shall be performed at least every 4 h and on completion of testing.

Checks shall also be carried out if a system parameter is changed or if changes in the equivalent settings

are suspected.

If deviations are found during these checks, corrective actions shall be carried out as specified in

Table 2.
Table 2 — Sensitivity deviations
1 Deviations ≤ 2 dB No correction is needed, test can be continued

2 Deviations between 2 dB and 4 dB The setting shall be corrected before testing is continued

3 Reduction in sensitivity > 4 dB The setting shall be corrected and all tests carried out since the last

valid test shall be repeated
4 Increase in sensitivity > 4 dB The setting shall be corrected a
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
01-november-2016
1HSRUXãLWYHQRSUHVNXãDQMH]YDUQLKVSRMHY8OWUD]YRþQRSUHVNXãDQMH
3UHVNXãDQMH]YDUQLKVSRMHYL]DYVWHQLWQLKMHNHOLQQLNOMHYLK]OLWLQ ,62',6


Non-destructive testing of welds - Ultrasonic testing - Testing of welds in austenitic steels

and nickel-based alloys (ISO/DIS 22825:2016)

Zerstörungsfreie Prüfung von Schweißverbindungen - Ultraschallprüfung - Prüfung von

Schweißverbindungen in austenitischen Stählen und Nickellegierungen (ISO/DIS
22825:2016)

Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés - Contrôle par ultrasons - Contrôle des

soudures en aciers austénitiques et en alliages à base nickel (ISO/DIS 22825:2016)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 22825
ICS:
25.160.40 Varjeni spoji in vari Welded joints and welds
77.080.20 Jekla Steels
77.120.40 Nikelj, krom in njune zlitine Nickel, chromium and their
alloys
oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 22825
ISO/TC 44/SC 5 Secretariat: AFNOR
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2016-09-13 2016-12-05
Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing —
Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys

Contrôle non destructif des assemblages soudés — Contrôle par ultrasons — Contrôle des soudures en

aciers austénitiques et en alliages à base nickel
ICS: 25.160.40
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 22825:2016(E)
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oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
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oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
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Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Information required prior to testing ............................................................................................................................................ 2

4.1 Items to be defined by specification ..................................................................................................................................... 2

4.2 Specific information required by the operator prior to testing .................................................................... 2

5 Personnel ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

6 Test equipment....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7 Range setting for compression waves ............................................................................................................................................ 3

8 Sensitivity setting ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8.2 Use of side-drilled holes .................................................................................................................................................................. 5

8.3 Use of other reference reflectors ............................................................................................................................................. 5

9 Test procedure and ultrasonic techniques ................................................................................................................................ 5

9.1 Development of the test procedure ....................................................................................................................................... 5

9.2 Content of the procedure ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

9.3 Selection of ultrasonic technique(s) ..................................................................................................................................... 7

9.4 Optimization of test technique and draft of test procedure ............................................................................. 7

9.5 Practical implications of the use of refracted compression waves ............................................................ 7

10 Classification and sizing of indications ......................................................................................................................................... 8

11 Testing of welds ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.2 Surface condition and couplant fluid ................................................................................................................................... 8

11.3 Parent metal testing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11.4 Scanning ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

11.5 Evaluation of indications ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12.1 General data ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

12.2 Information related to the test equipment ..................................................................................................................10

12.3 Information related to the testing technique.............................................................................................................10

12.4 Results of testing ................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Compression wave angle-beam techniques ..................................................................................11

Annex B (informative) Stainless steel calibration blocks for range setting ..............................................................17

Annex C (informative) Reference blocks for sensitivity setting ............................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

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oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 44/SC 5.

ISO 22825 was prepared by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee

TC 121, Welding, Sub-committee SC 5, Testing of welds, in collaboration with Technical Committee

ISO/TC 44, Welding and allied processes, Subcommittee SC 5, Testing and inspection of welds, in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 22825:2012), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes are:
— correction of an incorrect equation;
— update of the references;
— compression wave angle-beam techniques,
— stainless steel calibration blocks for range setting;
— examples of reference blocks.
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Introduction

Welds in austenitic steel components and dissimilar metal welds are widely regarded as very difficult to

test by ultrasound. The problems are mainly associated with unfavourable structure and grain size, as

well as with different material properties which result in inhomogeneous and anisotropic mechanical

and acoustic properties that contrast with the relatively homogeneous and isotropic behaviour in low-

alloy steel welds.

Austenitic weld metal and other coarse-grained, anisotropic materials can significantly affect the

propagation of ultrasound. In addition, beam distortion, unexpected reflections and wave mode

conversions on the fusion line and/or columnar grains can occur. Therefore it can be difficult and

sometimes impossible for ultrasonic waves to penetrate the weld metal.

Ultrasonic testing of these metals may require techniques that differ from conventional testing

techniques. These special techniques often include the use of dual-element probes designed for

refracted compression (longitudinal) waves or creeping waves rather than for conventional shear

(transverse) waves.

In addition, it is necessary to produce representative reference blocks with welds in order to develop

a testing procedure, set a preliminary sensitivity level, assess the procedure and demonstrate

effectiveness before a definitive procedure is written. Material, weld preparation and welding

procedure, as well as the geometry and surface condition of reference blocks are the same as for the

component being tested.
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oSIST prEN ISO 22825:2016
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 22825:2016(E)
Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing —
Testing of welds in austenitic steels and nickel-based alloys
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the approach to be followed when developing procedures for the

ultrasonic testing of the following welds:
— welds in stainless steels;
— welds in nickel-based alloys;
— welds in duplex steels;
— dissimilar metal welds;
— austenitic welds.
The purposes of the testing can be very different, e.g.:
— for the assessment of quality level (manufacturing);
— for the detection of specific discontinuities indications induced in service.

Acceptance levels are not included in this International Standard, but can be applied in accordance with

the scope of the testing (see Clause 5).

The requirements of this International Standard are applicable to both manual and mechanized testing.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5577, Non-destructive testing — Ultrasonic inspection — Vocabulary

ISO 7963, Non-destructive testing — Ultrasonic testing --- Specification for calibration block No. 2

ISO 9712, Non-destructive testing — Qualification and certification of NDT personnel

ISO 17635, Non-destructive testing of welds — General rules for metallic materials

ISO 17640, Non-destructive testing of welds — Ultrasonic testing — Techniques, testing levels, and

assessment

EN 12668-1, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 1: Instruments

EN 12668-2, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 2: Probes

EN 12668-3, Non-destructive testing — Characterization and verification of ultrasonic examination

equipment — Part 3: Combined equipment
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3 Terms a nd definiti ons

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5577, ISO 17635 and the

following apply.
3.1
dual-element probe

ultrasonic probe in which the transmit and receive transducers are separate and are electrically and

acoustically isolated from each other
3.2
focal distance

〈dual element probes〉 distance between probe and focal point on the acoustical axis where the acoustic

pressure is at its maximum
3.3
focal curve

〈dual element probes〉 curve, representing the relationship between sound path and sensitivity of a

probe on a specified material containing specified reflectors
4 Information required prior to testing
4.1 Items to be defined by specification
Information on the following items is required:
a) material type and grade;

b) purpose and extent of testing, including testing for transverse discontinuities, if required;

c) testing levels (see Clause 10);
d) manufacturing or operation stage at which the testing shall be carried out;
e) requirements for access, the surface condition (see 11.2) and temperature;

f) whether or not parent metal testing shall be carried out prior to and/or after welding (see 11.3);

g) reference blocks (see Clauses 6 and 7);
h) personnel qualifications (see Clause 5);
i) reporting requirements (see Clause 12);
j) acceptance criteria and/or recording level.
4.2 Specific informatio n required by the operator prior to testing

Before any testing of a welded joint, the operator shall have access to all the information as specified in

4.1, together with the following additional information:
a) the written testing procedure (see Clause 9);
b) type(s) of parent material and product form (i.e. cast, forged, rolled);
c) the joint preparation and dimensions;
d) the welding procedure or relevant information on the welding process;
e) the time of the testing with regard to any post-weld heat treatment;
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f) the result of any parent metal testing carried out prior to and/or after welding;

g) reference points and details of co-ordinate systems for the test object.
5 Personnel

Personnel performing testing in accordance with this International Standard shall be qualified to an

appropriate level in accordance with ISO 9712 or equivalent in the relevant industrial sector.

In addition to a general knowledge of ultrasonic weld testing, the operators shall be familiar with

and have practical experience in testing problems specifically associated with the type of materials

and weld joints to be tested. Specific training and examination of personnel should be performed on

representative pieces (duplex, austenitic, stainless steel) containing welds and using dual-element

longitudinal wave probes. This training and the examination results should be documented.

If this is not the case, specific training and examination should be performed with the finalized

ultrasonic testing procedures and selected ultrasonic testing equipment on representative samples

containing natural or artificial reflectors similar to those expected. This training and the examination

results should be documented.
6 Test equipment

The equipment used for testing shall fulfil the requirements of EN 12668-1 and EN 12668-2. The

verification of the combined equipment shall be done in accordance with EN 12668-3, with the exception

of dual-element compression wave angle-beam probes, which can be verified on appropriate reference

blocks other than the blocks mentioned in EN 12668-3.

Focal curves shall be available for the dual-element probes to be used, determined on a material

representative of the material to be tested.
7 Range setting for compression waves

Range setting shall be carried out on appropriate calibration blocks, e.g. on blocks which are designed

to be similar to block No. 2 (see ISO 7963) as shown in Annex B. The dimension of at least one of the

radii of the block used shall be close to the focal distance of the probes.

The index point of each probe shall be marked on the probe’s side, after having optimized the echo

amplitude on the radius closest to its focal distance. Since echo optimization can be difficult for high-

angle probes and creeping wave probes, the shear wave component may be used for optimization

instead. In that case, the calibration methodology shall be included in the test procedure.

Optimization of the echoes shall be done on the two radii separately, and by iteration until the signals

from the smaller and the larger radius are on their correct positions.

Alternatively, the time base may be set with the aid of a single-element straight-beam probe on the

width of the calibration block, and subsequent zero point adjustment with the angle-beam probe placed

on the calibration block, on the radius which is closest to the probe’s focal distance.

Range setting shall be carried out prior to each testing. Checks to confirm these settings shall be

performed at least every 4 h and on completion of testing.

Checks shall also be carried out whenever a system parameter is changed or whenever changes in the

equivalent settings are suspected.

If deviations are found during these checks, corrective actions shall be carried out as specified in

Table 1.
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Table 1 — Range deviations
1 Deviations ≤ 5 % of the range No correction is needed, test can be continued

2 Deviations > 5 % of the range The setting shall be corrected and all tests carried out over the pre-

vious period shall be repeated
8 Sensitivity setting
8.1 General

Sensitivity setting shall be performed on a reference block with a weld. Annex C shows examples for

reference blocks. The wall thickness of the reference block shall be similar to the wall thickness of the

object to be tested within 10 % or 3 mm, whichever is the larger.

Reference reflectors may be side-drilled holes in the weld centre and/or on the fusion line. Alternatively,

flat-bottomed holes on the fusion line may be used, having the flat bottom in the plane of the fusion line

(weld bevel). Surface notches shall be used as references for near-surface defects. See Figures C.1, C.2,

and C.3.

Zone coverage related to wall thickness shall be established on the basis of the focal curves as shown in

A.6 when dual-element probes are used. Zone overlap shall be documented in the procedure.

Setting of sensitivity shall be carried out prior to each testing in accordance with this International

Standard.

The gap, g, between test surface and bottom of the probe shoe shall not be greater than 0,5 mm.

For cylindrical or spherical surfaces, this requirement can be checked with Equation (1):

g = (1)
where
D is the diameter, in millimetres, of the test object;

a is the dimension, in millimetres, of the probe shoe in the direction of testing.

If a value for g larger than 0,5 mm results from Equation (1), the probe shoe shall be adapted to the

surface, and the sensitivity and range shall be set accordingly.

Checks to confirm these settings shall be performed at least every 4 h and on completion of testing.

Checks shall also be carried out if a system parameter is changed or if changes in the equivalent settings

are suspected.

If deviations are found during these checks, corrective actions shall be carried out as specified in

Table 2.
Table 2 — Sensitivity deviations
1 Deviations ≤ 2 dB No correction is needed, test can be continued

2 Deviations between 2 dB and 4 dB The setting shall be corrected before testing is continued

3 Reduction in sensitivity > 4 dB The setting shall be corrected and all tests carried out since the last

valid test shall be repeated

4 Increase in sensitivity > 4 dB The setting shall be corrected and all indications recorded since the

last valid test shall be re-evaluated
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8.2 Use of side-drilled holes

If the reflectors in the fusion line are used, sensitivity settings shall be performed:

a) by establishing the echo height with the sound beam passing through the parent material only;

b) by establishing the echo height with the sound beam passing through the weld metal.

If the reflectors in the weld centreline are used, sensitivity setting may be performed from one side

only, with the exception of dissimilar metal welds (where the acoustic properties of the parent metal

are different on one side compared to the other).
The diameter of side-drilled holes shall be typically 3 mm.
8.3 Use of other reference reflectors

Where specific discontinuities are to be detected and/or in a particular limited zone of the weld, other

types and dimensions of reference reflectors may be used. In that case, specific conditions of sensitivity

setting shall be defined.

In weld testing on pipes, flat-bottomed holes and notches are typically used as reference reflectors. An

example for a pipeline girth weld is given in Figure C.2.

The position of the flat-bottomed hole shall be determined from a macro-section of the austenitic weld,

positioned accordingly in the reference block and machined to position the flat bottom at the fusion line.

9 Test procedure and ultrasonic techniques
9.1 Development of the test procedure

The development of a procedure shall follow the main steps as mentioned in the flowchart shown in

Figure 1.
9.2 Content of the procedure

A procedure shall be written and shall include the following information as a minimum:

a) the purpose and extent of testing;
b) the testing techniques;
c) the testing levels;

NOTE For the testing of austenitic steels, the testing levels are not defined in ISO 17640 as for ferritic

steels. However, it is important to set them to take into account the required probability of detection in each

area under consideration.
d) personnel qualification/training requirements;
e) the equipment requirements;
f) the probe for each zone or part of the bevel;
g) the reference blocks;
h) test blocks, if applicable;
i) the setting of test equipment;
j) available access and surface conditions;
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k) the scanning directions and probe positions;
l) the testing of parent material;
m) the evaluation of indications;
n) the acceptance levels and/or recording levels;
o) the reporting requirements;
p) environmental and safety issues.
Figure 1 — Steps necessary when producing a written ultrasonic procedure
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9.3 Selection of ultrasonic technique(s)

The technique(s) to be used shall be selected on the basis of initial tests measurements on relevant test

samples (see Annex C). Such measurements shall include the determination of transfer losses on the

parent metal (using shear waves), exploratory tests to get an impression of the noise level in the weld

(using shear and compression waves), and tests through the weld metal with artificial reflectors (to get

an impression of the achievable signal-to-noise ratios in different parts of the weld).

In any case, it shall be verified that all reference reflectors in the reference weld (including those to be

detected through the weld metal) are detected with at least the minimum signal-to-noise ratio according

to the specification. Dependent on the results obtained, one of the following situations can arise.

a) The structure of the weld and the parent metal are both relatively fine grained.

This may imply that conventional ultrasonic techniques (shear-wave probes) can be used. If the

signal-to-noise ratio is at least 12 dB, then ISO 17640 can be applied without restrictions.

b) The structure of the parent metal is fine grained but the structure of the weld metal is coarse.

This means that the parent metal allows unrestricted penetration of shear waves and compression

waves, but shear waves have difficulty in penetrating the weld. In this case, compression waves

shall be used for at least those functions used to detect reflectors in, or through, the weld metal.

Shear waves may be used for detection of defects on the fusion line that do not require penetration

through the weld metal. To detect discontinuiti
...

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