Railway applications - Line categories for managing the interface between load limits of vehicles and infrastructure

This European Standard is applicable to the lines with standard track gauge (1435°mm) and wider track gauges of the heavy rail system and the vehicles that are operated on these lines, except portable trolleys as defined by EN 13977 and maintenance vehicles (e.g. rail mounted plant, cranes) in their working or travelling modes (see EN 14033-2).
This European Standard describes methods of classification of existing and new lines of the heavy rail system and the categorisation of rail vehicles.
This European Standard gives guidance to a reliable and established management of the interface between rail vehicles and the heavy rail network and does not impose any requirements on either vehicles or infrastructure.
The application of this European standard enables to ensure the static route compatibility between a rail vehicle and the heavy rail network with respect to the vertical load carrying capacity.
It contains requirements relevant to:
- classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of lines of the heavy rail network;
- allocation of rail vehicles to line categories (categorisation);
- determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
Out of the scope of this European standard are
- assessments of compatibility based on the parameter axle load alone;
- compatibility checks for cases where an additional dynamic analysis is required (for example according to EN 1991-2:2003, 6.4.4);
- requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train;
- the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are classified in accordance with the RA (Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent categories in accordance with this European Standard is given in Annex M;
- the publication of line categories.
The requirements of this European Standard do not replace any regulations related to running behaviour of vehicles described by the assessment quantities for running safety, track loading and ride characteristics (see EN 14363).

Bahnanwendungen - Streckenklassen zur Behandlung der Schnittstelle zwischen Lastgrenzen der Fahrzeuge und Infrastruktur

Dieses Dokument ist anzuwenden für die Strecken mit Standard-Spurweite (1 435 mm) und breitere Spurweiten des Vollbahnsystems  und die auf diesen Strecken betriebenen Fahrzeuge. Dies umfasst Maschinen, die für Bauvorhaben, Instandhaltung, Inspektion, Reparatur und Erneuerung verwendet werden, sofern sie im Fahrmodus betrieben werden, jedoch nicht, wenn sie im Arbeits- oder Versetzfahrmodus betrieben werden.
Dieses Dokument legt Klassifizierungsverfahren für bestehende und neue Vollbahnstrecken und die Einstufung von Schienenfahrzeugen fest.
Dieses Dokument gibt Leitlinien für eine zuverlässige und zugelassene Handhabung der Schnittstelle zwischen Schienenfahrzeugen und Vollbahnschienennetz und stellt weder Anforderungen an Fahrzeuge noch an die Infrastruktur.
Die Anwendung dieses Dokuments ermöglicht es, die statische Routenkompatibilität zwischen einem Schienenfahrzeug und dem Vollbahnschienennetz mit Hinblick auf die vertikale Tragfähigkeit sicherzustellen.
Es enthält Anforderungen, die Folgendes betreffen:
—   die Klassifizierung der vertikalen Tragfähigkeit von Strecken des Vollbahnschienennetzes;
—   die Zuordnung von Schienenfahrzeugen zu Streckenklassen (Einstufung);
—   die Bestimmung der Nutzlastgrenzen von Güterwagen.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht anzuwenden für:
—   Beurteilung der Kompatibilität basierend allein auf der Grundlage des Parameters Radsatzlast;
—   Kompatibilitätsprüfungen für Fälle, in denen eine zusätzliche dynamische Analyse erforderlich ist (beispielsweise nach EN 1991 2);
—   Anforderungen hinsichtlich der maximalen Gesamtmasse oder der maximalen Zuglänge;
—   das in Großbritannien verwendete System, wonach alle Strecken und Fahrzeuge nach dem RA-System (Route Availability) eingeteilt werden. Eine Anleitung zu den äquivalenten Streckenklassen nach dieser Europäischen Norm wird in Anhang F gegeben;
—   die Veröffentlichung der Streckenklassen.
Die Anforderungen dieses Dokuments ersetzen nicht die Bestimmungen zum Fahrverhalten von Fahrzeugen, das anhand der Bewertungsgrößen für die Fahrsicherheit, die Fahrwegbeanspruchung und das Schwingungsverhalten beschrieben wird (siehe EN 14363).

Applications ferroviaires - Catégories de ligne pour la gestion des interfaces entre limites de charges des véhicules et de l'infrastructure

Le présent document est applicable aux lignes à écartement de voie standard (1 435°mm) et supérieur sur le système ferroviaire pour le transport lourd, ainsi qu'aux véhicules circulant sur ces lignes, hors machines portables et lorries définis dans l'EN 13977 et aux véhicules de maintenance (p. ex. équipement monté sur rail, grues) en mode d'exploitation ou de déplacement (voir l'EN 14033 2).
Le présent document décrit les méthodes de classification des lignes existantes et nouvelles du système ferroviaire pour le transport lourd et la catégorisation des véhicules ferroviaires.
Le présent document fournit des recommandations en vue d'une gestion fiable et établie de l'interface entre les véhicules ferroviaires et le réseau ferroviaire pour le transport lourd ; il ne fixe aucune exigence pour les véhicules ni les infrastructures.
L'application du présent document permet de garantir la compatibilité statique de l'itinéraire entre un véhicule ferroviaire et le réseau ferroviaire pour le transport lourd qu'il emprunte du point de vue de la capacité de charge portante verticale.
Il contient des exigences relatives à :
- la classification de la capacité de charge portante verticale des lignes du réseau ferroviaire pour le transport lourd ;
- l'attribution de catégories de lignes à des véhicules ferroviaires (catégorisation) ;
- la détermination des limites de charge utile des wagons de fret.
Sont exclus du domaine d'application du présent document :
- les évaluations de compatibilité basées exclusivement sur le paramètre de charge par essieu ;
- les contrôles de compatibilité pour les cas dans lesquels une analyse dynamique supplémentaire est nécessaire (par exemple selon l'EN 1991 2:2003, 6.4.4) ;
- les exigences relatives à la masse maximale totale ou à la longueur maximale d'un train ;
- le système utilisé en Grande-Bretagne où toutes les lignes et tous les véhicules sont classés en conformité avec le système RA (Route Availability). Un guide d'équivalence de ces classes par rapport à la présente Norme Européenne est fourni en Annexe M ;
- la publication des catégories de ligne.
Les exigences du présent document ne remplacent pas les règlementations relatives au comportement dynamique des véhicules décrit par les grandeurs d'évaluation de la sécurité de circulation, de la sollicitation de la voie et de la qualité de marche (voir l'EN 14363).

Železniške naprave - Kategorizacija prog za upravljanje vmesnika med dopustnimi obremenitvami vozil in infrastrukturo

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Sep-2020
Publication Date
08-Dec-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Dec-2021
Due Date
13-Feb-2022
Completion Date
09-Dec-2021

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Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 15528:2022
01-februar-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15528:2016
Železniške naprave - Kategorizacija prog za upravljanje vmesnika med dopustnimi
obremenitvami vozil in infrastrukturo

Railway applications - Line categories for managing the interface between load limits of

vehicles and infrastructure
Bahnanwendungen - Streckenklassen zur Behandlung der Schnittstelle zwischen
Lastgrenzen der Fahrzeuge und Infrastruktur

Applications ferroviaires - Catégories de ligne pour la gestion des interfaces entre limites

de charges des véhicules et de l'infrastructure
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 15528:2021
ICS:
03.220.30 Železniški transport Transport by rail
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
SIST EN 15528:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 15528:2022
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
December 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 03.220.30; 45.060.20 Supersedes EN 15528:2015
English Version
Railway applications - Line categories for managing the
interface between load limits of vehicles and
infrastructure

Applications ferroviaires - Catégories de ligne pour la Bahnanwendungen - Streckenklassen zur Behandlung

gestion des interfaces entre limites de charges des der Schnittstelle zwischen Lastgrenzen der Fahrzeuge

véhicules et de l'infrastructure und Infrastruktur
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 August 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 15528:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................... 6

4 Classification system ................................................................................................................................... 10

5 Classification of infrastructure ............................................................................................................... 12

6 Categorization of vehicles ......................................................................................................................... 14

7 Static compatibility of the interface between vehicle and infrastructure ............................... 22

Annex A (normative) Reference wagons and load models representing the line categories ........ 24

Annex B (informative) Flow chart: Classification of infrastructure and categorization of

vehicles ............................................................................................................................................................ 29

Annex C (informative) Speeds which do not require dynamic compatibility checks ....................... 30

Annex D (informative) Methods used to determine the load carrying capacity of existing

structures ........................................................................................................................................................ 32

Annex E (informative) Application of line classification result ................................................................ 33

Annex F (informative) Comparison of RA classification with line categories ..................................... 35

Annex G (informative) Example of calculation methodology .................................................................... 36

Annex H (informative) Maximum permissible axle load P – Wagons with two 2-axle bogies ....... 42

Annex I (informative) Maximum permissible axle load P – Wagons with two 3-axle bogies ........ 45

Annex J (informative) Line categories of 6-axle locomotives .................................................................... 48

Annex K (informative) L4 locomotive classes (4-axle locomotives) ....................................................... 49

Annex L (informative) L6 locomotive classes (6-axle locomotives) ....................................................... 50

Annex M (informative) Weight note for locomotives ................................................................................... 52

Annex N (informative) Geometric train parameters .................................................................................... 55

Annex O (informative) Categorization of MUs by parameter check Identification of line

category by maximum axle load ............................................................................................................. 57

Annex P (informative) Guidance for tabling light rail MUs into line category a10, a12 or a14 .... 64

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 73

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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 15528:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

application”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by June 2022, and conflicting national standards shall be

withdrawn at the latest by June 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a Standardization Request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
This document supersedes EN 15528:2015.
Significant technical changes between this document and EN 15528:2015 are:

— All information about dynamic compatibility was deleted including Annexes C, D, E and P (in future

part of a TR prepared by TC250/SC1/WG 3/ TG DIBRST);

— For coaches and multiple units an additional categorization is introduced for different values of

standing passengers per m in the load case Design mass with exceptional payload (MXD) according

to EN 15663:2017+A1:2018;

— Clarification of the informative character of Annex C (Annex F in the previous version) about speeds

which do not require additional dynamic compatibility checks.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards body.

A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland,

Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North

Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United

Kingdom.
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
Introduction

The existing European heavy rail system (see EN 17343:2020) consists of elements designed for varying

historical requirements. Most civil engineering elements of the heavy rail system were built before the

introduction of the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSIs) and the Eurocodes for the design

of structures.

This document specifies a line classification system to manage the interface between the load limits for

rail vehicles and the payload limits for freight wagons and the vertical load carrying capacity of a line.

The line classification system takes into account parameters such as:
— axle load (P);
— geometrical aspects relating to the spacing of axles;
— mass per unit length (p);
— speed;

and provides a transparent method for determining whether the vertical loading characteristics of

vehicles are compatible with the load carrying capacity of lines on the network.

The line classification system utilizes a suite of line categories specified in this standard by a load model.

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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
1 Scope

This document is applicable to the lines with standard track gauge (1 435 mm) and wider track gauges

of the heavy rail system and the vehicles that are operated on these lines. This includes machines used

for construction, maintenance, inspection, repair and renewal when they are operated in running mode,

but not, when they are in working or travelling mode.

This document specifies methods of classification of existing and new lines of the heavy rail system and

the categorization of rail vehicles.

This document gives guidance to a reliable and established management of the interface between rail

vehicles and the heavy rail network and does not impose any requirements on either vehicles or

infrastructure.

The application of this document enables to ensure the static route compatibility between a rail vehicle

and the heavy rail network with respect to the vertical load carrying capacity.
It contains requirements relevant to:

— classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of lines of the heavy rail network;

— allocation of rail vehicles to line categories (categorization);
— determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
This document does not apply to:
— assessments of compatibility based on the parameter axle load alone;

— compatibility checks for cases where an additional dynamic analysis is required (for example

according to EN 1991-2);
— requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train;

— the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are classified in accordance with the RA

(Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent line categories in accordance with this

European Standard is given in Annex F;
— the publication of line categories.

The requirements of this document do not replace any regulations related to running behaviour of

vehicles described by the assessment quantities for running safety, track loading and ride characteristics

(see EN 14363).

According to a note in EN 17343:2020, the heavy rail system “has typically an infrastructure which is designed

for an axle load of at least 17 t”. This European standard covers also parts of the networks with lower load capacities.

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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1991-2, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges
EN 15663:2017+A1:2018, Railway applications - Vehicle reference masses

EN 15877-1, Railway applications - Marking on railway vehicles - Part 1: Freight wagons

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
associated maximum speed
local maximum speed for which the line category is valid
3.1.2
axle load

sum of the static vertical wheel forces exerted on the track through a wheelset or a pair of independent

wheels divided by g

Note 1 to entry: In this standard “load” and “force” are described with units of “mass” (kg or t).

3.1.3
axle spacing
design values of the distances between the centres of adjacent axles
3.1.4
bending moment

designation of an internal moment (e.g. in kNm) of a beam as used in structural design

3.1.5
categorisation of vehicles

statement of the vertical loading characteristics of a heavy rail vehicle, according to the combination of

axle loads and axle spacing, by allocation of a line category
3.1.6
classification of infrastructure

statement of the load carrying capacity of infrastructure on a line by allocation of a line category and

related speed information
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
3.1.7
compatibility

demonstration of the satisfactory interface between the load effects of the vehicles and the load capacity

of the infrastructure
3.1.8
length over buffers
length over buffers or between coupling planes in case of no buffers
3.1.9
line
track or tracks between two locations forming a part of the heavy rail network
3.1.10
line category
specific load model based on reference wagons as described in Annex A
3.1.11
line speed
general maximum speed of traffic on a route
3.1.12
load limit
maximum allowable payload for a wagon related to each line category
3.1.13
load model
model specified by a specific formation of reference wagons
3.1.14
locomotive class
reference vehicle with representative locomotive parameters
Note 1 to entry: In this standard, power heads are considered as locomotives.
3.1.15
mass per unit length
mass of a vehicle or unit divided by length over buffers
3.1.16
maximum passenger traffic speed/maximum freight traffic speed

additional information giving the general limit to the maximum traffic speed on a line according to the

type of traffic
3.1.17
reference wagon

virtual vehicle used as a module of loading for a load model defined by axle load, axle spacing and mass

per unit length
3.1.18
route
path of a train between two locations of the network along one or more lines
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
3.1.19
series of locomotives

locomotives designed to be equal (the same axle spacing and the same nominal values for mass m and,

nom
axle loads P )
i,nom
3.1.20
shear force

designation of an internal force (e.g. in kN) of a beam as used in structural design

3.1.21
special vehicles

vehicles which are designed for maintenance, inspection or renewal of infrastructure elements or for

special transport purposes where the fleet is operated with a low mileage compared to normal heavy rail

vehicles including:
a) maintenance vehicles including:
1) cranes and matching wagons;
2) on-track machines (see EN 14033 (all parts));
3) road rail machines (see EN 15746 (all parts));
4) demountable machines (see EN 15955 (all parts));
5) trailers (see EN 15954 (all parts));
b) monitoring and inspection vehicles, including:
1) track inspection vehicles;
2) catenary inspection vehicles;
c) special transport vehicles, including:
1) transformer transporter;
2) crucible transporters;
3) loaded wagons with more than eight axles (UIC 502-1).
3.1.22
wheel load
static vertical wheel/rail contact forces divided by g

Note 1 to entry: The terminology in this standard for “load” and “force” is used with the meaning and units of

“mass” (kg or t).
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
2a* bogie spacing between pivot centres within a vehicle m
2a* adopted value of 2a* used in Annex P m
adopted
2a* 2a* value in tables of Annex P m
table
2a* 2a* value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
2a axle spacing in a bogie m
+ +
2a 2a value in tables of Annex P m
table
+ +
2a 2a value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
AB articulated bogie —
a distance between axles m
b distance from end axle to the end of the nearest coupling plane m
c distance between two inside axles m
CB conventional bogie —
ETCS European Train Control System —
HSLM High Speed Load Model —
d distance between axle n and axle (n-1) m
g acceleration due to gravity 9,81 m/s
L length over buffers m
L_Coa coach length m
m mass t
m nominal values for mass t
nom
m modified nominal value for mass due to excess of tolerances t
nom,excess
MU multiple unit —
n axle number —
p mass per unit length t/m
P axle load of axle i t
P nominal value for axle load of axle i t
i,nom
P maximum axle load for a Line Category t
LineCategory
P modified nominal value for axle load due to excess of tolerances t
nom,excess
P reduced value of axle load t
red
P maximum axle load within the unit t
unit
Qi mean wheel load of axle i t
Q /Q wheel load of axle i right or left t
ir il
RA Route Availability —
SA single axle —
s distance between axle n and axle 1 m
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
u +u bogie spacing between pivot centres of adjacent vehicles m
1 2
u overhang of end coaches m
u overhang value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
u overhang value in tables of Annex P m
table
UIC International Union of Railways —
v speed km/h
4 Classification system
4.1 Definition of line categories

The use of a classification system using line categories permits easy understanding of the load-related

compatibility of vehicles and infrastructure. A flow chart of the classification of infrastructure and the

categorization of vehicles is shown in Annex B.

The line category resulting from the classification process for infrastructure represents the ability of the

infrastructure (track, track substructures, earthworks, civil engineering structures) to withstand the

static vertical loads imposed by vehicles on the line or section of line for regular service.

Each line category (a10, a12, a14, A, B1, B2, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, D4, D5, D4xL and also E4 and E5, E6) is

specified by a load model based on reference wagons specified by the characteristics given in Annex A:

— axle load;
— geometrical characteristics of the spacing of axles;
— length of the vehicle.

The value “mass per unit length” of the reference wagon is determined from the above parameters.

4.2 Correlation to types of vehicles

The load effects of different vehicle types are compared to the load models defining the different line

categories.

The majority of vehicles including freight wagons with their corresponding payload are covered by the

line categories A, B1, B2, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, D4.

Line categories D5, E4, E5 and E6 are specified exclusively for freight wagons exceeding the parameters

of the line categories D4 and D4xL.
Locomotives are covered additionally by:

— line category D4xL (plus optional detailed specification for axle spacing ranges);

— locomotive classes L4 and L6.
Coaches and Multiple Units are covered additionally by:

— line categories a10, a12, a14 (plus optional detailed specification for axle spacing and vehicle

lengths). Line categories a10, a12 and a14 have been specially developed for light heavy rail vehicles

with up to 14 t axle loads.

NOTE Wheel load measuring devices attached to the track and/or fitted to vehicles can assist with checking

the compatibility of vehicles categorized above D4 or D4xL with the infrastructure.

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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
4.3 Correlation between line category and speed
4.3.1 General

The classification of infrastructure applies to all types of heavy rail vehicles, which can have different

maximum speeds (e.g. freight and passenger traffic). Additional information defining the maximum speed

corresponding to the line category shall be stated.

As a result of the classification of infrastructure, additional information specifying the line classification

can be given to cover two or more combinations (e.g. different maximum speeds and associated line

categories for passenger and freight trains).

NOTE Examples illustrating information about line classification and relationship with speed are given in

Annex E.

The combinations used for publication should be in accordance with legal, technical and operational

requirements (e.g. ETCS speed levels).

The local line speed shall be taken into account for the classification of engineering structures (see 5.1)

and other relevant infrastructure elements (see 5.2).

The line category and associated maximum speed shall be considered as a single combined quantity.

4.3.2 Freight traffic

When classifying infrastructure lines into line categories, dynamic effects up to the maximum freight

traffic speed (maximum 120 km/h) shall be respected. 120 km/h corresponds to the maximum speed for

conventional freight traffic and is the limit of validity for freight traffic using line categories. In excess of

120 km/h individual checks shall be carried out.

Optionally it is permissible to determine an additional higher line category at an associated lower speed

(less than the maximum freight traffic speed).

In some situations, it is desirable to determine the line category at a lower speed to maximize the line

category.

In addition, for D5, E4, E5 or E6 lines, an associated maximum speed for such traffic shall be stated

together with the associated maximum speed for conventional line traffic of line category D4.

4.3.3 Mixed traffic and passenger traffic

On mixed traffic lines with passenger traffic, the line category at maximum freight traffic speed in 4.3.2 is

generally sufficient and appropriate for the optimization of freight traffic.

For vehicles and locomotives, categorized into the same or lesser line category as the line, and which run

faster than the maximum freight traffic speed, additional checks starting on the basis of the maximum

freight traffic speed shall be taken into account for the classification of engineering structures (see 5.1)

and other relevant infrastructure elements (see 5.2).

If, for speeds over above 120 km/h and up to the maximum line speed different combinations of line

categories and speed are specified, they shall be in accordance with general technical and operational

requirements or restrictions.

Line Categories as classification information for speeds over 120 km/h can be related to vehicle types or

types of traffic (see 5.1 and examples in informative Annex C and informative Annex E).

NOTE For some vehicle types, it is possible that other regulations require additional dynamic compatibility

checks at different speed levels to demonstrate compatibility.
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SIST EN 15528:2022
EN 15528:2021 (E)
5 Classification of infrastructure
5.1 Civil engineering structure

When classifying a line of a heavy rail system into line categories, the load carrying capacity of structures

supporting the track on the line shall be determined and expressed using the load models of Annex A

taking speed into account. The speed(s) and where relevant traffic types shall be in accordance with 4.2

and 4.3.

The method used to determine the load carrying capacity of structures (bridges and other structures

supporting the track) shall take account of the condition of the existing structures and be in accordance

with national requirements.

NOTE 1 Examples of typical methods used to determine the load carrying capacity of existing structures are

given in Annex D.

The assessment of the load capacity of structures shall take the following into account:

— load models and combination of vehicles shall be applied to produce the most onerous load effects

(e.g. on continuous beams parts of the load model which produce a relieving effect shall be

neglected);

— dynamic load effects (e.g. using the dynamic factor for real trains in EN 1991-2);

— partial safety factors for railway traffic loads due to mass tolerances and potential overloading (see

6.1.2);

— existing operating and other restrictions relating e.g. to different types of traffic.

When determining the line classification and maximum operating speed for locomotives, it is permitted

to take into account the reduced likelihood of overloading and cargo displacements (in comparison with

other traffic types). Any reduction in partial safety factors for railway traffic loads should be in

accordance with national requirements.

The load models specified in Annex A are for the classification of lines and are not to be used for the

design of new structures. For the design of new structures, the rail traffic loading given in EN 1991-2 shall

be used.

The resulting output of the classification process of each structure on a line shall satisfy the requirements

of Clause 4.

To address the potential risk of adverse bridge dynamic effects, resulting from resonance and other

excessive dynamic effects in the structure, the need to carry out additional dynamic checks shall be

considered according to the risk arising from the combination of vehicle type and speed.

NOTE 2 Annex C provides guidance on combinations of vehicle type and speed which do not require dynamic

compatibility checks on existing bridges.
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5.2 Track construction, track substructure and earthworks

The load carrying capacity of the track, track substructure and earthworks shall be determined in

accordance with national requirements. Typically, such methods take account of the type of rail and track

components, sleeper spacing, track geometry, track quality, annual tonnage of traffic, inspection and

maintenance regimes and other national requirements, etc.

For E4 and E5 traffic in networks with 1 435 mm track gauge, a maximum service speed of 100 km/h and

a maximum cant deficiency of 100 mm are recommended (the recommendation for the cant deficiency

can be adapted for networks with other track gauges). For E6 traffic a maximum speed of 80 km/h is

recommended.

In order to establish an appropriate maximum speed for wagons with axle loads greater than 22,5 t for

proposed speeds > 100 km/h, special studies should be undertaken to check the dynamic effects on the

track.

The correspondence between the local track classification system and the line classification system

specified in this document shall be determined.

The results shall be used to determine the line classification in accordance with this document with

respect to the load carrying capacity of the track, track substructure and earthworks.

5.3 Infrastructures classification results
The classification of a line or a section shall be taken as the lesser of:

— the line classification of civil engineering structures determined in accordance with 5.1;

— the line classification of track, track substructures and earthworks determined in accordance with

5.2;
— relevant associated requirements relating to train speed;

— other general requirements including requirements relating to maximum permitted speeds

depending on:
— types of traffic;
— type of vehicle and number of vehicles or units being integrated in the train;
— the number of axles of the train;
— other operating conditions;
— additional qualifications relating to the validity of the line classification.

The result of infrastructure classification shall include the permissible line category(ies) and their

associated maximum speed(s) of each line or section of line. If necessary, additional speed regulations

and operating requirements relating to locomotives (e.g. locomotive classes and associated maximum

speed) or traffic types (e.g. maximum speed of freight traffic or passenge
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 15528:2020
01-september-2020
Železniške naprave - Kategorizacija prog za upravljanje vmesnika med dopustnimi
obremenitvami vozil in infrastrukturo

Railway applications - Line categories for managing the interface between load limits of

vehicles and infrastructure
Bahnanwendungen - Streckenklassen zur Behandlung der Schnittstelle zwischen
Lastgrenzen der Fahrzeuge und Infrastruktur

Applications ferroviaires - Catégories de ligne pour la gestion des interfaces entre limites

de charges des véhicules et de l'infrastructure
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 15528
ICS:
03.220.30 Železniški transport Transport by rail
45.060.01 Železniška vozila na splošno Railway rolling stock in
general
oSIST prEN 15528:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 15528:2020
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oSIST prEN 15528:2020
DRAFT
EUROPEAN STANDARD
prEN 15528
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2020
ICS 03.220.30; 45.060.20 Will supersede EN 15528:2015
English Version
Railway applications - Line categories for managing the
interface between load limits of vehicles and
infrastructure

Applications ferroviaires - Catégories de ligne pour la Bahnanwendungen - Streckenklassen zur Behandlung

gestion des interfaces entre limites de charges des der Schnittstelle zwischen Lastgrenzen der Fahrzeuge

véhicules et de l'infrastructure und Infrastruktur

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 256.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 15528:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms .......................................................................... 7

3.1 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................. 10

4 Classification system ................................................................................................................................... 11

4.1 Definition of line categories ..................................................................................................................... 11

4.2 Correlation to types of vehicles............................................................................................................... 11

4.3 Correlation between line category and speed ................................................................................... 12

5 Classification of infrastructure ............................................................................................................... 13

5.1 Civil engineering structure ....................................................................................................................... 13

5.2 Track construction, track substructure and earthworks .............................................................. 14

5.3 Infrastructures classification results .................................................................................................... 14

6 Categorization of railway vehicles ......................................................................................................... 15

6.1 General rules .................................................................................................................................................. 15

6.2 Freight wagons .............................................................................................................................................. 18

6.3 Locomotives ................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.4 Multiple units and passenger carriages ............................................................................................... 19

6.5 Special vehicles ............................................................................................................................................. 21

6.6 Vehicle categorization results ................................................................................................................. 22

7 Static compatibility of the interface between vehicle and infrastructure ............................... 22

Annex A (normative) Reference wagons and load models representing the line categories ........ 24

Annex B (informative) Flow chart: Classification of infrastructure and categorization of

vehicles ............................................................................................................................................................ 29

Annex C (informative) Geometric train parameters .................................................................................... 30

Annex D (informative) Speeds which do not require dynamic compatibility checks ...................... 32

Annex E (informative) Methods used to determine the load carrying capacity of existing

structures ........................................................................................................................................................ 34

Annex F (informative) Application of line classification result ................................................................ 35

F.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 35

F.2 Example 1 ........................................................................................................................................................ 35

F.3 Example 2 ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

F.4 Example 3 ........................................................................................................................................................ 36

Annex G (informative) Example of calculation methodology .................................................................... 37

G.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 37

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G.2 Calculation results ........................................................................................................................................ 39

G.3 Diagram of calculation results ................................................................................................................. 41

Annex H (informative) Maximum permissible axle load P – Wagons with two 2-axle bogies ....... 43

Annex I (informative) Maximum permissible axle load P – Wagons with two 3-axle bogies ......... 46

Annex J (informative) Line categories of 6-axle locomotives .................................................................... 49

Annex K (informative) L4 locomotive classes (4-axle locomotives) ....................................................... 50

Annex L (informative) L6 locomotive classes (6-axle locomotives) ........................................................ 51

Annex M (informative) Comparison of RA classification with line categories .................................... 53

Annex N (informative) Weight note for locomotives .................................................................................... 54

N.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 54

N.2 Example of a weight note for a series A locomotive ......................................................................... 55

N.3 Example of a weight note for a series B locomotive ......................................................................... 56

Annex O (informative) Categorization of MUs by parameter check Identification of line

category by maximum axle load .............................................................................................................. 58

O.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 58

O.2 MU with 2-axle conventional bogies (CB) ............................................................................................ 59

O.3 MU with 2-axle articulated bogies (AB) ................................................................................................ 59

O.4 MU with single axle running gear (SA) .................................................................................................. 60

Annex P (informative) Guidance for tableing light rail Mus into line category a10, a12 or

a14 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 64

P.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 64

P.2 4 axle light rail MU with 2 bogies ............................................................................................................ 64

P.3 4 axle light rail MU with 4 single axles .................................................................................................. 66

P.4 6 axle light rail MU with three 2-axle bogies ...................................................................................... 67

P.5 6 axles light rail MUs with six single axles ........................................................................................... 69

P.6 6 axles light rail MUs with two 2-axle bogies and two single axles ............................................ 70

P.7 8 axles light rail MUs or more axles ....................................................................................................... 71

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the essential

requirements of Directive 2016/797/EU aimed to be covered ................................................... 72

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 76

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European foreword

This document (prEN 15528:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 256 “Railway

application”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 15528:2015.

This document has been prepared under a standardization request given to CEN by the European

Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of

EU Directive 2016/797/EU.

For relationship with EU Directive 2016/797/EU, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of

this document.
Significant technical changes between this document and EN 15528:2015 are:

— All information about dynamic compatibility was deleted including Annexes C, D, E and P (in future

part of a TR prepared by TC250/SC1/WG 3/ TG DIBRST);

— For coaches and multiple units an additional categorization is introduced for different values of

standing passengers per m in the load case Design mass with exceptional payload (MXD) according

to EN 15663:2017+A1:2018;

— Clarification of the informative character of Annex F about speeds which do not require additional

dynamic compatibility checks.
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Introduction

The existing European heavy rail system consists of elements designed for varying historical

requirements. Most civil engineering elements of the heavy rail system were built before the introduction

of the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSIs) and the Eurocodes for the design of structures.

This document defines a line classification system to manage the interface between the load limits for rail

vehicles and the payload limits for freight wagons and the vertical load carrying capacity of a line.

The line classification system takes into account parameters such as:
— axle load (P);
— geometrical aspects relating to the spacing of axles;
— mass per unit length (p);
— speed;

and provides a transparent method for determining whether the vertical loading characteristics of

vehicles are compatible with the load carrying capacity of lines on the network.

The line classification system utilizes a suite of line categories defined in this standard by a load model.

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1 Scope

This document is applicable to the lines with standard track gauge (1435°mm) and wider track gauges of

the heavy rail system and the vehicles that are operated on these lines, except portable trolleys as defined

by EN 13977 and maintenance vehicles (e.g. rail mounted plant, cranes) in their working or travelling

modes (see EN 14033-2).

This document describes methods of classification of existing and new lines of the heavy rail system and

the categorization of rail vehicles.

This document gives guidance to a reliable and established management of the interface between rail

vehicles and the heavy rail network and does not impose any requirements on either vehicles or

infrastructure.

The application of this document enables to ensure the static route compatibility between a rail vehicle

and the heavy rail network with respect to the vertical load carrying capacity.
It contains requirements relevant to:

— classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of lines of the heavy rail network;

— allocation of rail vehicles to line categories (categorization);
— determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
Out of the scope of this document are:
— assessments of compatibility based on the parameter axle load alone;

— compatibility checks for cases where an additional dynamic analysis is required (for example

according to EN 1991-2:2003, 6.4.4);
— requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train;

— the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are classified in accordance with the RA

(Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent categories in accordance with this European

Standard is given in Annex M;
— the publication of line categories.

The requirements of this document do not replace any regulations related to running behaviour of

vehicles described by the assessment quantities for running safety, track loading and ride characteristics

(see EN 14363).
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 1991-2:2003, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures - Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges

EN 15663:2017+A1:2018, Railway applications - Vehicle reference masses

EN 15877-1, Railway applications — Marking on railway vehicles — Part 1: Freight wagons

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3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1.1
associated maximum speed
local maximum speed for which the line category is valid
3.1.2
axle load

sum of the static vertical wheel forces exerted on the track through a wheelset or a pair of independent

wheels divided by g

Note 1 to entry: In this standard “load” and “force” are described with units of “mass” (kg or t).

3.1.3
axle load
axle load P of the axle i
3.1.4
axle spacing
design values of the distances between the centres of adjacent axles
3.1.5
bending moment
designation of an internal force of a beam as used in structural design
3.1.6
categorisation of vehicles

statement of the vertical loading characteristics of a railway vehicle, according to the combination of axle

loads and axle spacing, by allocation of a line category
3.1.7
classification of infrastructure

statement of the load carrying capacity of infrastructure on a line by allocation of a line category and

related speed information
3.1.8
compatibility

demonstration of the satisfactory interface between the load effects of the vehicles and the load capacity

of the infrastructure
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3.1.9
design mass under exceptional payload

mass of vehicle equipped with all the consumables and occupied by all staff, which it requires in order to

fulfil its function plus the exceptional payload defined in EN 15663:2017+A1:2018

3.1.10
length over buffers
length over buffers or between coupling planes in case of no buffers
3.1.11
line
track or tracks between two locations forming a part of the heavy rail network
3.1.12
line category
designation of the specific load model based on reference wagons
3.1.13
line speed
general maximum speed of traffic on a route
3.1.14
load limit
maximum allowable payload for a wagon related to each line category
3.1.15
load model
defined by a specific formation of reference wagons
3.1.16
locomotive
traction vehicle that is not intended to carry a payload
Note 1 to entry: In this standard, power heads are considered as locomotives.
3.1.17
locomotive class
reference vehicle with representative locomotive parameters
3.1.18
mass per unit length
mass of a vehicle or unit divided by length over buffers
3.1.19
maximum passenger traffic speed/maximum freight traffic speed

additional information giving the general limit to the maximum traffic speed on a line according to the

type of traffic
3.1.20
reference wagon

virtual vehicle used as a module of loading for a load model defined by axle load, axle spacing and mass

per unit length
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3.1.21
multiple unit

fixed formation or railcar that can operate as a train not intended to be reconfigured, except within a

workshop environment
3.1.22
passenger carriages

vehicles without traction: coaches, restaurant cars, sleeping cars, couchettes cars, vans, driving trailers,

car carriers and similar vehicles, intended to be integrated in a variable formation as passenger train

3.1.23
route
path of a train between two locations of the network along one or more lines
3.1.24
series of locomotives

locomotives designed to be equal (the same axle spacing and the same nominal values for mass m and,

nom
axle loads P )
i,nom
3.1.25
shear force
designation of an internal force of a beam as used in structural design
3.1.26
special vehicles

vehicles which are designed for maintenance, inspection or renewal of infrastructure elements or for

special transport purposes where the fleet is operated with a low mileage compared to normal railway

vehicles including:
a) maintenance vehicles including:
1) cranes and matching wagons;
2) on-track machines (see EN 14033 (all parts));
3) road rail machines (see EN 15746 (all parts));
4) demountable machines (see EN 15955 (all parts));
5) trailers (see EN 15954 (all parts));
b) monitoring and inspection vehicles, including:
1) track inspection vehicles;
2) catenary inspection vehicles;
c) special transport vehicles, including:
1) transformer transporter;
2) crucible transporters;
3) loaded wagons with more than 8 axles (UIC 502-1)
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3.1.27
wheel load
static vertical wheel/rail contact forces of the wheelset i divided by g

Note 1 to entry: The terminology in this standard for “load” and “force” is used with the meaning and units of

“mass” (kg or t).
3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms
2a* bogie spacing between pivot centres within a vehicle m
2a* adopted value of 2a* used in Annex P m
adopted
2a* 2a* value in tables of Annex P m
table
2a* 2a* value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
2a axle spacing in a bogie m
+ +
2a 2a value in tables of Annex P m
table
+ +
2a 2a value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
AB articulated bogie Unit
a distance between axles m
b distance from end axle to the end of the nearest coupling plane m
c distance between two inside axles m
CB conventional bogie —
ETCS European Train Control System —
HSLM High Speed Load Model —
d distance between axle n and axle (n-1) m
g acceleration due to gravity 9,81 m/s
L length over buffers mm
L_Coa coach length m
m mass t
m nominal values for mass t
nom
m modified nominal value for mass due to excess of tolerances t
nom,excess
MU multiple unit —
n axle number —
p mass per unit length t/m
P axle load t
P axle load of axle i t
P nominal value for axle load of axle i t
i,nom
P maximum axle load for a Line Category t
LineCategory
P modified nominal value for axle load due to excess of tolerances t
nom,excess
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P reduced value of axle load t
red
P maximum axle load within the unit t
unit
Q wheel load of axle i t
Q /Q wheel load of axle i right or left t
ir il
RA Route Availability —
SA single axle —
s distance between axle n and axle 1 m
u +u bogie spacing between pivot centres of adjacent vehicles m
1 2
u overhang of end coaches m
u overhang value of a MU unit used in Annex P m
unit
u overhang value in tables of Annex P m
table
UIC International Union of Railways —
v speed km/h
4 Classification system
4.1 Definition of line categories

The use of a classification system using line categories permits easy understanding of the load-related

compatibility of vehicles and infrastructure.

The line category resulting from the classification process for infrastructure represents the ability of the

infrastructure (track, track substructures, earthworks, civil engineering structures) to withstand the

static vertical loads imposed by vehicles on the line or section of line for regular service.

Each line category (a10, a12, a14, A, B1, B2, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, D4, D5, D4xL and also E4 and E5, E6) is

defined by a load model based on reference wagons defined by the characteristics given in Annex A:

— axle load;
— geometrical characteristics of the spacing of axles;
— length of the vehicle.

The value “mass per unit length” of the reference wagon is determined from the above parameters.

4.2 Correlation to types of vehicles

The load effects of different vehicle types are compared to the load models defining the different line

categories.

All types of vehicles and freight wagons with their corresponding payload are covered by the line

categories A, B1, B2, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, D4.

Line categories D5, E4, E5 and E6 are defined exclusively for heavy freight wagons.

Locomotives can be covered by:

— line categories B1, B2, C2, C3, C4, D2, D3, D4 and D4xL (plus optional detailed specification for axle

spacing ranges);
— locomotive classes L4 and L6.
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Passenger carriages and Multiple Units can be covered by:

— line categories a10, a12, a14, B1, C2, D2 (plus optional detailed specification for axle spacing and

vehicle lengths). Line categories a10, a12 and a14 have been specially developed for light rail vehicles

with up to 14 t axle loads.

For rail vehicles or wagons with payload limits categorized above D4 or D4xL it is recommended to

consider the use of static and dynamic wheel load measuring devices attached to the track and/or fitted

to vehicles to assist with ensuring compliance with the requirements of this European Standard.

4.3 Correlation between line category and speed
4.3.1 Introduction

The classification of infrastructure applies to all types of railway vehicles, which can have different

maximum speeds (e.g. freight and passenger traffic). Additional information defining the maximum speed

corresponding to the line category shall be stated.

As a result of the classification of infrastructure, additional information specifying the line classification

can be given to cover two or more combinations (e.g. different maximum speeds and associated line

categories for passenger and freight trains).

NOTE Examples illustrating information about line classification and relationship with speed are given in

Annex F.

The combinations used for publication should be in accordance with legal, technical and operational

requirements (e.g. ETCS speed levels).

The local line speed shall be taken into account for the classification of engineering structures (see 5.1)

and other relevant infrastructure elements (see 5.2).

The line category and associated maximum speed shall be considered as a single combined quantity.

4.3.2 Freight traffic

When classifying infrastructure lines into line categories, the line category at maximum freight traffic

speed (maximum 120 km/h) shall be determined.

120 km/h corresponds to the maximum speed for conventional freight traffic and is the limit of validity

for freight traffic using line categories. In excess of 120 km/h individual checks shall be carried out.

Optionally, an additional higher line category at an associated lower speed (less than the maximum

freight traffic speed) may be determined.

In some situations it may be desirable to determine the line category at a lower speed to maximize the

line category.

In addition, for D5, E4, E5 or E6 lines, an associated maximum speed for such traffic shall be stated

together with the associated maximum speed for conventional line traffic of line category D4.

4.3.3 Mixed traffic and passenger traffic

On mixed traffic lines with passenger traffic, the line category at maximum freight traffic speed in 4.3.2 is

generally sufficient and appropriate for the optimization of freight traffic.

For vehicles and locomotives, categorized into the same or lesser line category as the line, and which run

faster than the maximum freight traffic speed, additional checks starting on the basis of the maximum

freight traffic speed shall be taken into account for the classification of engineering structures (see 5.1)

and other relevant infrastructure elements (see 5.2).
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