Stationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 6: Ferroalloy industry

Measurement of GHG emissions in ferroalloy industry by a verified determination method. This standard is result of the acceptance of M/478 whereby six standards will be developed: one general standard and five sector-specific.

Emissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 6: Ferrolegierungsindustrie

Diese Norm stellt eine harmonisierte Methodik zur Berechnung der Treibhausgas(THG)emissionen aus der Ferrolegierungsindustrie auf der Grundlage des Massenbilanzansatzes ) bereit. Darüber hinaus stellt sie zeitverlaufsbezogene Leistungskennzahlen für Werke bereit, in denen Ferrolegierungen hergestellt werden. Sie behandelt die folgenden direkten und indirekten Treibhausgasquellen:
   Scope (Bereich) 1: direkte THG Emissionen aus Quellen, die im Besitz des Unternehmens sind oder von diesem kontrolliert werden, wie Emissionen aus folgenden Quellen:
   Schmelz(reduktions)prozess:
   Carbonatzerfall im Ofen;
   unterstützende Vorgänge im Zusammenhang mit dem Schmelzen, (d. h. Gesteinskörnungen, Trocknungsprozesse, Erwärmen der Pfannen usw.);
   Scope 2: indirekte THG Emissionen aus:
   der Erzeugung zugekaufter elektrischer Energie, die in den Ausrüstungen verbraucht wird, welche sich im Besitz des Unternehmens befinden oder von diesem kontrolliert werden.

Émissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 6: Industrie des ferro-alliages

La présente Norme européenne fournit une méthodologie harmonisée pour calculer les émissions de GES dans l'industrie des ferro-alliages, basée sur le bilan massique . Elle fournit également des indicateurs clés qui permettront de déterminer les performances des installations de production de ferro-alliages au fil du temps. Elle examine les sources suivantes d'émissions directes et indirectes de GES :
—   Type 1 – Émissions directes de GES provenant de sources détenues ou contrôlées par l'entreprise, les émissions émanant des sources suivantes :
—   procédé de fusion/réduction carbothermique (réduction) ;
—   décomposition des carbonates à l'intérieur du four ;
—   fonctionnement des auxiliaires liés à l'opération de fusion/réduction carbothermique (granulats, procédés de séchage, chauffage des poches de coulée, etc.).
—   Type 2 – Émissions indirectes de GES provenant :
—   de la génération de l'électricité achetée et consommée par les équipements détenus ou contrôlés par l'entreprise.
La présente Norme européenne doit être utilisée conjointement avec le FprEN 19694-1 qui contient des exigences générales génériques, des définitions et des règles applicables pour la détermination des émissions de GES pour tous les secteurs consommateurs d'énergie, expose des questions méthodologiques communes et détaille l'application des règles exposées. L'application de la présente norme aux normes sectorielles garantit l'exactitude, la fidélité et la reproductibilité des résultats et est, de ce fait, une norme de référence normative. Les exigences de ces normes ne se substituent pas aux exigences législatives.

Emisije nepremičnih virov - Določevanje emisij toplogrednih plinov (TGP) v energetsko intenzivnih industrijah - 6. del: Proizvodnja ferozlitin

Merjenje emisij toplogrednih plinov pri proizvodnji ferozlitin s potrjeno metodo določanja. Ta standard je rezultat sprejetja M/478, pri čemer bo sestavljenih šest standardov: en splošni standard in pet standardov, povezanih z ustreznim sektorjem.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
04-Dec-2014
Publication Date
11-Jun-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2017
Due Date
09-Apr-2017
Completion Date
12-Jun-2017

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.LQEmissionen aus stationären Quellen - Bestimmung von Treibhausgasen (THG) aus energieintensiven Industrien - Teil 6: FerrolegierungsindustrieÉmissions de sources fixes - Détermination des émissions des gaz à effet de serre dans les industries à forte intensité énergétique - Partie 6: Industrie des ferro-alliagesStationary source emissions - Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries - Part 6: Ferroalloy industry77.100Železove zlitineFerroalloys13.040.40Stationary source emissions13.020.40Onesnaževanje, nadzor nad onesnaževanjem in ohranjanjePollution, pollution control and conservationICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 19694-6:2016SIST EN 19694-6:2017en,fr,de01-julij-2017SIST EN 19694-6:2017SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 19694-6:2017
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 19694-6
July
t r s x ICS
s uä r v rä v r English Version
Stationary source emissions æ Determination of industries æ Part

xã Ferroalloy industry Émissions de sources fixes æ Détermination des industries énergoæintensives æ Partie

xã Industrie des ferroæalliages
Emissionen aus stationären Quellen æ Bestimmung von Industrien æ Teil
xã Ferrolegierungsindustrie This European Standard was approved by CEN on
w May
t r s xä

egulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alterationä Upætoædate lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN memberä

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CENæCENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versionsä

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austriaá Belgiumá Bulgariaá Croatiaá Cyprusá Czech Republicá Denmarká Estoniaá Finlandá Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedoniaá Franceá Germanyá Greeceá Hungaryá Icelandá Irelandá Italyá Latviaá Lithuaniaá Luxembourgá Maltaá Netherlandsá Norwayá Polandá Portugalá Romaniaá Slovakiaá Sloveniaá Spainá Swedená Switzerlandá Turkey andUnited Kingdomä

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,
B-1000 Brussels

t r s x CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Membersä Refä Noä EN

s { x { væ xã t r s x ESIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 2 Contents Page European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6 2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 6 3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 6 4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8 5 Determination of GHGs – Principles ......................................................................................................... 9 5.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 5.2 Major GHG in ferro-alloys............................................................................................................................. 9 5.3 Determination based on mass balance ................................................................................................... 9 5.4 Use of waste gas/heat recovery ................................................................................................................. 9 6 Boundaries ........................................................................................................................................................ 9 6.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................ 9 6.2 Operational boundaries ................................................................................................................................ 9 6.3 Organizational boundaries ....................................................................................................................... 10 7 Direct emissions and their determination .......................................................................................... 11 7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 11 7.2 Mass balance approach .............................................................................................................................. 11 7.3 Process emissions ........................................................................................................................................ 15 7.4 Combustion emissions ............................................................................................................................... 17 7.5 Combustion of biomass fuels ................................................................................................................... 19 8 Indirect emissions ....................................................................................................................................... 19 8.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 19 8.2 CO2 from external electricity production ............................................................................................ 19 9 Baselines, acquisitions and disinvestments ....................................................................................... 20 10 Reporting ........................................................................................................................................................ 20 10.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 20 10.2 Reporting periods ........................................................................................................................................ 21 10.3 Performance indicators ............................................................................................................................. 21 11 Uncertainty of GHG inventories .............................................................................................................. 23 11.1 Introduction to uncertainty assessment ............................................................................................. 23 11.2 Uncertainty of activity data ...................................................................................................................... 24 11.3 Uncertainties of fuel and material parameters ................................................................................. 24 11.4 Evaluation of the overall uncertainty of an GHG inventory .......................................................... 25 Annex A (normative)

Tier 1 emission factors ................................................................................................. 26 Annex B (normative)

Minimum frequency of analysis ................................................................................ 28 Annex C (normative)

Country-wise emission factors for electricity ...................................................... 29 Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 33

SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 3 European foreword This document (EN 19694-6:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 264 “Air quality”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2017, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2017. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. This document has been prepared under a mandate M/478 given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association. EN 19694, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy-intensive industries is a series of standards that consists of the following parts: — Part 1: General aspects — Part 2: Iron and steel industry — Part 3: Cement industry — Part 4: Aluminium industry — Part 5: Lime industry — Part 6: Ferroalloy industry According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 4 Introduction Overview of the ferro-alloy manufacturing process Ferroalloy production involves a metallurgical reduction process that results in significant carbon dioxide emissions. These emissions are the results of a carbothermic reaction which is intrinsic to the process. In ferroalloy production, ore, carbon materials and slag forming materials are mixed and heated to high temperatures for smelting. Submerged Electric Arc Furnaces (SEAF) with graphite electrodes, self- baking Søderberg or composite electrodes is the main process to produce ferro-alloys in Europe (see Figure 1). Smelting in an electric arc furnace is accomplished by conversion of electrical energy to heat. An alternating current applied to the electrodes creates current to flow through the charge between the electrode tips. The heat is produced by the electric arcs and by the resistance in the charge materials. Emissions from the smelting process are therefore not to combustion emissions. The furnaces may be open, semi-closed or closed. The reduction process is the main source of direct CO2 emissions. Other CO2 sources include direct emissions from calcination of calcium, magnesium and other carbonates (e.g. limestone) in some processes and from non-smelting fuels (e.g. dryers for ladles and refractory linings, room heating), and indirect emissions from, e.g. external power production.

Figure 1 — Submerged Electric Arc Furnace (SEAF) CO2 from the smelting of raw materials CO2 emissions from reducing agents and electrode use In the smelting process, CO2 is released due to the carbothermic reduction of the metallic oxides occurring with the consumption of both carbonaceous reductants and carbon based electrodes. The carbon in the reductants reacts with oxygen from the metal oxides to form CO and then CO2 (in different SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 5 ways depending on the process), and the ores are reduced to molten base metals. For calculation, the assumption is that all CO is assumed to be converted in the furnace to CO2. The reductant carbon is used in the form of coke, coal, pet coke, anthracite, charcoal and wood-chips. The first four are fossil based and the charcoal and wood-chips are bio-carbon. In the carbothermic process, only the fixed carbon content is used as a reducing agent, which means that volatile matter, ashes and moisture mostly leave the furnace with the off-gas and slag. The nature of reducing agents, price and electrodes is depending of the localization of the plant, the raw material availability and it is presented in Table 1. It is variable from one site to another and from one year to another and also from one ferro-alloy to another. Table 1 — Type of reducing agents and electrodes used in the electrometallurgy Sector Reducing agents Electrodes Crude petroleum coke Graphite electrode Calcinated petroleum coke Prebaked electrodes Coal coke Södeberg paste Coke from coal Composite electrode Wood

Calcinated wood
Charcoal
Graphite powder
Anthracite

CO2 emissions are estimated with/calculated from the consumption of the reducing agents and electrodes, their carbon content and the carbon content of the final products1. ores

ª reducing agent \ ferro-alloys/metal* + CO2 + dust/by-product (i.e. slags)* *

amount of carbon can be found in the products Default emission factors suggested in these documents are used, except where more recent, industry-specific data has become available.

1 The basic calculation methods used in this standard are compatible with the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and with the Regulation 601/2012 but the objectives of this standards are of different nature implying that the data gathered can cover a broader (or reduced) boundaries as compared to the objectives of the Regulation. SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 6 1 Scope This European Standard provides a harmonized methodology for calculating GHG emissions from the ferro-alloys industry based on the mass balance approach2. It also provides key performance indicators over time of ferro-alloys plants.

It addresses the following direct and indirect sources of GHG: — Scope 1 – Direct GHG emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the company, such as emissions result from the following sources: — smelting (reduction) process; — decomposition of carbonates inside the furnace; — auxiliaries operation related to the smelting operation (i.e. aggregates, drying processes, heating of ladles, etc.). — Scope 2 – Indirect GHG emissions from: — the generation of purchased electricity consumed in the company’s owned or controlled equipment. This European Standard is to be used in conjunction with EN 19694-1, which contains generic, overall requirements, definitions and rules applicable to the determination of GHG emissions for all energy-intensive sectors, provides common methodological issues and defines the details for applying the rules. The application of this standard to the sector-specific standards ensures accuracy, precision and reproducibility of the results and is for this reason a normative reference standard. The requirements of these standards do not supersede legislative requirements. 2 Normative references The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 19694-1:2016, Stationary source emissions — Determination of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in energy intensive industries — Part 1: General aspects 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions in EN 19694-1 and the following apply. 3.1 auxiliaries equipment consuming electricity/power related to the smelting process: fans, pumps, gas abatement systems (filter bags, venture scrubbers, etc.) 3.2 silica fume amorphous silicon dioxide particles from the volatilization and vaporization of furnace feed materials in the manufacture of ferrosilicon and silicon, the process off-gas that contains silica fumes beings cleaned in a baghouse using fabric filters of the open or semi-closed SEAF

2 Based on European Commission Regulation 601/2012. SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 7 3.3 ferro-alloy term used to describe concentrated alloys of iron and one or more metals such as silicon, manganese, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium or tungsten 3.4 silicon metalloid produced by carbo-thermic reduction of quartz in an electric submerged arc furnace 3.5 smelting industrial process where one or more ores or ore concentrates are heated and reduced (i.e. chemically modified) by, e.g. aluminino-carbo-silico thermic reduction –to manufacture and mix the metals in one step EXAMPLE Examples of smelted alloys are ferro-alloys. 3.6 Submerged Electric Arc Furnace SEAF electric arc-heating furnace in which the arcs are completely submerged under the charge. The arc forms between the electrode (graphite electrodes or self- baking Søderberg electrodes) and metal surface or bottom lining. The heat being produced by the electric arcs and by the resistance in the charge materials initiates the reduction process. The furnaces may be open, semi-closed or closed, which can depend upon the ferro-alloy to be produced. A commonly used technology is the submerged-arc (electric) furnace (SEAF). 3.7 fossil fuels all fossil fuels listed by IPCC or any fuel which contains organic and inorganic carbon that is not biomass 3.8 biomass fuels fuels with only biogenic carbon 3.9 Petcoke petroleum coke, a carbon-based solid fuel derived from oil refineries 3.10 sintering/sinter process to form a coherent mass by heating without melting 3.11 Søderberg electrodes continuously self-baking carbon electrode used in electro-metallurgical furnaces for production of ferroalloys and silicon (the “Søderberg paste” is a preparation of coal tar pitch and carbonaceous dry aggregate) 3.12 composite electrodes in composite electrodes the core is composed of graphite while the exterior is a self-baking carbon paste (which is a “Søderberg paste”) SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 8 3.13 pre-baked electrodes carbonaceous paste (a mixing of coal tar pitch with a dry carbonaceous aggregate) is baked so as to carbonize coal tar pitch in order to form a solid pitch coke binder phase 4 Symbols and abbreviations For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviations apply. AF alternative fuels CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide EF emission factor EU ETS The CO2 Emissions Trading Scheme of the European Union FA ferro-alloys FABP ferro-alloys and related by-products GHG greenhouse gases GJ giga joule IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change KPI key performance indicator LHV lower heat value (synonym for net calorific value) mn3 normal m3 (at 0 ºC and at a pressure of 1 atmosphere) MIC mineral components SEAF submerged electric arc furnace TC total carbon (the sum of TOC and TIC) TIC total inorganic carbon TOC total organic carbon t tonne ( 1.000 kg) SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 9 UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 5 Determination of GHGs – Principles 5.1 General The determination of CO2 emissions can be in principle done either through calculation (mass balance method) or through stack emission measurement. The methodology described in this standard for GHG emissions determination is based on the mass balance method (7.2). NOTE Industry have demonstrated that the mass balance method is more accurate than stack emission measurements with a lower level of uncertainty. Additionally, the mass balance method is much more cost effective. This has been clearly demonstrated during the field tests performed to develop this standard. 5.2 Major GHG in ferro-alloys CO2 is the only GHG relevant for the ferro-alloys industry. 5.3 Determination based on mass balance In installations where carbon stemming from input materials used remains in the products or other outputs of the production, e.g. for the reduction of metal ores, a mass balance approach is applied. In installations where this is not the case, combustion emissions and process emissions are calculated separately. Emissions from source streams are calculated from input or production data, obtained by means of measurement systems, and additional parameters from laboratory analyses including calorific factor, carbon content and biomass content. Standard factors may also be used; references to these factors are provided in the General Aspects Standard (see normative references). The methodologies for determining emission factors in the mass balance approach are referred to as tiers. The increasing numbering of tiers from one (standard factors) upwards (specific factors) reflects increasing levels of accuracy, from Tier 1 as the International reference for emission factors (IPCC data) to Tier 3 as Industry specific (site-specific) reference. 5.4 Use of waste gas/heat recovery Direct GHG emissions related to waste gas and heat recovery will be reported as scope 1 emissions. Waste gas including CO and CO2 can be subtracted from the direct emission, when exported outside the boundaries of the location, as a negative carbon flow in the mass balance (for example when exporting waste gas to another installation). 6 Boundaries 6.1 General Drawing appropriate boundaries is one of the key tasks in an emissions inventory process. 6.2 Operational boundaries Operational boundaries refer to the types of sources covered by an inventory. A key distinction is between direct and indirect emissions related to the smelting process: SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 10 a) Direct emissions are emissions from sources that are owned or controlled by the reporting company. For example, emissions from smelting are direct emissions of the company owning (or controlling) the furnace. b) Indirect emissions are emissions that result as a consequence of the activities of the reporting company but occur at sources owned or controlled by another company. For example, emissions from the generation of grid electricity consumed by a ferro-alloy company will qualify as indirect. Clause 7 of this standard provides detailed guidance on the different sources of direct emissions occurring in ferro-alloys plants. Indirect emissions are addressed in Clause 8. Companies shall use the operational boundaries outlined in Table 2 and the relevant process steps in Table 3, for the determination of the GHG emissions for the smelting/carbo-thermic reduction operations part of the ferro-alloy plant. Any deviation from these boundaries shall be reported and explained. Table 2 — Operational boundaries Included within boundaries Excluded Smelting (carbo-thermic reduction) Electrodes Reducing agents Non furnace fuels Mobile transport

Electricity consumption for whole production process Onsite power production Waste heat recovery Room heating / cooling (negligible) Mobile transport in plant Stock inventories carbon materials

Table 3 — Process steps Process Step Scope Inclusion? Smelting Scope 1 Yes Electricity consumption for whole production process Scope 2 Yes Onsite power production

Scope 1 Yes Waste heat recovery Scope 1 Yes Room heating / cooling Scope 1. Scope 2 when the used equipment is electrically powered Yes, but negligible Stock changes Scope 1 Yes 6.3 Organizational boundaries The major source of GHG emissions in the ferroalloys sector is the process-related emissions from the Submerged Electric Arc Furnaces operations, the reduction of the metallic oxides and the consumption SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 11 of the electrodes during the process. There are practically no fuel related process emissions and heat is a negligible input factor in the production. The operational boundaries for this standard GHG emissions covers only the smelting/carbo-thermic reduction operations considered as core activities and the related auxiliaries. 7 Direct emissions and their determination 7.1 General Direct emissions are emissions from sources of the respective plant. In ferro-alloys plants, direct GHG emissions may result from the following sources: a) CO2 emissions from reducing agents and electrode use in the smelting process; b) raw materials (e.g. decomposition of limestone, dolomite, and carbon containing metal ores and

concentrates); c) combustion of conventional fuels (e.g. natural gas, coal and coke, or fuel oil); d) combustion of biomass fuels. Generally, companies are encouraged to measure the required parameters at plant level for specific raw materials. Where plant- or company-specific data are not available, standard or default factors should be used. 7.2 Mass balance approach 7.2.1 Generic approach In the mass balance approach, the CO2 quantity corresponding to each source stream included in the mass balance has to be calculated by multiplying the activity data related to the amount of material entering or leaving the boundaries of the mass balance, with the emission factor for each material. The methodologies for determining, i.e. activity data and emission factors are referred to as tiers. The increasing numbering of tiers from one upwards reflects increasing levels of accuracy, with the highest numbered tier as the preferred tier. For emission sources which emit more than 10 % of the total annual emissions of the installation, the operator shall preferably apply the highest tier given the less uncertainty. For all other emission sources, the operator shall apply at least one tier lower than the highest tier. In case the application of the highest tier is technically not feasible or incurs unreasonable costs, a next lower tier shall be used for the relevant emission source, with a minimum of tier 1. For marginal flows which jointly emit 1.000 t CO2,eq or less, or less than 2 % of the “total of all monitored items” (whichever is highest and not exceeding 20.000 t CO2,eq), it is allowed to calculate activity data and emission factors using a conservative estimation, instead of using tiers (unless it is possible to use tiers without additional effort or costs). With: (a) Activity data The operator shall analyse and report the mass flows into and from the installation and respective stock changes for all relevant fuels and materials separately (generally in GJ (for energy) or in t or mn3 for mass or volume). Tier 1 SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 12 Activity data over the reporting period are determined with a maximum uncertainty of less than ± 7,5 %. Tier 2 Activity data over the reporting period are determined with a maximum uncertainty of less than ± 5 %. Tier 3 Activity data over the reporting period are determined with a maximum uncertainty of less than ± 2,5 %. Tier 4 Activity data over the reporting period are determined with a maximum uncertainty of less than ± 1,5 %. (b) Emission factors Emission factors are expressed as tCO2eq/GJ, tCO2eq/t or as tCO2eq/mn3. Tier 1 International reference for emission factors (IPCC data) The emission factor of input or output streams is derived from reference emission factors for fuels or materials named in Annex A. Tier 2 National reference The operator applies country-specific emission factors for the respective fuel or material as reported by the respective Member State in its latest national inventory submitted to the Secretariat of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Tier 3 Industry specific reference The emission factor of input or output stream shall be derived following the provisions of this standard in respect to representative sampling of fuels, products and by-products, the determination of their carbon contents and biomass fraction. These emission factors are usually determined by analysis of the carbon content. For the conversion of carbon content into the respective emission factor for CO2 a factor of 3,664 [t CO2/t C] shall be used. In the absence of data analysis for one year and for the installation concerned, the factors used are from the average of measurements made on the site or sites in the corresponding year. When the number of analysis is insufficient (not shown), the factors used are from the average of the analysis conducted over the period 2005-2008 for the whole or sites. Requirements for analysis should retain the preference for use of laboratories accredited in accordance with the harmonized standard general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories (e.g. EN ISO/IEC 17025) for the relevant analytical methods, and introduce more pragmatic requirements for demonstrating robust equivalence in the case of non-accredited laboratories. Company measurements are carried out by applying methods based on corresponding European Standards. Where such standards are not available or applicable, the methods shall be based on suitable International Standards (e.g. EN ISO 9001) or national standards or on industrial best practices, limiting sampling and measurement bias. 7.2.2 Sampling The operator shall provide evidence that the derived samples are representative and free of bias. The respective value shall be used only for the delivery period or batch of fuel or material for which it was intended to be representative. SIST EN 19694-6:2017

EN 19694-6:2016 (E) 13 Generally, the analysis will be carried out on a sample which is the mixture of a larger number (e.g. 10 to 100) of samples collected over a period of time (e.g. from a day to several months) provided that the sampled fuel or material

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