Solid biofuels - Determination of particle density of pellets and briquettes (ISO 18847:2016)

This standard describes the method for determining the particle density of compressed fuels such as pellets or briquettes. Particle density is not an absolute value and conditions for its determination have to be standardised to enable comparative determinations to be made.

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Partikeldichte von Pellets und Briketts (ISO 18847:2016)

Diese Internationale Norm legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Partikeldichte von gepressten Brennstoffen, wie z. B. Pellets oder Briketts, fest. Die Partikeldichte ist kein absoluter Wert und die Bedingungen für deren Bestimmung müssen genormt werden, um vergleichbare Bestimmungen vornehmen zu können.

Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de la masse volumique unitaire des granulés et des briquettes (ISO 18847:2016)

ISO 18847:2016 spécifie la méthode de détermination de la masse volumique unitaire des combustibles comprimés tels que les granulés ou les briquettes. La masse volumique unitaire n'est pas une valeur absolue et les conditions nécessaires à sa détermination doivent être normalisées afin de pouvoir comparer les différentes déterminations.

Trdna biogoriva - Določevanje gostote delcev peletov in briketov (ISO 18847:2016)

Ta standard opisuje metodo za določanje gostote delcev v stisnjenih gorivih, kot so peleti in briketi. Gostota delcev ni absolutna vrednost in pogoje za njeno določitev je treba standardizirati, da se omogoči primerjalno določevanje.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
03-Jan-2016
Publication Date
07-Nov-2016
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Oct-2016
Due Date
25-Dec-2016
Completion Date
08-Nov-2016

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
01-december-2016
1DGRPHãþD
SIST EN 15150:2011
7UGQDELRJRULYD'RORþHYDQMHJRVWRWHGHOFHYSHOHWRYLQEULNHWRY ,62

Solid biofuels - Determination of particle density of pellets and briquettes (ISO

18847:2016)

Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der Partikeldichte von Pellets und Briketts (ISO

18847:2016)

Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de la masse volumique unitaire des granulés et

des briquettes (ISO 18847:2016)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18847:2016
ICS:
17.060 Merjenje prostornine, mase, Measurement of volume,
gostote, viskoznosti mass, density, viscosity
75.160.40 Biogoriva Biofuels
SIST EN ISO 18847:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
EN ISO 18847
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10; 27.190 Supersedes EN 15150:2011
English Version
Solid biofuels - Determination of particle density of pellets
and briquettes (ISO 18847:2016)

Biocombustibles solides - Détermination de la masse Biogene Festbrennstoffe - Bestimmung der

volumique unitaire des granulés et des briquettes (ISO Partikeldichte von Pellets und Briketts (ISO

18847:2016) 18847:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 18 August 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18847:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
EN ISO 18847:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
EN ISO 18847:2016 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 18847:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 238 “Solid

biofuels” in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 335 “Solid biofuels” the secretariat of

which is held by SIS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.
This document supersedes EN 15150:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18847:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18847:2016 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18847
First edition
2016-09-01
Solid biofuels — Determination
of particle density of pellets and
briquettes
Biocombustibles solides — Détermination de la masse volumique
unitaire des granulés et des briquettes
Reference number
ISO 18847:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
ISO 18847:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
ISO 18847:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

5 Reagents ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1

6 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.1 General apparatus requirements ............................................................................................................................................ 2

6.2 Apparatus for pellet testing ......................................................................................................................................................... 2

6.3 Apparatus for briquette testing ................................................................................................................................................ 3

7 Sample preparation ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.1 Procedure for pellets ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

8.2 Procedure for briquettes ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

9 Calculation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

10 Precision and bias ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10.2 Repeatability ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

10.3 Reproducibility ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

Annex A (informative) Stereometric volume estimation ................................................................................................................ 9

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
ISO 18847:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 238, Solid biofuels.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
ISO 18847:2016(E)
Introduction

Particle density is a fuel parameter of pellets and briquettes which is often considered when describing

the degree of compaction of the raw material used. Particle density can be highly specific for the

respective type or species of biomass and thus, it also characterizes the material’s general ability

to be compacted. High particle density is often associated with high resistance to abrasion or low

susceptibility towards fracturing during handling and storage. A high particle density also generally

leads to reduced storage volume demands and to a lower filling level in combustion chamber at constant

fuel mass flow. Particle density can also affect the heat transfer rate within the fuel and thus, it can

have an impact on fuel ignition and on the dynamics of gasification.

Apart from the buoyancy method which is described in this International Standard as reference method,

larger particles (briquettes) are sometimes easier tested by simple stereometric means. For internal

laboratory practices, such a procedure is also presented in Annex A. For small particles (pellets), this

procedure is not recommended.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18847:2016(E)
Solid biofuels — Determination of particle density of
pellets and briquettes
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the method for determining the particle density of compressed

fuels such as pellets or briquettes. Particle density is not an absolute value and conditions for its

determination have to be standardized to enable comparative determinations to be made.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 14780 , Solid biofuels — Sample preparation
ISO 16559, Solid biofuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO 18134-1, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 1: Total

moisture — Reference method

ISO 18134-2, Solid biofuels — Determination of moisture content — Oven dry method — Part 2: Total

moisture — Simplified method
ISO 18135 , Solid biofuels — Sampling
3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 16559 apply.

4 Principle

Both mass and volume of an individual particle or a group of particles are determined. The volume is

measured by determining the buoyancy in a liquid. This procedure follows the physical principle that

the buoyancy is equal to the mass of the displaced volume of a liquid. The apparent loss in mass between

a measurement in air and a subsequent measurement in liquid marks its buoyancy. The volume of the

test portion body is calculated via the density of the applied liquid.

NOTE The particle density of briquettes could alternatively be estimated by stereometric means (see

Annex A).
5 Reagents

5.1 Water with low content of ions, (e.g. drinking water quality) in a temperature range of 10 °C

to 30 °C.
1) To be published.
2) To be published.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18847:2016
ISO 18847:2016(E)
5.2 A detergent named O-[4-(1,1,3,3-Tetramethylbutyl)-phenyl]-deca(oxyethylen),

Octylphenoldecaethylen-glycolether, Polyethylenglycol-mono-[p-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-

phenyl]-ether.

NOTE The exclusive use of this specific detergent with given characteristics allows to apply a fixed value for

the density of the liquid (mixture with water) and ensures constant properties as wetting agent. The detergent is

traded for example under the name Triton® X-100. The density at +20 °C is 1,07 g/ml.

5.3 Paraffin, with a melting point of 52 °C to 54 °C.
6 Apparatus
6.1 General apparatus requirements
A thermometer capable of reading to the nearest 1 °C.
6.2 Apparatus for pellet testing

6.2.1 A balance, having sufficient accuracy to determine the mass to the nearest 0,001 g.

Due to the high sensitivity of the balance, the test rig shall be placed into a wind protection cabinet to

allow undisturbed and immediate reading of the display
...

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