Geosynthetic barriers - Characteristics required for use as a fluid barrier in the construction of tunnels and underground structures

This document specifies the relevant characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers in the construction of tunnels and underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.
The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of water through the construction wall.
This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products.
This document provides for the evaluation of conformity of the product to this document.
This document defines requirements to be met by manufacturers and distributors with regard to the presentation of product properties.
This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.  
NOTE: Where potable water is or may be in direct contact with the product the designer should also refer to other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations.

Geosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und Tiefbauwerken erforderlich sind

Dieses Dokument legt die relevanten Eigenschaften von geosynthetischen Dichtungsbahnen, einschließlich geosynthetischer Kunststoffdichtungsbahnen, geosynthetischer Tondichtungsbahnen und geosynthetischer Bitumendichtungsbahnen, die als Abdichtung beim Bau von Tunneln und Tiefbauwerken verwendet werden, und die geeigneten Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung dieser Eigenschaften fest.
Die bestimmungsgemäße Anwendung dieser Produkte besteht im Abdichten gegen das Durchsickern von Wasser durch das Bauwerk.
Dieses Dokument ist nicht anwendbar auf Geotextilien oder geotextilverwandte Produkte.
Dieses Dokument ermöglicht die Konformitätsbewertung des Produktes hinsichtlich dieses Dokuments.
Dieses Dokument legt die Anforderungen fest, die von Herstellern und Händlern in Bezug auf die Darstellung der Produkteigenschaften eingehalten werden müssen.
Dieses Dokument umfasst nicht die Anwendungen, bei denen die geosynthetische Dichtungsbahn in Kontakt mit Trinkwasser kommt, das für den unmittelbaren menschlichen Gebrauch behandelt wurde.
ANMERKUNG   Wo Trinkwasser in direkten Kontakt mit dem Produkt kommt oder kommen kann, muss sich der Planer auf andere zutreffende Normen, Anforderungen und/oder Bestimmungen beziehen.

Géomembranes, géosynthétiques bentonitiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l' utilisation dans la construction des tunnels et ouvrages souterrains

Le présent document spécifie les caractéristiques requises pour les géomembranes polymériques ou bitumineuses et les géosynthétiques bentonitiques destinées a éviter la pénétration de fluides dans la structure des tunnels et ouvrages souterrains ; elle décrit par ailleurs les méthodes d'essai permettant de déterminer ces caractéristiques.
Ces produits ont pour objet d'empecher les fuites d'eau a travers les parois de  la construction.
Le présent document ne s'applique pas aux géotextiles ou produits apparentés.
Le présent document donne les informations permettant d'évaluer la conformité du produit au présent document.
Le présent document définit les exigences auxquelles les fabricants et distributeurs doivent satisfaire pour la présentation des propriétés du produit.
Le présent document ne couvre pas les cas ou la géomembrane doit se trouver en contact avec une eau traitée en vue d'une consommation domestique.
NOTE   Si de l'eau potable doit ou peut se trouver en contact direct avec le produit, le concepteur est également tenu de se référer aux normes, exigences et/ou reglements applicables.

Geosintetične zapore - Zahtevane lastnosti pri uporabi za zaščito pred tekočinami pri gradnji predorov in pri podzemnih gradnjah

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
28-Feb-2005
Withdrawal Date
03-Nov-2013
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-Nov-2013
Due Date
27-Nov-2013
Completion Date
04-Nov-2013

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Geosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die für die Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und Tiefbauwerken erforderlich sindGéomembranes, géosynthétiques bentonitiques - Caractéristiques requises pour l' utilisation dans la construction des tunnels et ouvrages souterrainsGeosynthetic barriers - Characteristics required for use as a fluid barrier in the construction of tunnels and underground structures93.060Gradnja predorovTunnel construction59.080.70GeotekstilijeGeotextilesICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 13491:2004SIST EN 13491:2005en01-marec-2005SIST EN 13491:2005SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 13491:2005

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 13491August 2004ICS 59.080.70; 91.100.50 English versionGeosynthetic barriers - Characteristics required for use as a fluidbarrier in the construction of tunnels and underground structuresBarrières géosynthétiques - Caractéristiques requises pourl'utilisation comme barrière contre les liquides dans laconstruction des tunnels et des structures souterrainesGeosynthetische Dichtungsbahnen - Eigenschaften, die fürdie Anwendung beim Bau von Tunneln und Tiefbauwerkenerforderlich sindThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 17 March 2003.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2004 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 13491:2004: ESIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references............................................................................................................................6 3 Definitions and abbreviations..............................................................................................................8 3.1 Definitions..............................................................................................................................................8 3.2 Abbreviations.........................................................................................................................................9 4 Required characteristics and corresponding methods of test.........................................................9 4.1 General....................................................................................................................................................9 4.2 Types of Application.............................................................................................................................9 4.2.1 Application 1: " seepage water tunnel"...............................................................................................9 4.2.2 Application 2: "pressurised water tunnel"........................................................................................10 4.2.3 Application 3: "Cut and cover seepage water tunnel".....................................................................12 4.2.4 Application 4: "Cut and cover pressure water tunnel"....................................................................13 4.3 Relevant characteristics.....................................................................................................................13 4.4 Characteristics relevant to specific conditions of use....................................................................16 4.4.1 Tear strength........................................................................................................................................16 4.4.2 Bursting strength.................................................................................................................................16 4.4.3 Low temperature behaviour................................................................................................................16 4.4.4 Weathering...........................................................................................................................................16 4.4.5 Resistance to wetting and drying......................................................................................................16 4.4.6 Freeze-thaw cycle resistance.............................................................................................................16 4.4.7 Resistance to root penetration...........................................................................................................16 5 Evaluation of conformity.....................................................................................................................17 5.1 Presentation of characteristics..........................................................................................................17 5.2 Verification of values...........................................................................................................................17 5.3 Initial type tests....................................................................................................................................17 5.4 Factory production control.................................................................................................................18 5.5 Inspection.............................................................................................................................................18 6 Marking.................................................................................................................................................18 Annex A (normative) Scheme of factory production control.......................................................................19 A.1 Product design...........................................................................................................................................19 A.2 Production..................................................................................................................................................19 A.3 Finished products......................................................................................................................................19 A.4 Equipment...................................................................................................................................................19 A.5 Provisions applicable to A.1, A.2 and A.3 (to be used where appropriate).........................................20 Annex B (normative) Durability of geosynthetic barriers.............................................................................21 B.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................................21 B.2 Evaluation of durability tests and acceptance criteria....................................................................22 B.3 Weathering...........................................................................................................................................22 B.3.1 Direct tests...............................................................................................................................................22 B.3.2 Period of exposure..................................................................................................................................23 B.4. Resistance to micro-organisms...............................................................................................................24 B.5 Resistance to root penetration.................................................................................................................24 B.6 Resistance to environmental stress cracking.........................................................................................24 B.7 Resistance to leaching..............................................................................................................................24 B.8 Resistance to oxidation.............................................................................................................................24 B.9 Chemical resistance for landfill applications..........................................................................................25 B.9.1 All applications....................................................................................................................................25 SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 3 B.9.2 Liquid and solid waste storage (applicable to prEN 13492 and prEN 13493)...................................25 B.10 Geosynthetic clay barriers......................................................................................................................25 Annex ZA (informative) Clauses of this European Standard addressing the provisions of the EU Construction Products Directive.......................................................................................................26 ZA 1. Scope and relevant characteristics......................................................................................................26 ZA.2 System of attestation of conformity for Geosynthetic Barriers used in the construction of tunnels and underground structures..............................................................................................................27 ZA 3. CE marking and labelling.......................................................................................................................29 Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................33

SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 13491:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 189 “Geosynthetics”, the secretariat of which is held by IBN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2005, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by May 2006. This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 5 Introduction This document allows manufacturers to describe geosynthetic barriers on the basis of declared values for characteristics relevant to the intended use and if tested to the specified method. It also includes procedures for evaluation of conformity and factory production control. This document can also be used by designers, end-users and other interested parties as a tool to define relevant and appropriate characteristics for specifications and on-site quality control. It should be emphasised however that not all characteristics and test methods quoted in this document are suitable for the purpose of on-site quality control.

Tests for some non-mandated characteristics are still under study and will be included when the standard is revised. The term “product” used in this document refers to a geosynthetic barrier, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers. This document is part of a group of standards, addressing the requirements for geosynthetic barriers when used in a specific application.

Particular application cases can contain requirements about additional properties and - preferably standardised - test methods, if they are technically relevant and not conflicting with European Standards.

The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

SIST EN 13491:2005
EN 13491:2004 (E) 6

1 Scope This document specifies the relevant characteristics of geosynthetic barriers, including polymeric geosynthetic barriers, clay geosynthetic barriers and bituminous geosynthetic barriers, when used as fluid barriers in the construction of tunnels and underground structures, and the appropriate test methods to determine these characteristics.

The intended use of these products is to control the leakage of water through the construction wall.

This document is not applicable to geotextiles or geotextile-related products. This document provides for the evaluation of conformity of the product to this document. This document defines requirements to be met by manufacturers and distributors with regard to the presentation of product properties.

This document does not cover applications where the geosynthetic barrier is to be in contact with water that has been treated for human consumption.

NOTE: Where potable water is or may be in direct contact with the product the designer should also refer to other relevant standards, requirements and/or regulations. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 495-5 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Determination of foldability at low temperature – Part 5: Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing EN 963 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Sampling and preparation of test specimens EN 1109 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing - Determination of flexibility at low temperature EN 1849-1 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Determination of thickness and mass per unit area – Part 1: Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing EN 1849-2 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Determination of thickness and mass per unit area – Part 2: Plastic and rubber sheets for roof waterproofing EN 12224 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Determination of the resistance to weathering EN 12225 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Method for determining the microbiological resistance by a soil burial test EN 12226 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – General tests for evaluation following durability testing EN 12310-1 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Part 1: Bitumen sheets for waterproofing – Determination of resistance to tearing (nail shank)

SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 7 EN 12311-1 Flexible sheets for waterproofing – Part 1: Bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing – Determination of tensile properties EN 13361 Geosynthetic barriers – Characteristics required for use in the construction of reservoirs and dams prEN 13362 Geosynthetic barriers – Characteristics required for use in the construction of canals EN 13492 Geosynthetic barriers – Characteristics required for use in construction of liquid waste disposal sites, transfer stations or secondary containment prEN 13493 Geosynthetic barriers – Characteristics required for use in the construction of solid waste storage and disposal sites, and storages for hazardous solid materials prEN 14150 Geosynthetic barriers – Determination of permeability to liquids prEN 14151 Geosynthetics – Determination of burst strength EN 14196 Geosynthetics -–Test methods for measuring mass per unit area of clay geosynthetic barriers EN 14414 Geosynthetics -– Screening test method for determining chemical resistance for landfill applications EN 14415 Geosynthetic barriers -– Test method for determining the resistance to leaching prCEN/TS 14416 Geosynthetic barriers -– Test method for determining the resistance to roots prEN 14417 Geosynthetic barriers – Test method for the determination of the influence of wetting-drying cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers prEN 14418 Geosynthetic barriers – Test method for the determination of the influence of freezing-thawing cycles on the permeability of clay geosynthetic barriers prEN 14575 Geosynthetic barriers – Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation prEN ISO 10318:2002 Geosynthetics – Geotextiles, geotextile-related products, geomembranes and geosynthetic clay liners – Terms and their definitions (ISO/DIS 10318:2000) EN ISO 10319 Geotextiles – Wide-width tensile test (ISO 10319:1993) EN ISO 10320 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Identification on site (ISO 10320:1999) EN ISO 11925-2 Reaction to fire tests – Ignitability of building products subjected to direct impingement of flame – Part 2: Single-flame source test (ISO 11925-2:2002) EN ISO 12236 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Static puncture test (CBR-Test) (ISO 12236:1996)

SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 8 prEN ISO 13438 Geotextiles and geotextile-related products – Screening test method for determining the resistance to oxidation at elevated oxygen pressure (ISO/DIS 13438:2002) ISO 34 Plastics - Tear strength ISO R 527-1 Plastics -- Determination of tensile properties -- Part 1: General principles

ISO R 527-3 Plastics -- Determination of tensile properties -- Part 3: Test conditions for films and sheets

ASTM D 696-91 Standard test method for coefficient of linear thermal expansion of plastics between -30 °C and 30 °C ASTM D 1434-82 Standard test method for determining gas permeability characteristics of plastic film and sheeting ASTM D 5397-99 Standard test method for evaluation of stress crack resistance of polyolefin geomembranes using notched constant tensile load test ASTM D 5887-95 Standard test method for measurement of index flux through saturated geosynthetic clay liner specimens using a flexible wall permeameter ASTM D 5890-95 Standard test method for swell index of clay mineral component of geosynthetic clay liners 3 Definitions and abbreviations 3.1 Definitions For the purpose of this document the definitions given in prEN ISO 10318:2002 and the following apply:

3.1.1 product geosynthetic barrier, including polymeric, bituminous and clay barriers 3.1.2 specification any document in which the works, functions, specific conditions and required material property values of the geosynthetic barrier of use are described 3.1.3 underground structure any constructed void below ground which belongs to the tunnel construction 3.1.4 tunnel underground passage, open to the daylight at one or both ends, with a minimum diameter of one meter, which is made by removing soil or rock 3.1.5 moisture barrier barrier used to prevent the ingress of liquids and vapours, mainly water, without external hydrostatic pressure, to a tunnel or underground structure 3.1.6 pressure water barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the escape from or the ingress of water to a tunnel or underground structure when subject to external hydrostatic pressure SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 9 3.1.7 fluid barrier barrier used to prevent or reduce the escape from or the ingress of fluids to a tunnel or underground structure when subject to differential pressure 3.2 Abbreviations For the purpose of this document the abbreviations given in prEN ISO 10318:2002 apply.

GBR-P: polymeric geosynthetic barrier GBR-B: bituminous geosynthetic barrier GBR-C: clay geosynthetic barrier 4 Required characteristics and corresponding methods of test 4.1 General The main function of geosynthetic barriers used in the construction of tunnels and underground structures is to prevent or reduce the flow of fluid through the structure wall. Damage during installation has not been addressed in this document. 4.2 Types of Application

4.2.1 Application 1: " seepage water tunnel" Application where the geosynthetic barrier is used as a stand-alone seepage (moisture) barrier. Figure 1 shows a typical cross-section.

SIST EN 13491:2005
EN 13491:2004 (E) 10

Key 1 rock 2 shotcrete 3 geotextile 4 geosynthetic barrier 5 concrete Figure 1 A geosynthetic barrier in a drilled seepage water tunnel 4.2.2 Application 2: "pressurised water tunnel" Application where the geosynthetic barrier is used as a barrier against pressurised water. Figure 2 shows a typical cross-section. SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 11
Key 1 rock 2 shotcrete 3 geotextile 4 geosynthetic barrier 5 concrete Figure 2
A geosynthetic barrier in a drilled pressurised water tunnel SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 12 4.2.3 Application 3: "Cut and cover seepage water tunnel" Application where the geosynthetic barrier is used as a stand-alone seepage (moisture) barrier in a cut and cover design. Figure 3 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 soil 2 protection layer 3 geosynthetic barrier 4 geotextile 5 concrete Figure 3

A geosynthetic barrier in a cut and cover seepage water tunnel SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 13 4.2.4 Application 4: "Cut and cover pressure water tunnel" Application where the geosynthetic barrier is used as a barrier against pressurised water in a cut and cover design. Figure 4 shows a typical cross-section.

Key 1 soil 2 protection layer 3 geosynthetic barrier 4 geotextile 5 concrete Figure 4

A geosynthetic barrier in a cut and cover pressurised water tunnel

4.3 Relevant characteristics The characteristics and the test methods to be used, are given in Table 1. The list of characteristics in Table 1 includes those relevant to all conditions of use and subject to harmonisation (H) (see Bibliography), those relevant to all conditions of use and not subject to harmonisation (A), and those relevant to specific conditions of use and not subject to harmonisation (S).

The functions and conditions of use, corresponding with the characteristics, marked with “S” in Table 1, are specified in 4.4.

The manufacturer shall provide the data based on the results of tests specified in this document and, where relevant, in accordance with 5.1. The manufacturer shall provide information on how functioning joints can be made. Where products are jointed in the factory the water permeability and if relevant the strength of the joints shall be tested and data presented. SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 14 Table 1: Geosynthetic Barriers used in the construction of tunnels and underground structures - Functions, function-related characteristics and test methods to be used.

Geosynthetic Barrier Test Methods Remarks Nr Property to be tested GBR-P
GBR-B GBR-C GBR-P
GBR-B GBR-C
Physical Properties
1 Thickness A A - EN 1849-2 EN 1849-1 -
2 Mass per unit area A A A EN 1849-2 EN 1849-1 EN 14196
Hydraulic Properties
3 Water permeability (liquid tightness)

H H H pr EN 14150 pr EN 14150 ASTM D 5887-95 4 Swell Index - - A - - ASTM D 5890-95

Mechanical Properties
5 Tensile strength

H H H ISO R 527 EN 12311-1 EN ISO 10319 For GBR-P use ISO 527 part 1 and 3, test specimen type 5 at a speed of 100 mm/min and report the maximum strength measured in accordance with the test method. 6 Elongation A A A ISO R 527 EN 12311-1 EN ISO 10319 For GBR-P use ISO 527 part 1 and 3, test specimen type 5 at a speed of 100 mm/min; calculation of elongation as defined in ISO 527-1, 10.2 using grip separation measurement.. 7 Static Puncture H H H EN ISO 12236 EN ISO 12236 EN ISO 12236

8 Burst Strength S S S prEN 14151

prEN 14151 prEN 14151 This test applies to GBR-C only if they contain a polymeric or bituminous barrier element 9 Tear strength S S - ISO 34 EN 12310-1 - For GBR-P use Method B, angle Specimen (Figure 2) without nick at a speed of 50 mm/min

Thermal Properties
10 Low temperature behaviour (flexure) S S - EN 495-5 EN 1109 -
11 Thermal expansion A A - ASTM D 696-91 - -
Durability and Chemical Resistance

12 Weathering S S - EN 12224 EN 12224 - GBR-C: see 4.4.4 13 Micro organisms S S S EN 12225 EN 12225 EN 12225

SIST EN 13491:2005
EN 13491:2004 (E) 15
Geosynthetic Barrier Test Methods Remarks Nr Property to be tested GBR-P
GBR-B GBR-C GBR-P
GBR-B GBR-C
14 Oxidation H H H prEN 14575 prEN 14575
prEN ISO 13438

for the geotextile elements and reinforcement yarns of GBR-C barriers prEN ISO 13438 is applicable 15 Environmental stress cracking H - S ASTM D 5397-99 (appendix) - ASTM D 5397-99 (appendix)

GBR-C: Only applicable to polymeric membrane element of the GBR-C 16 Chemical resistance S S S EN 14414 EN 14414 EN 14414

17 Wetting/drying - - S - - prEN 14417
18 Freezing / thaw - - S - - prEN 14418
19 Root penetration S S S prCEN/TS 14416: prCEN/TS 14416 prCEN/TS 14416

20 Reaction to fire A A A EN ISO 11925-2 EN ISO 11925-2 EN ISO 11925-2 GBR should be tested in metal frame only Relevancy:

H : required for harmonisation;

A : relevant to all conditions of use; S : relevant to specific conditions of use;

-: not relevant

NOTE: Particular application cases may contain requirements about additional properties and - preferably standardised - test methods, if they are technically relevant and not conflicting with European Standards. The design life of the product should be determined, since its function may be temporary, as a construction expediency, or permanent, for the lifetime of the structure.

SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 16 4.4 Characteristics relevant to specific conditions of use. The specification shall define which functions and conditions of use are relevant (see Table 1). The producer of the product shall provide the necessary data based on the requirements and test methods described in this document. The list of characteristics in Table 1 includes those required for harmonisation (H), those relevant to all conditions of use (A), and those relevant to specific conditions of use (S). These specific conditions of use are listed from 4.4.1 to 4.4.7. 4.4.1 Tear strength Data on the tear strength of polymeric and bituminous barriers are required when they are laid on slopes or inclined surfaces or otherwise exposed to mechanical stress. 4.4.2 Bursting strength Data on the bursting strength are required in all applications where multi-axial deformation of geosynthetic barriers can occur as a result of settlement, deformation in designed or accidental situations.

4.4.3 Low temperature behaviour Data on low temperature behaviour are required for applications where polymer and bituminous products may be exposed to low temperatures in storage, construction, and use

NOTE Tests which set simple pass/fail criteria at a single temperature condition may not be appropriate for this purpose.

Prehydrated GBR-C should not be stored or installed when the ambient temperature is below 0 °C. 4.4.4 Weathering Data on weathering (combined effects of cycles of wetting, temperature change, and exposure to UV light) are required for applications where the GBR-C barrier will be exposed to weathering without adequate protective cover. It should be noted that in all normal situations GBR-C barriers should be covered with soil or other revetment on the same working day or prior to any circumstances which could cause

a hydration of
the clay component. 4.4.5

Resistance to wetting and drying Data on the resistance of GBR-C to repeated wetting and drying is required when the conditions of use will subject the product to this sequence of actions. 4.4.6 Freeze-thaw cycle resistance Data on the resistance of GBR-C to freeze/thaw is required when the conditions of use will subject the product to this sequence of actions. 4.4.7 Resistance to root penetration. Data on root penetration is required in all applications where the geosynthetic barrier is exposed to soils containing restorative vegetation.

SIST EN 13491:2005

EN 13491:2004 (E) 17 5 Evaluation of conformity 5.1 Presentation of characteristics The characteristics specified in Table 2, except for durability, expressed as mean values and tolerance limit(s) corresponding to the 95% confidence level, shall be given by the manufacturer, based on the statistical interpretation of his internal quality control measurements. Physical examination or preliminary testing, according to one of the test methods referenced in Table 1, may indicate that values obtained for a product lie below (or above) the sensitivity threshold established for that test method. I

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