Small craft - Reciprocating internal combustion engines exhaust emission measurement - Test-bed measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions (ISO 18854:2015)

This International Standard specifies the measurement and evaluation methods for gaseous and
particulate exhaust emissions from reciprocating internal combustion (RIC) engines under steady-state
conditions on a test bed, necessary for determining one weighted value for each exhaust gas pollutant.
Various combinations of engine load and speed reflect different engine applications.
This International Standard is applicable to RIC marine engines intended to be installed in small craft
up to 24 m length of hull.

Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Messung der Emission von Hubkolben-Verbrennungsmotoren - Prüfstandsmessung der gasförmigen Emission und der Partikelemission (ISO 18854:2015)

Petits navires - Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne mesurage des émissions de gaz d'échappement - Mesurage des émissions de gaz et de particules au banc (ISO 18854:2015)

L'ISO 18854:2015 spécifie les méthodes de mesurage et d'évaluation au banc d'essai des émissions gazeuses et de particules des gaz d'échappement des moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne (RIC) en régime permanent, nécessaires pour déterminer une valeur pondérée pour chaque polluant des gaz d'échappement. Différentes combinaisons de charge et de vitesse du moteur reflètent différentes applications du moteur.
Elle est applicable aux moteurs marins RIC destinés à être installés sur les petits navires d'une longueur de coque inférieure ou égale à 24 m.

Mala plovila - Merjenje emisij izpušnih plinov batnih strojev z notranjim zgorevanjem - Merjenje plinastih emisij ter emisij trdnih delcev (ISO 18854:2015)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Feb-2014
Publication Date
08-Jun-2015
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
15-May-2015
Due Date
20-Jul-2015
Completion Date
09-Jun-2015

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
01-julij-2015
Mala plovila - Merjenje emisij izpušnih plinov batnih strojev z notranjim

zgorevanjem - Merjenje plinastih emisij ter emisij trdnih delcev (ISO 18854:2015)

Small craft - Reciprocating internal combustion engines exhaust emission measurement

- Test-bed measurement of gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions (ISO
18854:2015)
Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Messung der Emission von Hubkolben-Verbrennungsmotoren
- Prüfstandsmessung der gasförmigen Emission und der Partikelemission (ISO
18854:2015)

Petits navires - Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne mesurage des émissions de gaz

d'échappement - Mesurage des émissions de gaz et de particules au banc (ISO
18854:2015)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18854:2015
ICS:
13.040.50 Emisije izpušnih plinov v Transport exhaust emissions
prometu
47.020.20 Ladijski motorji Marine engines and
propulsion systems
47.080 ýROQL Small craft
SIST EN ISO 18854:2015 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 18854
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
April 2015
ICS 47.020.20; 47.080
English Version
Small craft - Reciprocating internal combustion engines exhaust
emission measurement - Test-bed measurement of gaseous and
particulate exhaust emissions (ISO 18854:2015)

Petits navires - Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne Kleine Wasserfahrzeuge - Messung der Emission von

mesurage des émissions de gaz d'échappement - Hubkolben-Verbrennungsmotoren - Prüfstandsmessung der

Mesurage des émissions de gaz et de particules au banc gasförmigen Emission und der Partikelemission (ISO

(ISO 18854:2015) 18854:2015)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 March 2015.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same

status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18854:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
EN ISO 18854:2015 (E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential

Requirements of EU Directive 2013/53/EC .........................................................................................4

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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
EN ISO 18854:2015 (E)
Foreword

This document (EN ISO 18854:2015) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 188 "Small craft".

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical

text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2015, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at

the latest by October 2015.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following

countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece,

Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal,

Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18854:2015 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18854:2015 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
EN ISO 18854:2015 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential
Requirements of EU Directive 2013/53/EC

This European standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission to

provide one means of conforming to Essential Requirements of the New Approach Directive 2013/53/EC.

Once this standard is cited in the Official Journal of the European Communities under that Directive and has

been implemented as a national standard in at least one member state, compliance with the normative

clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 confers, within the limits of the scope of this standard, a

presumption of conformity with the relevant Essential Requirements of that Directive and associated EFTA

regulations.

Table ZA.1: Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 2013/53/EC

Corresponding
Clauses/sub-clauses of this annexes/paragraphs of Comments
standard Directive 2013/53/EC
In respect of measurement and
All Clauses of this Standard Annex 1.B. 2. Exhaust evaluation methods for
emission requirements gaseous and particulate
emissions
Fuels to be used for the
Clause 6 Annex 1.B. 2. Reference fuels emissions test for engines
fuelled with petrol and diesel

WARNING — Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the product(s) falling within

the scope of this standard.
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18854
First edition
2015-04-15
Small craft — Reciprocating internal
combustion engines exhaust
emission measurement — Test-
bed measurement of gaseous and
particulate exhaust emissions
Petits navires — Moteurs alternatifs à combustion interne mesurage
des émissions de gaz d’échappement — Mesurage des émissions de
gaz et de particules au banc
Reference number
ISO 18854:2015(E)
ISO 2015
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
ISO 18854:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
ISO 18854:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................viii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 General symbols ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Symbols for fuel composition ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

4.3 Symbols and abbreviations for the chemical components ............................................................................... 5

4.4 Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Test conditions ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1 Engine test conditions ...................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.1 Test condition parameter ......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.1.2 Test validity .......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.2 Engines with charge air cooling ............................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3 Power .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.4 Specific test conditions .................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.1 Engine air inlet system ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.2 Engine exhaust system ............................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.3 Cooling system ................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.4.4 Lubricating oil .................................................................................................................................................................... 9

5.4.5 Adjustable carburettors ............................................................................................................................................. 9

5.4.6 Crankcase breather ........................................................................................................................................................ 9

6 Test fuels ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Application of the engine family concept and choice of parent engine .......................................................9

8 Measurement equipment and data to be measured .....................................................................................................10

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Dynamometer specification ......................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Exhaust gas flow .................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 Direct measurement method .............................................................................................................................10

8.3.3 Air and fuel measurement method ...............................................................................................................11

8.3.4 Fuel flow and carbon balance method .......................................................................................................11

8.3.5 Tracer measurement method ............................................................................................................................11

8.3.6 Air flow and air-to-fuel ratio measurement method .....................................................................12

8.3.7 Total dilute exhaust gas flow ..............................................................................................................................13

8.4 Accuracy .....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.5 Determination of the gaseous components ................................................................................................................14

8.5.1 General analyser specifications ........................................................................................................................14

8.5.2 Gas drying ...........................................................................................................................................................................15

8.5.3 Analysers .............................................................................................................................................................................15

8.5.4 Sampling for gaseous emissions ......................................................................................................................17

8.6 Particulate determination ..........................................................................................................................................................18

8.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................18

8.6.2 Particulate sampling filters ..................................................................................................................................19

8.6.3 Weighing chamber and analytical balance specifications .........................................................20

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
ISO 18854:2015(E)

9 Calibration of the analytical instruments ................................................................................................................................20

9.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................20

9.2 Calibration gases ................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.2 Pure gas .................. .................................................... ...........................................................................................................21

9.2.3 Calibration and span gases...................................................................................................................................21

9.2.4 Use of gas dividers .......................................................................................................................................................21

9.2.5 Oxygen interference gases ....................................................................................................................................22

9.3 Operating procedure for analysers and sampling system ..............................................................................22

9.4 Leakage test ............................................................................................................................................................................................22

9.5 Calibration procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................22

9.5.1 Instrument assembly ................................................................................................................................................22

9.5.2 Warm-up time .................................................................................................................................................................22

9.5.3 NDIR and HFID analyser ........................................................................................................................................22

9.5.4 GC and HPCL .....................................................................................................................................................................23

9.5.5 Establishment of the calibration curve ......................................................................................................23

9.5.6 Alternative calibration methods ......................................................................................................................23

9.5.7 Verification of the calibration ............................................................................................................................23

9.6 Calibration of tracer gas analyser for exhaust flow measurement .........................................................23

9.7 Efficiency test of the NO converter ...................................................................................................................................24

9.7.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................24

9.7.2 Test setup ............................................................................................................................................................................24

9.7.3 Calibration ..........................................................................................................................................................................24

9.7.4 Calculation ..........................................................................................................................................................................25

9.7.5 Adding of oxygen ..........................................................................................................................................................25

9.7.6 Activation of the ozonator ....................................................................................................................................25

9.7.7 NO mode ............................................................................................................................................................................25

9.7.8 Deactivation of the ozonator ..............................................................................................................................25

9.7.9 NO mode ...................................................................... .........................................................................................................25

9.7.10 Test interval .......................................................................................................................................................................25

9.7.11 Efficiency requirement ............................................................................................................................................25

9.8 Adjustment of the FID ....................................................................................................................................................................26

9.8.1 Optimization of the detector response ......................................................................................................26

9.8.2 Hydrocarbon response factors .........................................................................................................................26

9.8.3 Oxygen interference check ...................................................................................................................................26

9.8.4 Efficiency of the Non-Methane Cutter (NMC) ......................................................................................27

9.8.5 Methanol response factor .....................................................................................................................................28

9.9 Interference effects with CO, CO , NO , O , NH , and N O analysers ....................................................28

2 x 2 3 2

9.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................28

9.9.2 CO analyser interference check ........................................................................................................................29

9.9.3 NO analyser quench checks ...............................................................................................................................29

9.9.4 O analyser interference ........................................................................................................................................30

9.9.5 Cross-interference check compensation for NH and N O measurement channels
3 2

using IR and UV measurement techniques ............................................................................................31

9.10 Calibration intervals ........................................................................................................................................................................33

10 Calibration of the particulate measuring system ............................................................................................................33

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................33

10.2 Calibration procedure ....................................................................................................................................................................33

10.2.1 Flow measurement .....................................................................................................................................................33

10.2.2 Exhaust gas analysers ...............................................................................................................................................33

10.2.3 Carbon flow check .......................................................................................................................................................33

10.3 Checking the partial-flow conditions ...............................................................................................................................33

10.4 Calibration intervals ........................................................................................................................................................................33

iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18854:2015
ISO 18854:2015(E)

11 Calibration of the CVS full-flow dilution system ...............................................................................................................34

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................34

11.2 Calibration of the Positive Displacement Pump (PDP) .....................................................................................34

11.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................34

11.2.2 Data analysis .....................................................................................................................................................................34

11.3 Calibration of the Critical-Flow Venturi (CFV) .........................................................................................................35

11.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................35

11.3.2 Data analysis .....................................................................................................................................................................35

11.4 Calibration of the Subsonic Venturi (SSV) ....................................................................................................................36

11.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.4.2 Data analysis .....................................................................................................................................................................36

11.5 Total system verification .............................................................................................................................................................37

11.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................37

11.5.2 Metering with a critical flow orifice .............................................................................................................37

11.5.3 Metering by means of a gravimetric technique ..................................................................................37

12 Test cycles (running conditions) .......................................................................................................................................................38

12.1 Requirements ........................................................................................................................................................................................38

12.2 Test cycles .................................................................................................................................................................................................38

12.2.1 Applications ......................................................................................................................................................................38

12.2.2 Test modes and weighting factors .................................................................................................................39

12.2.3 Performing the test .....................................
...

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