ISO 17178:2013 specifies test methods for adhesives for bonding parquet and similar wood floorings to a subfloor. It also specifies the minimum requirements for shear strength, tensile strength to be achieved with these adhesives.
ISO 17178:2013 does not refer to the selection and installation of parquet floorings.

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This document specifies test methods for the evaluation of the foam yield characteristics for moisture curing, self-curing activatable or water drying foams dispensed from single pressurized foam containers.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
The following test methods are described:
-   Method 1 - Determination of the apparent density of an OCF extruded in a joint and calculation of the theoretical foam yield in running meters of the whole can.
-   Method 2 - Determination of the real yield of cured foam, respecting eventual cavities inside the foam structure.
-   Method 3 - Determination of the free foamed density of a cured OCF for identification purposes only.
-   Method 4 - Determination of the total foam yield for the whole OCF container for moisture and self-curing foam that can be measured by water displacement.

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This document specifies test methods for the evaluation of the application properties for moisture curing, self-curing activatable or water drying foams dispensed from single pressurized foam containers.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
The following test methods are described:
-   Method 1 - Cutting time: This test method describes how to determine the hardening time of a dispended froth until it could be cut.
-   Method 2 - Tack free time: This test method describes how to determine the tack free time of a freshly foamed OCF.
-   Method 3 - Sagging: This test method describes how to evaluate the sagging behaviour and determine the biggest joint possible before dispensed froth slips off.

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This document specifies test methods for the evaluation of the mechanical properties for moisture curing, self-curing activatable or water drying foams dispensed from single pressurized foam containers.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
The following test methods are described:
-   Method 1 - Compression strength: This test method describes how to determine the compressive strength of a cured foam. It gives an indication of the foams resistance against area distributed pressure. The maximum endurable stress is determined.
-   Method 2 - Movement capability: This test method describes how to determine the movement capability of cured foam. The result gives an indication of the degree of flexibility of the cured foam.
-   Method 3 - Bonding strength: The method displays the measurement of the bonding power of a One Component (Foam) Adhesive, dispensed from a pressurized foam container, between two substrates with direct contact.
-   Method 4 - Tensile strength: This test method describes how to determine the maximum stress a cured foam can withstand while being stretched before breaking. The result gives an indication of the elasticity of the cured foam.
-   Method 5 - Shear strength: This method displays the behaviour of a foam system towards shear forces. It shows the strength and the bonding power of the foam as the sandwich element between wooden plates. The test is conducted according to EN 12090.

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This document specifies test methods for the evaluation of the expansion properties for moisture curing, self-curing activatable or water drying foams dispensed from single pressurized foam containers.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
The following test methods are described:
-   Method 1 - Dimensional stability: This test method describes how to determine the dimensional stability (shrinkage or expansion) of cured foam under typical and extreme conditions.
-   Method 2 - Curing pressure: This method describes how to determine the generation of pressure during the curing process of an OCF.
-   Method 3 - Post expansion: This method describes how to measure the expansion of a dispensed froth during the curing phase.

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This document specifies test methods for the evaluation of the insulation properties for moisture curing, self-curing activatable or water drying foams dispensed from single pressurised foam containers.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use.
The following test method is described:
-   Thermal conductivity: This method describes how to determine the long term thermal conductivity of a cured OCF foam, dispensed from a pressurised foam container, with a sample subjected to accelerated ageing procedure.

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This document specifies a method for testing the strength of wood adhesives at 80 °C.
NOTE   The procedure described is based on a test developed in Germany known originally as the WATT '91 test. It uses the test piece described in EN 205.

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This document specifies a test method to measure the dimensional changes of a linoleum floorcovering while being adhered to a glass substrate. This method is to be used in conjunction with other test methods and not used solely to determine the suitability of a particular adhesive/linoleum combination.

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This document specifies a test method to measure the electrical resistance as a material physical parameter of an adhesive film and composites of floor covering material and adhesive film. The electrical resistance is reciprocal to the electrical conductivity. This laboratory method does not take account of all influences which can occur in practice.
This method applies to the determination of the electrical resistance of adhesive films on glass and of composites of floor coverings, adhesively bonded to a fibre cement substrate R4 and R5 (see Clause 3).

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This document specifies a test method that measures the dimensional changes of a plastic or rubber floor or wall covering bonded to a given substrate after accelerated ageing. The term "wall covering" does not include any type of wallpaper.

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This document specifies a test method to measure the adhesion of a resilient or textile floor covering or wall covering bonded to a given substrate under peel forces. The term "wall covering" does not include any type of wallpaper.

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This document specifies a test method to measure the adhesion of a resilient or textile floor covering or wall covering bonded to a given substrate under shear forces. The term "wall covering" does not include any type of wallpaper.

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This document specifies a dynamic impact wedge method for the determination of the cleavage resistance under impact loading of high-strength adhesive bonds between two adherends, when tested under specified conditions of preparation and testing. This test procedure does not provide design information.
The method allows a choice of sheet metal or fibre reinforced plastic substrates corresponding to those materials frequently used in industry, such as for automotive applications.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the comparative compression shear strength of adhesive bonds and solid wood at both ambient temperature and elevated temperature. The maximum load of the test pieces at ambient temperature and after exposure to a specific elevated temperature for a specified duration of time is evaluated. It is applicable to adhesives used in load bearing timber structures and to other wood adhesives.
This method is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the influence of elevated temperatures on the behaviour of adhesive bonds.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded element in service.

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ISO 10123:2013 specifies a method for the determination of the shear strength of anaerobic-curing liquid adhesives used for retaining cylindrical assemblies, pin-and-collar type, or for locking and sealing threaded fasteners. This test method can also be used for other adhesives.

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This document specifies a series of methods for the determination of peel adhesion properties of self adhesives tapes.
This document contains:
— Method 1: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of peel adhesion from stainless steel at an angle of 180°;
— Method 2: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of peel adhesion from its own backing at an angle of 180°;
— Method 3: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of peel adhesion of double sided and transfer tapes at an angle 180°;
— Method 4: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of adhesion of the liner to an adhesive tape at an angle of 180°.
Annexes A and B specify further variations in the testing protocol according to specific conditions.

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This document specifies methods to measure the breaking strength and elongation at break of a self adhesive tape when it is subjected to a tensile force sufficient to cause it to break.
These test methods describe a procedure for testing 12 mm or 24 mm wide samples cut from supplied rolls of self adhesive tapes. Alternatively rolls of self adhesive tape up to 50 mm wide can be directly tested in their original width. In these circumstances the practical breaking strength and elongation will be typical of the manufacturer's cut edges. When newly cut sample pieces are tested, because of the better cutting of the edges, the results can be higher than would be found on commercial tape.

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This document specifies a series of methods for the determination of the ability of a pressure sensitive tape to remain adhered under a constant load applied parallel to the surfaces of the tape and substrate.
This document contains:
— method A: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion to a vertical standard steel panel;
— method B: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion to a vertical panel covered with NIST SRM 1810A[1] standard fibreboard;
— method C: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion to a vertical panel covered with a fibreboard agreed upon by the buyer and seller;
— method D: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion of filament reinforced tape applied to a horizontal standard steel panel;
— method E: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion of filament reinforced tape applied to a horizontal panel covered with NIST SRM 1810A1) standard fibreboard;
— method F: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion of filament reinforced tape applied to a horizontal panel covered with a fibreboard agreed upon by the buyer and seller;
— method G: Self adhesive tapes ? Measurement of shear adhesion to a vertical standard steel panel at elevated temperature after a 10 min dwell time.
[1] NIST SRM 1810A is National Institute of Standards and Technology ? Standard Reference Material 1810A and is available from the Institute at Gaithersburg, Maryland MD 20899, USA.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the creep deformation of bonded specimens loaded in bending shear. It is applicable to adhesives used in load bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives to EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load bearing timber structures.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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ISO 10364:2015 specifies methods for determining the pot life of multi-part adhesives in order to be able to determine whether the pot life conforms to the minimum specified working life required of an adhesive.
For the purposes of simplification, the term "pot life" is deemed to have the same meaning as "working life" and will be used to represent both throughout this International Standard. Methods described to measure the property provide different answers. So the results shall be specified with respect to the method used.
The test methods described are suitable for assessing all multi?part adhesives, and especially epoxy based and polyurethane based adhesives, but they are not suitable for some acrylic-based adhesives.
NOTE 1 Some of the methods described in this International Standard can also be suitable for determination of working life of one-part adhesives that react to humidity (e.g. PUR prepolymers).
NOTE 2 This International Standard can also be used for assessing non-structural adhesives.

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This European Standard establishes a classification for phenolic and aminoplastic polycondensation adhesives according to their suitability for use for load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions, and specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the factory manufacture or factory-like manufacturing conditions of load-bearing timber structures only.
This European Standard only specifies the performance of an adhesive for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
The performance requirements of this European Standard apply to the adhesive only, not to the timber structure. This European Standard does not cover the performance of adhesives for on-site gluing (except for factory-like conditions) nor the production of wood-based panels, except solid wood panels, or modified and stabilized wood with considerably reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, e.g. such as acetylated wood, heat treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. The requirements apply to the type testing of the adhesives. Production control activities are outside the scope of this European Standard.
Adhesives meeting the requirements of this European Standard are adequate for use in a load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the resistance to delamination in glue lines.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives with EN 301, EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for comparing the effects on the bond strength resulting from the choice of bonding conditions, from different climatic conditioning and from the treatment of the test pieces before and after bonding.
This test is not applicable for modified and stabilized wood with strongly reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, such as acetylated wood, heat-treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the effect on bond strength of damage to wood fibres caused by the action of acids from the adhesive or primer used in the gluing process during climatic cycling.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives with EN 301, EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for determining if the adhesive after bonding has a damaging influence on the strength of the wood due to chemical action.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments. This test is carried out on Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) or Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).
This method is not intended for use to provide numerical design data and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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This European Standard specifies a laboratory method of determining the minimum pressing time for two glue line thicknesses, close contact and 0,2 mm or 0,3 mm, at three temperatures and three wood moisture contents.
This European Standard is intended to determine the minimum pressing time using a defined procedure for obtaining a reliable base for comparison of minimum pressing time between adhesives under referenced conditions.
The method gives a result that cannot be applied to the safe manufacture of timber structures without taking into account the influence in variation of factors such as timber density, moisture content, factory temperature and relative air humidity.

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This European Standard specifies a laboratory method of determining the open assembly time in standard climate (20 ±2) °C and (65 ±5) % relative humidity (hereafter climate [20/65]).
This European Standard is intended to determine the open assembly time using a defined procedure for obtaining a reliable base for comparison of open assembly time between adhesives under referenced conditions.
The method gives a result that cannot be applied to the safe manufacture of timber structures without taking into account the influence of factors such as timber density, moisture content, factory temperature and relative air humidity.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the ability of adhesive bonds to resist long-term sustained load applied vertical to the glue lines. It is applicable to adhesives used in load-bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives according to EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for assessing the effect on the bond strength resulting from long-term sustained load at cyclic climate conditions.
This method is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the ability of adhesive bonds to resist static load. It is applicable to adhesives used in load bearing timber structures.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives according to EN 301, EN 15425 and EN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures;
c)   for assessing the effect on the bond strength resulting from constant load at different climate conditions.
This method is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended to provide data for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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This European Standard establishes a classification for one component polyurethane (PUR) adhesives according to their suitability for use in load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions; it specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the factory manufacture or factory like manufacturing of load-bearing timber structures only.
It also classifies “adhesive lines” where all the products within the line have almost identical physical/chemical properties and gluing performance, but different reactivity.
This European Standard only specifies the performance of adhesives for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
The performance requirements of this European Standard apply to the adhesives only, not to the timber structure. This European Standard does not cover the performance of adhesives for on-site gluing (except for factory-like conditions) nor the production of wood-based panels, except solid wood panels, or modified and stabilized wood with considerably reduced swelling and shrinkage properties, e.g. such as acetylated wood, heat treated wood and polymer impregnated wood.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. The requirements apply to the type testing of the adhesives. Production control activities are outside the scope of this European Standard.
Adhesives meeting the requirements of this European Standard are adequate for use in load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

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This European Standard classifies thermosetting resin based wood adhesives for non-structural applications into durability classes C1 to C4 based on the dry and wet strengths of bond-lines measured under specified conditions after various conditioning treatments.
For special applications, further tests, which do not fall within the scope of this European Standard can be applicable.
The adhesives specified in this European Standard are suitable for the bonding of furniture and interior structures, panelling, doors, windows, stairs etc. made of wood or derived timber products.

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This European Standard specifies tests for adhesives for wood and derived timber products for the assessment of their resistance to hot and cold water. It can be used for the assessment of the strength of bonds with a thin bond-line. It does not apply to adhesives for structural use or to the manufacture of particleboards, fibreboards and plywood. It does not replace tests on finished products.

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This European Standard classifies thermoplastic resin based wood adhesives for non-structural applications into durability classes D1 to D4 based on the dry and wet strengths of bond-lines measured under specified conditions after various conditioning treatments.
For special applications, further tests that do not fall within the scope of this European standard can be applicable.
The adhesives specified in this European standard are suitable for the bonding of furniture and interior structures, panelling, doors, windows, stairs etc. made of wood or derived timber products.
This European Standard does not specify the temperature resistance of bond-lines.

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This European Standard specifies test methods to assess the coefficients of friction of potentially adhesive films or layers, such as coatings with reactivable adhesives, hot melts or waxes, for use with paper and board, packaging and disposable sanitary products.

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This European Standard specifies a test method to determine the foam formation, or air entrainment during rapid stirring of aqueous adhesives with a maximum viscosity of 10 000 MPa·s at room temperature determined in accordance with EN 12092.

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This European Standard specifies a method to determine whether a film of adhesive of given dimensions will craze, crack or fracture at a specified temperature.
Alternatively, the temperature at which the film will craze, crack or fracture can be determined.
The method described can be used as a quality control test, or to compare the flexibility of adhesives at low temperatures.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for adhesives used for joining the components of unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U), chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene copolymer blends (PVC+SAN) thermoplastic piping systems for fluids under pressure, independent of the application area.

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This European Standard establishes a classification for emulsion polymerised isocyanate (EPI) adhesives according to their suitability for use in load-bearing timber structures in defined climatic exposure conditions, and specifies performance requirements for such adhesives for the industrial manufacture of load-bearing timber structures only.
The performance requirements of this standard apply to the adhesive only, not to the structure.
This European Standard is primarily intended for the use of adhesive manufacturers and for the use in timber structures bonded with adhesives, to assess or control the quality of adhesives. This European Standard only specifies the performance of an adhesive for use in an environment corresponding to the defined conditions.
Such an adhesive meeting the requirements of this European Standard for its type is adequate for use in a load-bearing timber structure, provided that the bonding process has been carried out according to an appropriate product standard.

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This European Standard defines terms used in the adhesive industry and terms relating to adhesives in those industries that use adhesives.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and test methods for adhesives used for joining the components of unplasticised poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U), chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride)(PVC-C), acrylonitrile -butadiene-styrene (ABS) and styrene copolymer blends (PVC+SAN) thermoplastic piping systems for non-pressure applications (e.g. soil and waste discharge), independent of the application area.

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This European Standard specifies a test method that gives an assessment of adhesion under long-term shear stress after bonding floor or wall coverings to a given substrate. The term “wall covering” does not include any type of wallpaper.

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This European Standard specifies requirements for adhesives intended for use in the creation and general assembly of load-bearing, structural elements used in civil engineering works and the construction of buildings. Other than the exceptions stated, it embraces all combinations of bonded materials, used to create or repair load-bearing elements.
It covers individual adhesives and special purpose kits comprising various combinations of adhesive types and components.
It includes test methods and methods of assessment.
The performance requirements in this standard may not be applicable to highly specialised applications in extreme environmental conditions, e.g. cryogenic use, nor do they cover specialised circumstances such as accidental impact, e.g. due to traffic or ice, or earthquake loading where specific performance requirements will apply.
The intended use is for internal and external construction elements and those cladding and covering elements (excluding ceramic tiles) specifically required, by regulatory authorities, to provide protection from fire in identified building zones, including escape routes.
This European Standard does not cover:
-   Prefabricated, bonded structural components;
-   Concrete bonded either to itself or steel or a material based on carbon fibre;
-   Wood, when bonded to itself to form a timber based, laminated beam [of the type known as a ‘Glulam’ beam] intended for use as a major structural, load bearing element;
-   Thermoplastics [e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide and fluorinated polymers in general] unless they have been specifically prepared [usually through a specialised oxidative process] for bonded assembly on site;
-   Co-axial metallic assemblies comprising fasteners- threaded and otherwise, pipes and tubes;
-   Glass assemblies in structural glazing applications made using silicone adhesives;
-   Those structural elements that are permanently immersed in water.

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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for the characterisation of anaerobic adhesives intended for the general assembly of co-axial metallic elements in building and civil engineering structures including fasteners- threaded and otherwise, pipes and tubes. It is applicable to single adhesives and systems (kits) comprising adhesives, activators and/or primers for both internal and external construction elements.
This European Standard only applies to metallic substrates.

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This European Standard defines for four main types of footwear minimum strength requirements for their sole-upper bonds produced with solvent-based or dispersion adhesives under specified conditions.

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This European Standard defines the test method for the determination of the maximum open time for thermoplastic wood adhesives for non-structural applications by tensile shear strength. It is carried out on standardized test pieces glued with increasing open times.

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This part of EN 28510 specifies a 90° peel test for the determination, under specified conditions, of the peel resistance of a bonded assembly of two adherends where at least one adherend is flexible. If a normal tensile testing machine is used for the test, the peel angle will not be constant at exactly 90º. If a constant angle of exactly 90° is required, a roller peeling device is used (see 4.1).
The 90º peel test is particularly suitable for use with less flexible adherends for which a 180° peel test is not suitable because the adherends crack, break or delaminate.
A 180º peel test is described in EN ISO 8510 2.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of single volatile organic compounds (VOC) and of the total amount of volatile organic compounds (TVOCEN 13999) in the exhaust air of an emission test chamber after application of a low-solvent or solvent-free adhesive as defined in EN 923:2005+A1:2008. The method is based on use of a solid sorbent with subsequent desorption and gas chromatographic analysis. The method is applicable to measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOC.

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This European Standard describes a conventional standard method for assessing potential emissions from adhesives after their application.
This European Standard applies only to "solvent-free" and "low-solvent" adhesives as they are defined in EN 923:2005+A1:2008. The adhesives shall be applicable at room temperature.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for an accelerated ageing test of an adhesive in its container. The result provides the manufacturer with an indication of the storage stability of the adhesive and container combination and their ability to retain adhesive properties.
The method described is intended for solvent based adhesives for thermoplastic piping systems but may be applied to other adhesive types if appropriate.
The method described in this Technical Specification does not give a correlation between the results obtained after the accelerated ageing test and after the shelf life of the adhesive at the ambient conditions defined by the manufacturer in the data sheet.
NOTE   Some of the solvents used in adhesives applied for bonding pipe joints are highly flammable and may even cause explosion when heated (tetrahydrofurane). Therefore, the users of this standard need to take special precautions when testing such adhesives according to the provisions of this standard which require prolonged heating of the container with the adhesive.

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This European Standard specifies a laboratory method of determining the maximum assembly time at two spread rate levels in standard atmosphere [20/65].
This European Standard is intended for obtaining a reliable base of comparison of the maximum assembly time between adhesives at referenced conditions.

  • Standard
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This European Standard specifies a method of determining the minimum pressing time for two glue line thicknesses, close contact glue line and 0,3 mm thick glue line (for gap filling adhesive 1,0 mm), at three temperatures. It is applicable to adhesives used in load- bearing timber structures.
This European Standard is only intended for obtaining a reliable base of comparison of pressing time between adhesives. The method gives results that cannot be applied to the safe manufacture of timber structures without modifications for the influences of timber density/absorbency, moisture content, factory temperature and relative air humidity.

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This European Standard specifies a method for determining the shear strength of adhesive bonds in close contact glue line and thick glue line.
It is suitable for the following applications:
a)   for assessing the compliance of adhesives with EN 301, EN 15425 and prEN 16254;
b)   for assessing the suitability and quality of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures.
This test is intended primarily to obtain performance data for the classification of adhesives for load-bearing timber structures according to their suitability for use in defined climatic environments.
This method is not intended for use to provide for structural design, and does not necessarily represent the performance of the bonded member in service.

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