This document specifies a method for determining the kinetics and yields of gaseous emissions from a specimen exposed to radiant heat in a cone calorimeter. Gas yields are determined by exposing small representative specimens to an external heat flux with or without spark ignition. The concentrations of specific gases in the effluent (smoke) are measured. In combination with calculated masses of gases, their yields from the specimen mass, mass loss or mass loss rate can be determined. This document uses Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as described in ISO 19702, with additional information on the test apparatus and gas analyser suitable for this specific application.

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This document specifies a test method for evaluating the reaction-to-fire performance of thermal insulating sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on or within the thermal insulating sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance. This document is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting and frame-supported thermal insulating sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

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This document specifies a test method for determining the non-combustibility performance, under specified conditions, of homogeneous products and substantial components of non-homogeneous products. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex A.

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This document specifies the apparatus and procedure for measuring reaction to fire behaviour under reduced oxygen atmospheres. Continuous measurements are made to calculate heat release rates, smoke and specific gas production rates, and mass loss rates. Ignition time measurements are also made and ignition behaviour is obtained. Pyrolysis parameters of specimens exposed to controlled levels of irradiance and controlled levels of oxygen supply can be determined as well. Different reduced oxygen atmospheres in the test environment are achieved by controlling the oxygen volume concentration of input gas fed into the chamber (vitiation) or by controlling the total volume of atmosphere fed into the chamber (ventilation). Ranges of oxygen volume concentration below 20,95 % of oxygen can be studied. The apparatus is not intended to control enriched oxygen conditions above atmospheric 20,95 % oxygen concentration. The measurement system prescribed in this document is based on the cone calorimeter apparatus described in ISO 5660-1. Therefore, this document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 5660-1.

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This document specifies a method of test for determining the ignitability of products by direct small flame impingement under zero impressed irradiance using vertically oriented test specimens. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex A (informative). Information on testing not essentially flat end-use products is given in Annex B (normative). Information on testing perforated end-use products is given in Annex C (normative).

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This document gives guidelines on the applicability of the existing reaction to fire tests to fire safety engineering and fire modelling. It also gives general guidance on the type of data needed for fire safety engineering calculations and for fire modelling.

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This document specifies a test method suitable to analyse effluents produced during pyrolysis and combustion of samples and products tested according to ISO 5659-2. The specified test method is based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy described in ISO 19702, with additional information on the test apparatus and analyser calibration suitable for its application to this physical fire model. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 5659-2 and ISO 19702. The test method provides time-resolved gas concentrations during the whole of an ISO 5659-2 test. This document does not address the accuracy of this fire model for any product application, nor does it address the accuracy of the gas concentrations relative to any real-scale fire tests or fire scenarios. For future conversion of this document into an International Standard, an interlaboratory trial is intended to be conducted to replace Annex B. This document does not include any toxicity assessment or provide input data for fire safety engineering. As combustion conditions vary depending on the oxygen consumption rate in the enclosure during the ISO 5659-2 test, this physical fire model is not recognised as being representative of any specific fire scenario. Therefore, it is difficult to compare test results with real-scale fire conditions. As a consequence, if this test method is used for comparison among materials or products, it is intended to be done in combination with other fire tests.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the gross heat of combustion (QPCS) of products at constant volume in a bomb calorimeter. This method is intended to be applied to solid products. NOTE Liquids can be tested with similar equipment and using conditions described in ASTM D240[1], as described in IEC 61039[2] using ISO 1928[3] test equipment. Annex A specifies the calculation of the net heat of combustion, QPCI, when required. Information on the precision of the test method is given in Annex B.

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ISO/TS 5660-4:2016 specifies a method for evaluating materials and products that produce low levels of heat release when exposed to high irradiance levels typical of fully developed fires. It differs from ISO 5660‑1 by prescribing items such as specific specimen size, specimen holder, specimen orientation, volumetric flow rate for O2 analyses and irradiance levels at which testing is conducted. The test method described in this document is intended for use on products and materials that contain only small amounts of combustible elements, e.g. test specimens that yield a total heat release of 0,75 MJ/m2 to 15 MJ/m2.

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ISO 9705-1:2016 specifies the test method to evaluate the reaction of wall and ceiling products to fire when installed at the surface of a small room and exposed directly to a specified ignition source. The test represents a fire scenario, which starts under well-ventilated conditions in a corner of a specified room with a single open doorway. Tests performed in accordance with the method specified in this part of ISO 9705 provide data for the early stages of a fire from ignition up to flashover. The method does not evaluate the fire resistance of products. The method is not intended to evaluate floor coverings. This method is not suitable for sandwich panel building systems, pipe insulation and façades for which specific ISO standards (i.e. ISO 13784, ISO 20632 and ISO 13785, respectively) are available.

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ISO 5660-1:2015 specifies a method for assessing the heat release rate and dynamic smoke production rate of specimens exposed in the horizontal orientation to controlled levels of irradiance with an external igniter. The heat release rate is determined by measurement of the oxygen consumption derived from the oxygen concentration and the flow rate in the combustion product stream. The time to ignition (sustained flaming) is also measured in this test. The dynamic smoke production rate is calculated from measurement of the attenuation of a laser light beam by the combustion product stream. Smoke obscuration is recorded for the entire test, regardless of whether the specimen is flaming or not.

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ISO 16405:2015 gives guidance concerning suitable apparatus and procedures to be used when applying the FTIR method to measure concentrations of effluent gases produced in large-scale or simulated real-scale fire tests. Such tests include the room corner test (see ISO 9705) and open calorimeter tests as described in ISO 24473. This guidance and measuring method only describes the way in which the sampling of the gases and collection of FTIR spectra are performed. Analysis of spectra and calibration is part of ISO 19702.

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ISO 17554:2014 specifies a small-scale method for assessing the mass loss rate of essentially flat specimens exposed in the horizontal orientation to controlled levels of radiant heating with an external igniter under well-ventilated conditions. The mass loss rate is determined by measurement of the specimen mass and is derived numerically. The time to ignition (sustained flaming) is also measured in this test. Mass loss rate can be used as an indirect measure of heat release rate for many products. However, this is not an apparatus for determining heat release rates, and the measured mass loss rates for some products are not so closely linked to their heat release rates. Such products need to be tested in accordance with ISO 5660‑1 for correct assessment of heat release.

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ISO 14934-4:2014 provides guidance on the use of heat flux meters in fire testing applications, including the description and working principles of common heat flux meters and methods for their selection and maintenance. The guidance can also be applied to measuring heat flux from radiant panels and other large heat sources used to simulate the heat flux from a fire. It is applicable for all common testing purposes when measuring heat flux from radiant sources. ISO 14934-4:2014 also provides basic theory and working principles of heat flux meters and methods for selection, use, and maintenance of heat flux meters. Although it is particularly aimed at the application of heat flux meters in fire tests and experimental works of fire research, it can also serve as a guide for other research applications like research of boilers, combustion processes, etc. Instruments, which measure the transient temperature of a solid body of known mass and heat capacity to infer the heat flux (slug calorimeter type), are not covered by ISO 14934-4:2014.

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ISO/TS 3814:2014 describes the relevance of, and how to apply, the fire tests developed by ISO/TC 92/SC 1 so that they can be used effectively to reduce the hazard of fire. Each reaction-to-fire test is related to the different phases of a developing fire in buildings and transport and has to be seen in its relation to the fire scenario and phase of the fire it represents. Some reaction-to-fire tests are proposed to assess the fire hazard in those different phases. Although ISO/TS 3814:2014 does not address smouldering combustion, this does not mean that smouldering is not important in some fire development situations. However, there are no tests in Subcommittee 1 (SC 1) which currently address this phenomenon. ISO/TS 3814:2014 is aimed at indicating those ISO tests which produce relevant and useful data for fire safety engineering and those which do not. ISO/TS 3814:2014 is also of use to regulators, people who are performing reaction-to-fire tests including manufacturers and all people who are responsible to create, control, and assess fire safety concepts.

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ISO 13784-1:2014 specifies a method of test for determining the reaction to fire behaviour of sandwich panel building systems, and the resulting flame spread on or within the sandwich panel building construction, when exposed to heat from a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on the internal corner of the sandwich panel building construction. The test method described is applicable to free-standing, self-supporting, and frame-supported sandwich panel systems. ISO 13784-1:2014 is not intended to apply to sandwich panel products which are glued, nailed, bonded, or similarly supported by an underlying wall or ceiling construction. For products used as internal linings, the ISO 9705 test method should be used. ISO 13784-1:2014 provides for small room testing of sandwich panel building systems. For large-room testing of sandwich panel building systems, ISO 13784-2:2014 should be used. This method is not intended to evaluate the fire resistance of a product, which should be tested by other means.

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ISO 14934-2:2013 describes three methods for calibration of total hemispherical radiometers and total heat flux meters that are exposed to a well-defined radiation from a radiant heat source. The equipment is designed to minimize influences due to convective heat transfer during calibration. It is important to note that when the instruments are used in practice they measure a combination of radiant and convective heat transfers. The latter will depend on the design of the heat flux meter, the orientation, local temperature and flow conditions, and on the temperature of the cooling water.

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ISO/TS 5660-3:2012 examines the measurement limitations and applications of the cone calorimeter data as currently used for building products, and recommends ways in which some of these may be overcome for other types of products for other application areas. It compiles information from a large body of experience with regard to the use of the instrument. This information is presented as a set of guidelines, which will help to standardize the use of the cone calorimeter in this wider scope. Particular guidance is given on aspects of specimen preparation and on the behaviour, such as melting, spalling and intumescing, of specimens exposed to radiant heat. The relevance of specimen thickness and the use of substrate, and methods of fixing to substrate, are also discussed. Advice is given on approaches to testing a variety of "non-standard" products. Recommendations are made on techniques of calibration of the apparatus, selection of appropriate heat flux levels and ignition protocols.

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1 Scope This part of ISO 14934 specifies methods for the calibration of heat flux meters for use in fire testing. The methods apply only to instruments having plane receivers. They do not apply to receivers in the form of wires, spheres, etc.

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ISO 12949:2011 provides a full-scale test method for determining the heat release rate and total heat release from a mattress or a mattress and foundation. The test specimen is ignited by exposure to a pair of gas burners that simulate burning bedclothes. The measurement capability is designed for mattress sets of low flammability, i.e. having a peak rate of heat release below 300 kW. ISO 12949:2011 applies to mattresses and mattress and foundation sets. ISO 12949:2011 does not apply to mattress pads, pillows, blankets, or other items used on top of a mattress. ISO 12949:2011 is a performance standard and does not prescribe the use of any specific components, fire retardant chemicals, or materials, and does not prescribe any design features that might lead to improved or degraded performance of a mattress set.

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ISO 12136:2011 determines and quantifies the flammability characteristics of materials, in relation to their propensity to support fire propagation, by means of a fire propagation apparatus (FPA). Material flammability characteristics that are quantified in ISO 12136:2011 include time to ignition, chemical and convective heat release rates, mass loss rate, effective heat of combustion, heat of gasification and smoke yield. These properties can be used for fire safety engineering and for fire modelling.

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ISO 29473:2010 gives guidance on the evaluation and expression of uncertainty of fire test method measurements. Application of ISO 29473:2010 is limited to tests that provide quantitative results in engineering units. This includes, for example, methods for measuring the heat release rate of burning specimens based on oxygen consumption calorimetry, as in ISO 5660-1:2002 ISO 29473:2010 does not apply to tests that provide results in the form of indices or binary results (e.g. pass/fail).

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ISO 12863:2010 provides a standard assessment of the capability of a cigarette, positioned on one of three standard substrates, to extinguish or to generate sufficient heat to continue burning, and thus potentially cause ignition of bedding or upholstered furniture. ISO 12863:2010 is applicable to factory-made cigarettes that burn along the length of a tobacco column. This is a performance-based standard; it does not prescribe any design features of the cigarette that might lead to improved or degraded performance in the test method. The output of this method has been correlated with the potential for cigarettes to ignite upholstered furniture.

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ISO 14934-1:2010 specifies the terms and definitions for the calibration and use of heat flux meters. It also describes the relationship between output voltage and total heat flux, and gives uncertainty components that are relevant for the calibration and use of heat flux meters.

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ISO 9239-1:2010 specifies a method for assessing the wind-opposed burning behaviour and spread of flame of horizontally mounted floorings exposed to a heat flux radiant gradient in a test chamber, when ignited with pilot flames. This method is applicable to all types of flooring. e.g. textile carpet, cork, wood, rubber and plastics coverings as well as coatings. Results obtained by this method reflect the performance of the flooring, including any substrate if used. Modifications of the backing, bonding to a substrate, underlay or other changes of the flooring may affect test results. ISO 9239-1:2010 is applicable to the measurement and description of the properties of floorings in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions. It should not be used alone to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of floorings under actual fire conditions.

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ISO 14696:2009 provides a method for measuring the response of materials, products and assemblies exposed in vertical orientation to controlled levels of radiant heating with a piloted ignition source. The test method is used to determine the ignitability, heat release rates, mass loss rates and visible smoke development of materials, products and assemblies under well-ventilated conditions. The heat release rate is ascertained by measurement of the oxygen consumption as determined by the oxygen concentration and flow in the exhaust product stream. Smoke development is quantified by measuring the obscuration of light by the combustion product stream. Specimens are exposed to heating fluxes ranging from 0 kW/m2 to 50 kW/m2. Hot wires are used as the ignition source.

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ISO 20632:2008 specifies a test method for determining the reaction to fire performance of pipe insulation products and some pipe insulation systems installed in a small room. The scenario is valid for fires in a room where pipe insulation products are installed within building applications, e.g., pipe and duct rooms in public buildings, apartment blocks, hospitals and ships. This method is suitable for products that cannot be tested in a small-scale test, or for correlation of small-scale test data. The method can also serve as a reference scenario for pipe insulation products or for systems fitted in a room within a building or a ship.

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ISO 24473:2008 specifies a series of test methods that simulate a real scale fire on a test object or group of objects under well-ventilated conditions. A range of different fire sizes can be studied according to the scale of the equipment available. The method is intended to evaluate the contribution to fire growth provided by an object or group of objects using a specified ignition source. A test performed in accordance with the method specified in ISO 24473:2008 provides data for all stages of a fire.

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ISO 14697:2007 gives guidance on the choice of substrates for building and transport products, when required, for use in reaction to fire tests. ISO 14697:2007 is applicable to those building and transport products that are produced and used in combination with other materials; for example, wall-coverings are adhered to many different substrates that vary in their thickness, density, thermal conductivity and flammability characteristics.

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ISO/TR 5658-1:2006 provides guidance on flame spread tests. It describes the principles of flame spread and classifies different flame-spread mechanisms.

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ISO 5658-2:2006 specifies a method of test for measuring the lateral spread of flame along the surface of a specimen of a product orientated in the vertical position. ISO 5658-2:2006 provides data suitable for comparing the performance of essentially flat materials, composites or assemblies that are used primarily as the exposed surfaces of walls in buildings and transport vehicles, such as ships and trains. Some profiled products (such as pipes) can also be tested under specified mounting and fixing conditions. ISO 5658-2:2006 is applicable to the measurement and description of the properties of materials, products or assemblies in response to radiative heat in the presence of a pilot flame under controlled laboratory conditions. ISO 5658-2:2006 is not suitable to be used alone to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

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ISO/TS 17431:2006 specifies an intermediate-scale test method that simulates a fire that under well-ventilated conditions starts in a corner of a small room with a single doorway and can develop until the room is fully involved in the fire. ISO/TS 17431:2006 is primarily intended to evaluate the contribution to toxic hazard in, and potential for fire spread to, evacuation routes connected to the room of origin in which surface products are installed. ISO/TS 17431:2006 is especially suitable for products with which a full-scale room test has to be terminated before the full involvement of the room with fire because of the occurrence of flashover or any other safety reasons.

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ISO/TS 22269:2005 describes a full-scale reference scenario procedure for assessing the burning behaviour of stairs or stair coverings, when exposed to a defined ignition source. The risks addressed in this scenario are essentially those of a deliberate rather than an accidental fire. The ignition sources specified include a wood crib to represent a local attack with burning crumpled newspaper and a gas burner to represent a more severe attack when the whole width of the bottom step is attacked. The observations of burning behaviour provide a basis for assessing the fire exposure behaviour of stair coverings installed over different stair substrates. ISO/TS 22269:2005 is applicable to all types of stair coverings that can be installed on stairs or to the stairs themselves. The results obtained from this method reflect the performance of the total stair covering system together with the stair substrate as tested and are not intended to be the sole criterion for assessing the potential fire hazard of the product in use. Modifications to the stair covering, underlay, fixing system, stair substrate or other changes to the system can affect test results. Tests are performed with an enclosed or open-sided staircase. In this test method, there is no closure at the top of the stairs to represent a ceiling on a stairs landing. The top of the stairs assembly is open so that the tests are conducted under well-ventilated conditions.

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ISO 9239-2 specifies a method for assessing the burning behaviour of horizontally mounted flooring systems exposed to a heat flux gradient in a test chamber, when ignited with pilot flames. The radiant heat gradient is higher than the one described in ISO 9239-1 in order to simulate conditions in a corridor adjacent to a room containing a fully developed fire (post-flashover). This method is applicable to all types of flooring such as textile carpets, cork, wood, rubber and plastic coverings as well as coatings. Results obtained by this method reflect the performance of the flooring, including any substrate if used. Modifications of the backing, bonding to a substrate, underlay, or other changes of the flooring may affect test results. This part of ISO 9239 is applicable to the measurement and description of the properties of floorings in response to heat and flame under controlled laboratory conditions. It should not be used alone to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of floorings under actual fire conditions.

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ISO 13784-2:2002 specifies a test method for determining the reaction to fire of sandwich panel building systems for large rooms and the resulting flame spread on or within the sandwich panel building construction when it is exposed to heat from a simulated internal fire with flames impinging directly on its internal corner. The test method is not intended for evaluating a product's fire resistance. ISO 13784-2:2002 is applicable to both freestanding and self-supporting, and frame-supported, sandwich panel systems, but only to wall and ceiling or roof constructions.

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ISO 13785-2:2002 specifies a method of test for determining the reaction to fire of materials and construction of façade claddings when exposed to heat and flames from a simulated interior compartment fire with flames emerging through a window opening and impinging directly on the façade. The information generated from this test may also be applicable to the scenario of an external fire impinging on a façade; however, the results may not be applicable for all fire exposure conditions. This method is applicable only to façades and claddings that are non-loadbearing. No attempt is made to determine the structural strength of the façade or cladding. This test is not intended to determine the fire behaviour of a given building façade. Details such as balconies, windows, window shutters, curtains, etc., are not considered in this test. This test does not include the risk of fire spread e.g. through the window details of the façade system as it only is constructed as a façade wall. There is clear evidence that an internal corner (also called a re-entrant corner) configuration produces a more intense fire exposure than a flat façade. The most commonly encountered internal re-entrant corner is with an angle of 90°. The test façade specimen therefore contains an internal corner with a re-entrant angle of 90°. The test method described is intended to evaluate the inclusion of combustible components within façades and claddings of buildings which are otherwise of non-combustible construction.

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ISO 13785-1:2002 specifies a screening method for determining the reaction to fire of materials and constructions of façades or claddings when exposed to heat from a simulated external fire with flames impinging directly upon a façade. It is intended for use by producers to reduce the burden of testing in ISO 13785-2:2002 by eliminating those systems that fail the tests described in ISO 13785-1:2002. The test method consists of observing the behaviour of the façade panel construction to fire and the resulting flame spread on or within the façade construction. This test method is applicable only to façades and claddings that are not free standing and that are used by adding to an existing external wall. This test method also is applicable only to vertical elements and is not applicable to determining the structural strength of the façade or cladding.

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1.1 This part of ISO 5658 specifies an intermediate-scale method of test for measuring the vertical spread (upward and downward) of flame over a specimen of a product orientated in the vertical position. A measure of lateral spread can also be obtained. It provides data suitable for comparing the performance of materials, composites or assemblies, which are used as the exposed surfaces of walls or other vertically orientated products in construction applications. Some products with profiled surfaces can also be tested with a modified procedure representative of the end-use conditions of the product. 1.2 Upward flame spread is not limited to surfaces which are vertical. It is recognized that an enhanced form of upward, wind-aided flame spread can also occur on surfaces at an angle greater than 20° from the horizontal without any external ventilation. This type of flame spread can occur in both planar sloping surfaces and stepped surfaces such as stairs. Flame spread in these situations can become very rapid and can cause serious problems in escape ways such as staircases. When assessing stepped or sloping surface materials, it may be more appropriate to use a vertical flame spread test rather than a test in which the specimen is horizontal. 1.3 This part of ISO 5658 is applicable to the measurement and description of the properties of materials, products, composites or assemblies in response to radiative heat in the presence of non-impinging pilot flames under controlled laboratory conditions. The heat source may be considered to represent a single burning item such as a wastepaper bin or an upholstered chair within an enclosure, and this scenario would generally be considered to apply during the early developing stage of a fire (see ISO/TR 11696-1 and ISO/TR 11696-2). This part of ISO 5658 should not be used alone to describe or appraise the fire hazard or fire risk of materials, products, composites or assemblies under actual fire conditions.

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This part of ISO 9705 provides guidance on ISO 9705:1993. It describes the technical background of the test and gives information which may be used for determining a testing procedure for a specific scenario, or how results can be utilized in a total hazard analysis for the specified scenario.

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This Technical Report describes how information on basic values for ignition, spread of flame, rate of heat release and smoke can be used in fire growth models for internal linings and other building products to describe the fire hazard in a limited number of scenarios starting with fire development in a small room. Other scenarios include fire spread in a large compartment and fire propagation down a corridor. The types of models to be used are: a) mathematical models based on fire growth physics, which calculate fire room variables, the results of which may be used for fire safety engineering purposes; and b) generalized engineering calculations. Sub-models can be included within the above models, provided the consistency of the whole is not prejudiced. The models in general are not limited to one fire scenario. The models should be used to calculate and describe the fire properties of building products in their end-use conditions. The use of models should not be limited by difficult materials, but it is recognized that some products may not be capable of being modelled (for example due to their complex assembly or to their thermoplastic properties). Input parameters for models are based on ISO tests, mainly those in ISO/TR 3814. The quality of a fire model for wall and ceiling linings is assessed by comparison with test results from a full-scale small room test for surface products and by sensitivity analysis on the model itself.

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This part of ISO/TR 11696 provides guidance on the principles and use of fire test data and other relevant information concerning construction products and their end-use environment, so that potential fire hazards and/or risks may be assessed. It suggests procedures for expressing results and how to interpret the data to aid the fire hazard assessment process. The guidance given is aimed at materials manufacturers and convertors, designers, wholesalers and retailers, specifiers and regulating bodies, and consumer representatives.

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This Technical Report provides guidance on "ignitability" tests for building products. It describes the principles of ignitability and characterizes different ignition sources. The results of small-scale ignitability tests may be used as a component of a total hazard analysis of a specified fire scenario. It is therefore important that the flame or radiative source chosen is fully characterized so that relevant conclusions may be made from the test results. Guidance given in this Technical Report may also have relevance to other application areas (e.g. building contents, plastics, etc.)

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ISO 11925-2:2010 specifies a method of test for determining the ignitability of products by direct small flame impingement under zero impressed irradiance using vertically oriented test specimens.

  • Standard
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  • Standard
    27 pages
    French language
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