This standard establishes general rules for the compilation of performance test schedules for complete, filled transport packages intended for use within any distribution system except for the packages used for dangerous goods.

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This document establishes general rules for the compilation of performance test schedules for complete, filled transport packages intended for use within any distribution system except for the packages used for dangerous goods.

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This document establishes general rules for the compilation of performance test schedules for complete, filled transport packages intended for use within any distribution system except for the packages used for dangerous goods.

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This International Standard specifies a method to carry out a vertical random vibration test on a
complete, filled transport package(s) and unit loads using random excitation1). This document also
provides methods for assessing the performance of a package in terms of its strength or the protection
that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to vertical vibration. The test discussed in this document
can be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of vertical vibration, or as a part of a
sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a test specimen to withstand a distribution system
that includes a vibration hazard.
NOTE In this International Standard, a package or unit load is referred to as test specimen.

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ISO 18616-1:2016 specifies the four main types of reusable, rigid plastic distribution boxes for general purpose application in the fields of handling, transport, storage and display of products in distribution systems from the point of manufacture to the point of retail services: a) rigid parallelepipedic and rectangular boxes (stackable boxes); b) foldable boxes; c) nestable boxes; d) nestable and stackable boxes. These boxes are based on the modular area 600 mm × 400 mm, 600 mm × 500 mm, 550 mm × 366 mm and subdivisions of them. This document defines the main types of rigid plastic distribution boxes, dimensions, safety, designation, marking and labeling. ISO 18616-1:2016 is designed for general purpose applications in a returnable transport system. For automotive industry application, ISO 19709‑1, ISO/TS 19709‑2 and ISO/TS 19709-3 can be referenced.

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ISO 18616-2:2016 specifies the test methods for handling and managing reusable, rigid plastic distribution boxes. These boxes are based on the modular area 600 mm × 400 mm, 600 mm × 500 mm, 550 mm × 366 mm and subdivisions of them. ISO 18616-2:2016 is designed for general purpose applications in a returnable transport system. For automotive industry application, ISO 19709‑1, ISO/TS 19709-2 and ISO/TS 19709-3 can be referenced.

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ISO 13355:2016 specifies a method to carry out a vertical random vibration test on a complete, filled transport package(s) and unit loads using random excitation[1]. This document also provides methods for assessing the performance of a package in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to vertical vibration. The test discussed in this document can be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of vertical vibration, or as a part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a test specimen to withstand a distribution system that includes a vibration hazard.
NOTE          In this International Standard, a package or unit load is referred to as test specimen.
[1]   Random vibration theory is discussed in IEC 60068-2-64.

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ISO 13355:2016 specifies a method to carry out a vertical random vibration test on a complete, filled transport package(s) and unit loads using random excitation[1]. This document also provides methods for assessing the performance of a package in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to vertical vibration. The test discussed in this document can be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of vertical vibration, or as a part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a test specimen to withstand a distribution system that includes a vibration hazard. NOTE In this International Standard, a package or unit load is referred to as test specimen. [1] Random vibration theory is discussed in IEC 60068-2-64.

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This European Standard specifies methods of deriving schedules for testing completed, filled transport packages and unit loads, representative of current distribution chains within Europe.

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This European Standard specifies methods of deriving schedules for testing completed, filled transport packages and unit loads, representative of current distribution chains within Europe.

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This Technical Report gives methods of assessing the performance of a reuse system related to the proportion of reused packaging in use. This may be measured by:
-   the average number of rotations during a calculation period and the lifetime; or
-   the reuse ratio.
The choice of method will vary according to the type of reuse system and information available.

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This European Standard specifies methods for carrying out a rotational impact test on complete, filled transport packages or unit loads, by dropping.  It can be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of rotational impact or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a rotational impact hazard.

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This European Standard specifies methods for carrying out a rotational impact test on complete, filled transport packages or unit loads, by dropping.  It can be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of rotational impact or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a rotational impact hazard.

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This standard specifies a method for testing the resistance of a complete filled transport packages or a unit load to water spray or the projection it gives to its contents from water spray.

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This specifies methods to carry out vibration tests on complete filled transport packages or unit load using sinusoidal excitation at fixed frequency.

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This standard specifies 3 methods for carrying out a stacking test on a complete filled transport package or on a unit load using a static load.

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This standard specifies methods of horizontal impact testing (horizontal and inclined plane test and pendulum test) as a complete, filled transport package or a unit load.

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This standard specifies a method for subjecting complete filled transport packaging and unit loads to conditions of low air pressure, similar to that encountered in aircraft.

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This standard specifies 2 methods for carrying out sinusoidal vibration test on a complete filled transport package or unit load using a variable frequency.

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This International Standard specifies a method for testing the resistance of a complete, filled transport package or a
unit load to water spray or the protection it gives to its contents from water spray. It may also be used to
precondition a complete, filled transport package or a unit load prior to another test to investigate reduction in
strength caused by exposure to water.
The test is performed on the test specimen as prepared for transport and may form part of a test sequence.

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This International Standard specifies methods of horizontal impact testing (horizontal or inclined plane test and
pendulum test) on a complete, filled transport package or a unit load. The test may be performed either as a single
test to investigate the effects of horizontal impact or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability
of a package or a unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a horizontal impact hazard.

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This International Standard specifies two methods for carrying out a sinusoidal vibration test on a complete, filled
transport package or unit load using a variable frequency. These tests may be used to assess the performance of a
package or an unit load in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to
vertical vibration. Each may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of vertical vibration or as
part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to withstand a distribution
system that includes a vibration hazard.

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This International Standard specifies three methods for carrying out a stacking test on a complete, filled transport
package, or on a unit load, using a static load. Whichever method is employed, the test may be used to assess the
performance of a package or a unit load, in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it
is subjected to stacking. It may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects (deformation, creep,
collapse or failure) of stacking or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or a
unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a stacking hazard.
The test may also be used to investigate performance under particular conditions of loading, as, for example, when
the bottom package in a stack rests on an open-decked pallet; or when the profile of the superimposed load is
eccentric, as when it is supported on the bearers of a single-decked pallet which rests on a container. For such
purposes, one of the three methods of carrying out the test may be more suitable than the others.
NOTE A method for carrying out a stacking test using a compression tester is given in ISO 120481).

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This International Standard specifies methods to carry out vibration tests on complete, filled transport packages or
unit loads using sinusoidal excitation at fixed frequency. These tests may be used to assess the performance of
packages and unit loads in terms of the strength or the protection that they offer to their contents when subjected to
low frequency vibration. These tests may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of low
frequency vibration or as a part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to
withstand a distribution system that includes a vibration hazard at low frequency or repetitive shocks.

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This International Standard specifies a method for subjecting complete, filled transport packages and unit loads to
conditions of low air pressure similar to those encountered in aircraft.
This method is applicable to complete, filled transport packages and unit loads which are intended to be transported
in pressurized aircraft flying at any altitude and in unpressurized aircraft flying at 3 500 m or less.

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This standard specifies two methods of determining the location of the centre of gravity of flat sided rigid packages or unit loads.  In the following text, a package or a unit load is called "a test item".

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complete filled transport package for testing.

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Specifies a method for testing the resistance to compression of complete, filled transport packages and a method for carrying out a stacking test on complete, filled transport packages using the same apparatus.

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complete filled transport package for testing.

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This International Standard specifies three methods for carrying out a stacking test on a complete, filled transport package, or on a unit load, using a static load. Whichever method is employed, the test may be used to assess the performance of a package or a unit load, in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to stacking. It may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects (deformation, creep, collapse or failure) of stacking or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or a unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a stacking hazard. The test may also be used to investigate performance under particular conditions of loading, as, for example, when the bottom package in a stack rests on an open-decked pallet; or when the profile of the superimposed load is eccentric, as when it is supported on the bearers of a single-decked pallet which rests on a container. For such purposes, one of the three methods of carrying out the test may be more suitable than the others. NOTE A method for carrying out a stacking test using a compression tester is given in ISO 120481).

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This International Standard specifies two methods for carrying out a sinusoidal vibration test on a complete, filled transport package or unit load using a variable frequency. These tests may be used to assess the performance of a package or an unit load in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subjected to vertical vibration. Each may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of vertical vibration or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a vibration hazard.

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This International Standard specifies a method for subjecting complete, filled transport packages and unit loads to conditions of low air pressure similar to those encountered in aircraft. This method is applicable to complete, filled transport packages and unit loads which are intended to be transported in pressurized aircraft flying at any altitude and in unpressurized aircraft flying at 3 500 m or less.

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This International Standard specifies methods of horizontal impact testing (horizontal or inclined plane test and pendulum test) on a complete, filled transport package or a unit load. The test may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of horizontal impact or as part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or a unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a horizontal impact hazard.

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This International Standard specifies a method for testing the resistance of a complete, filled transport package or a unit load to water spray or the protection it gives to its contents from water spray. It may also be used to precondition a complete, filled transport package or a unit load prior to another test to investigate reduction in strength caused by exposure to water. The test is performed on the test specimen as prepared for transport and may form part of a test sequence.

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This International Standard specifies methods to carry out vibration tests on complete, filled transport packages or unit loads using sinusoidal excitation at fixed frequency. These tests may be used to assess the performance of packages and unit loads in terms of the strength or the protection that they offer to their contents when subjected to low frequency vibration. These tests may be performed either as a single test to investigate the effects of low frequency vibration or as a part of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of a package or unit load to withstand a distribution system that includes a vibration hazard at low frequency or repetitive shocks.

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This is applicable to distribution systems in which the hazards of stacking, vertical impact, horizontal impact, and vibration are encountered or are likely to be encountered. The following information shall be recorded in the order given: description of the trial, results of the trial, package, hazards in trial and general information.

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This International Standard specifies a method for carrying out a toppling test on a complete, filled transport package which may be exposed to the danger of toppling during storage, transport and handling. The test may be used to assess the performance of a package in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subject to toppling. lt may be performed either as a Single test to investigate the effects of toppling or as patt of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of the package to withstand a distribution System that includes a toppling hazard.
The test, which is complementary to the tests described in ISO 2244, ISO 2248 and ISO 2876, may be used to investigate the Performance of packages which are tall in relation to their base dimensions. lt is also applicable to packages the height of which is small by comparison with base dimensions but which may be stored or transported resting on a side face in Order to conserve storage/transport space (sec figures 1 and 2). The test is recommended for packages where the ratio of the longest to the shortest sides is of the Order of 3 : 1 or greater.

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The test is principally intended for packages which are waterproof or which are intended to provide some degree of "waterproofness". The test is performed on the package as prepared for transport and may form part of a test sequence. Principle: Conditioning of the package, followed by complete immersion in water, removal and draining and drying in the conditioning atmosphere. The time of immersion, time of draining and drying and the atmospheric conditions are predetermined.

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Principle: Raising of the test package above a rigid plane surface and releasing it to strike this surface (the "impact surface") after a free fall. The atmospheric conditions, the height of drop and the attitude of the package are predetermined. An annex gives the predetermined attitude of the test package.

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The system for identifying is specified for parallelepipedal and cylindrical packages, sacks and bags, also for miscellaneous packages. Three figures show the numbering of the surfaces, edges and corners.

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Principle: Rolling of the test pacckage so as to impact on each face in turn. The toppling test is recommended for packages where the ratio of the longest to the shortest sides is of the order of 3:1 or greater. Apparatus, package preparation, procedure for parallelepipedal and packages of other shapes and the test report are specified.

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Specifies a method for testing the resistance to compression of complete, filled transport packages and a method for carrying out a stacking test on complete, filled transport packages using the same apparatus.

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The test is principally intended for packages which are waterproof or which are intended to provide some degree of "waterproofness". The test is performed on the package as prepared for transport and may form part of a test sequence. Principle: Conditioning of the package, followed by complete immersion in water, removal and draining and drying in the conditioning atmosphere. The time of immersion, time of draining and drying and the atmospheric conditions are predetermined.

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Principle: Raising of the test package above a rigid plane surface and releasing it to strike this surface (the "impact surface") after a free fall. The atmospheric conditions, the height of drop and the attitude of the package are predetermined. An annex gives the predetermined attitude of the test package.

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Principle: Rolling of the test pacckage so as to impact on each face in turn. The toppling test is recommended for packages where the ratio of the longest to the shortest sides is of the order of 3:1 or greater. Apparatus, package preparation, procedure for parallelepipedal and packages of other shapes and the test report are specified.

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The system for identifying is specified for parallelepipedal and cylindrical packages, sacks and bags, also for miscellaneous packages. Three figures show the numbering of the surfaces, edges and corners.

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This is applicable to distribution systems in which the hazards of stacking, vertical impact, horizontal impact, and vibration are encountered or are likely to be encountered. The following information shall be recorded in the order given: description of the trial, results of the trial, package, hazards in trial and general information.

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This International Standard specifies a method for carrying out a toppling test on a complete, filled transport package which may be exposed to the danger of toppling during storage, transport and handling. The test may be used to assess the performance of a package in terms of its strength or the protection that it offers to its contents when it is subject to toppling. lt may be performed either as a Single test to investigate the effects of toppling or as patt of a sequence of tests designed to measure the ability of the package to withstand a distribution System that includes a toppling hazard.
The test, which is complementary to the tests described in ISO 2244, ISO 2248 and ISO 2876, may be used to investigate the Performance of packages which are tall in relation to their base dimensions. lt is also applicable to packages the height of which is small by comparison with base dimensions but which may be stored or transported resting on a side face in Order to conserve storage/transport space (sec figures 1 and 2). The test is recommended for packages where the ratio of the longest to the shortest sides is of the Order of 3 : 1 or greater.

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The tests are intended to assess the performance of completely formed unit loads as they are subjected to the hazards of (land) environmental exposure, storage, handling and transportation. They are concerned with pallet handling, clamp handling, push/pull handling, examination of failure and may be performed as part of a sequence. Marine environment is not dealt with. Annex A describes lift truck handling tests.

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