Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics products - Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-1:2002)

This document provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for products made of or containing plastics.
The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can arise involving products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is described to ensure their relevance to the end use of the product.

Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO 15791-1:2002)

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu sur une échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques - Partie 1: Principes directeurs généraux (ISO 15791-1:2002)

L'ISO 15791-1:2002 fournit un cadre directeur pour la mise au point et l'utilisation d'essais au feu à échelle intermédiaire applicables aux produits fabriqués en matériaux plastiques ou en contenant.
Le présent guide identifie des applications types de produits en matériaux plastiques ainsi que des scénarios feux susceptibles de se produire avec ces produits dans le cadre des applications en question. L'élaboration et l'utilisation d'essais à échelle intermédiaire sont décrites de façon à garantir leur pertinence vis-à-vis de l'utilisation finale du produit.

Polimerni materiali – Razvoj in uporaba lestvice požarnih preskusov za proizvode iz polimernih materialov – 1. del: Splošno (ISO 15791-1:2002)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
20-Jul-2004
Withdrawal Date
17-Dec-2013
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Due Date
18-Dec-2013
Completion Date
18-Dec-2013

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
01-oktober-2004
Polimerni materiali – Razvoj in uporaba lestvice požarnih preskusov za proizvode
iz polimernih materialov – 1. del: Splošno (ISO 15791-1:2002)

Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics products -

Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-1:2002)

Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für

Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO 15791-1:2002)

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu sur une échelle intermédiaire

pour les produits plastiques - Partie 1: Principes directeurs généraux (ISO 15791-1:2002)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ICS:
13.220.40 Sposobnost vžiga in Ignitability and burning
obnašanje materialov in behaviour of materials and
proizvodov pri gorenju products
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
EUROPEAN STANDARD
EN ISO 15791-1
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
July 2004
ICS 13.220.40; 83.080.01
English version
Plastics - Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests
for plastics products - Part 1: General guidance (ISO 15791-
1:2002)

Plastiques - Développement et utilisation des essais au feu Kunststoffe - Entwicklung und Anwendung von

sur une échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques - Brandprüfungen im mittleren Maßstab für

Partie 1: Principes directeurs généraux (ISO 15791-1:2002) Kunststofferzeugnisse - Teil 1: Allgemeine Anleitung (ISO

15791-1:2002)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 21 June 2004.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national

standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official

versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 15791-1:2004: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
EN ISO 15791-1:2004 (E)
Foreword

The text of ISO 15791-1:2002 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61 "Plastics”

of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO

15791-1:2004 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 "Plastics", the secretariat of which is held

by IBN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of

an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2005, and conflicting national

standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by January 2005.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of

the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium,

Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary,

Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 15791-1:2002 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 15791-1:2004 without any

modifications.

NOTE Normative references to International Standards are listed in Annex ZA (normative).

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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
EN ISO 15791-1:2004 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their relevant European publications

This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other

publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the

publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of

any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by

amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to

applies (including amendments).

NOTE Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated

by (mod.), the relevant EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN Year
ISO 10093 1998 Plastics - Fire tests - Standard EN ISO 10093 1998
ignition sources
ISO 13943 2000 Fire safety - Vocabulary EN ISO 13943 2000
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15791-1
First edition
2002-08-01
Plastics — Development and use of
intermediate-scale fire tests for plastics
products —
Part 1:
General guidance
Plastiques — Développement et utilisation des essais au feu sur une
échelle intermédiaire pour les produits plastiques —
Partie 1: Principes directeurs généraux
Reference number
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
ISO 2002
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
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© ISO 2002

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ii © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
Contents Page

Foreword.....................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ..............................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references....................................................................................................................................1

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................................................2

4 Types of plastics and typical products .......................................................................................................2

5 Fire scenarios ................................................................................................................................................3

6 Thermal characteristics of ignition sources...............................................................................................5

7 Design requirements.....................................................................................................................................9

8 Examples of intermediate-scale test facilities..........................................................................................10

9 Test report ....................................................................................................................................................11

Bibliography..............................................................................................................................................................12

© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies (ISO

member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO technical

committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been established has

the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in

liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical

Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted

by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an International

Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this part of ISO 15791 may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15791-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 4, Burning behaviour.

ISO 15791 consists of the following parts, under the general title Plastics — Development and use of intermediate-

scale fire tests for plastics products:
 Part 1: General guidance
 Part 2: Preparation and mounting of specimens
iv © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
Introduction

Products for many applications are made of or contain substantial proportions of plastics. The fire performance of a

product depends on the materials from which it is made, the design of the product and its environment.

Industry needs to test products used for different applications for regulatory, quality control, development and pre-

selection purposes.

Numerous regulations and regional, state and local codes make reference to combustibility tests and standards,

and numerical material rankings derived from these tests are the most commonly available means of comparing the

various combustion characteristics of products. More than one test and possibly intermediate- or full-scale tests

may be necessary to qualify a plastic product for intended or proposed use or representative product end-use

conditions.

It appears necessary to have a scaled-down test method as a screening or control test when this regulatory testing

requires large apparatus with high cost.
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
Plastics — Development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests
for plastics products —
Part 1:
General guidance
1 Scope

This document provides a framework guide for the development and use of intermediate-scale fire tests for

products made of or containing plastics.

The guidance identifies typical applications of plastics products and possible fire scenarios that can arise involving

products in these applications. The development and use of intermediate-scale tests is described to ensure their

relevance to the end use of the product.
2 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of

this part of ISO 15791. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications

do not apply. However, parties to agreements based on this part of ISO 15791 are encouraged to investigate the

possibility of applying the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated

references, the latest edition of the normative document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain

registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 5658-4, Reaction to fire tests — Spread of flame — Part 4: Intermediate-scale test of vertical spread of flame

with vertically oriented specimen
ISO 9705, Fire tests — Full-scale room test for surface products
ISO 10093, Plastics — Fire tests — Standard ignition sources

ISO/TR 13387-2, Fire safety engineering — Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires

ISO 13784-1, Reaction-to-fire tests for industrial sandwich panels — Part 1: Intermediate-scale test

ISO/IEC 13943, Fire safety — Vocabulary

ISO/TR 14696, Reaction to fire tests — Determination of fire parameters of materials, products and assemblies

using an intermediate-scale heat release calorimeter (ICAL)

IEC 61034-2, Measurement of smoke density of cables burning under defined conditions — Test procedure and

requirements

EN 13823, Reaction to fire tests for building products — Building products excluding floorings exposed to the

thermal attack by a single burning item
© ISO 2002 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this part of ISO 15791, the terms and definitions given in ISO/IEC 13943 and the following

apply.
3.1
material
single substance or uniformly dispersed mixture, for example a polymer
3.2
test specimen

representative piece of the product to be tested, together with any substrate or surface treatment

3.3
product
manufactured article ready for end use
3.4
fire scenario

detailed description of conditions for one or more of the stages from before ignition to the completion of combustion

in an actual fire at a specific location
4 Types of plastics and typical products
4.1 Generic types

All of the following types of plastics materials can be involved in a fire performance assessment:

 thermoplastics;
 thermosets;
 fibre-reinforced plastics;
 cellular plastics (both structural foams and low-density insulating foams).
4.2 Typical applications

Some applications for plastics which present particular problems in small-scale tests for their fire performance

assessment and which may require the use of intermediate-scale fire testing are:
 semi-finished products;
 housings for electrical appliances;
 profiled sheets, e.g. roofing, or panels for containers;
 profiles, e.g. conduits for electric cables, window-frames, extruded sections;
 weatherproof glazing for agricultural buildings;
 foam pipe-sections;
 pipes, e.g. rainwater drainage and discharge pipes;
 furniture, e.g. chairs;
 pipes for air ventilation systems in e.g. ships, trains, aircraft;
2 © ISO 2002 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 15791-1:2004
ISO 15791-1:2002(E)
 containers for liquids (e.g. oil, kerosene);
 waste containers (for recycling materials or for rubbish).
4.3 Composites
The following special composites should be considered:
 laminates, e.g. melamine-formaldehyde-covered chipboard;
 laminated film and sheet, e.g. weatherproofing membranes;
 moulded foams, e.g. for packaging;
 structural mouldings, e.g. for ships, lorries, coaches, trains;

 composite panels, e.g. rigid foams faced with metal sheets (especially steel or aluminium sheets) or inorganics

(especially gypsum or plasterboard) for thermal insulation;
 fibre-reinforced products.
4.4 End-use conditions

Assessment of structural composite panels, thermoplastic glazing and similar plastics products, etc., can only be

done by taking into account their end-use conditions and installations. Any change in specimen surface position will

take the exposed specimen surface into a different heat exposure with regard to the applied ignition sources. For

non-planar products, different parts of the specimen will be heated at different flux levels at any given time.

5 Fire scenarios

The fire scenario (see 3.4) should reproduce the conditions in which the hazard exists. Any additional assumptions,

such as the environmental conditions, should be defined. Whether the focus of assessment is a material, product

or system is determined by an investigation of the contribution to the assumed scenario and the stage of the fire.

An ignition source may pose a variety of risks dependent on the associated environmental conditions and on a

number of characteristic fire test responses of materials, products or assemblies, including ease of ignition, flame

spread, rate of heat release, smoke generation, toxicity of combustion products and ease of extinction.

In small rooms, the typical primary ignition source is small, e.g. candles, matches, hot electrical wires. External

irradiance is zero for the first ignited item. The relevant parameters for further assessing the fire risk are flame

spread and rate of heat release. Combustible materials in the vicinity of the first ignited item are heated by

convection and irradiance, and the oxygen content in the room air, almost 21 % initially, begins to decrease. After a

certain time, flashover may occur, at which stage the room temperature can exceed 500 °C and the irradiance at

floor level can typically exceed 25 kW/m (see Figure 1). In such cases, the oxygen content in small rooms is not

normally sufficient for complete combustion.
...

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