Energy audits - Part 4: Transport

This document is used in conjunction with and is supplementary to EN 16247-1, Energy audits - Part 1: General requirements. It provides additional requirements to EN 16247-1 and is applied simultaneously.
The procedures described here apply to the different modes of transport (road, rail, marine and aviation), as well as the different ranges (local- to long-distance) and what is transported (i.e. goods and people).
This document specifies the requirements, methodology and deliverables specific to energy audits in the transport sector, every situation in which a displacement is made, no matter who the operator is (a public or private company or whether the operator is exclusively dedicated to transport or not), is also addressed in this document.
This document advises on both the optimization of energy within each mode of transport, as well as selecting the best mode of transport in each situation; the conclusions drawn by the energy audit can influence decisions on infrastructure and investment e.g. in teleconferencing or web meetings.
Energy audits of buildings and processes associated with transport can be conducted respectively with the EN 16247-2 Buildings and EN 16247-3 Processes, e.g. pipelines, depots and escalators/travelators. This part of the standard does not include the infrastructure which supplies energy e.g. the electricity generation of energy for railways.

Energieaudits - Teil 4: Transport

Dieses Dokument wird in Verbindung mit und zusätzlich zu EN 16247-1, Energieaudits — Teil 1: Allgemeine Anforderungen, verwendet. Es stellt zusätzliche Anforderungen zu EN 16247-1 bereit und wird gleichzeitig angewendet.
Die in diesem Dokument beschriebenen Vorgehensweisen gelten sowohl für verschiedene Transportarten (Straße, Schiene, Wasser und Luft) als auch für verschiedene Entfernungen (regional oder Langstrecke) und für verschiedene Transportgüter (d. h. Güter und Personen).
Dieses Dokument legt die für ein Energieaudit im Transportbereich spezifischen Anforderungen, Methoden und Ergebnisse fest, und jede Situation, in der eine Verlagerung von Gütern vorgenommen wird, unabhängig davon, wer der Betreiber ist (ein staatliches oder privates Unternehmen oder ob der Betreiber sich ausschließlich dem Transport widmet oder nicht), wird ebenfalls durch dieses Dokument behandelt.
Dieses Dokument leistet sowohl bei der energiebezogenen Optimierung innerhalb jeder Transportart Hilfestellung als auch bei der Auswahl der für jede Situation am besten geeigneten Transportart. Die durch das Energieaudit gezogenen Schlussfolgerungen können die Entscheidungen im Hinblick auf Infrastrukturen und Investitionen, z. B. in Telefon- bzw. Webkonferenzen, beeinflussen.
Energieaudits können bei Gebäuden und Prozessen, die einen Bezug zum Transport haben, jeweils nach EN 16247-2 Gebäude und EN 16247-3 Prozesse durchgeführt werden, z. B. bei Rohrleitungen, Depots und Fahrtreppen/Fahrsteigen. Dieser Teil der Norm schließt die Infrastruktur zur Energiebereitstellung, z. B. die Erzeugung von Elektroenergie für Eisenbahnen, aus.

Audits énergétiques - Partie 4 : Transport

Le présent document est utilisé conjointement avec l’EN 16247-1, Audits énergétiques - Partie 1 : Exigences générales. Il fournit des exigences complémentaires à celles de l’EN 16247-1 et est appliqué simultanément.
Les procédures décrites ici s’appliquent aux différents modes de transport (routier, ferroviaire, maritime et aérien), ainsi qu’aux différentes distances parcourues (transports locaux, longue distance) et à ce qui est transporté (en somme, des marchandises et des personnes).
Le présent document spécifie les exigences, la méthodologie et les livrables spécifiques des audits énergétiques dans le secteur des transports ; chaque situation dans laquelle un déplacement est effectué, quel qu’en soit l’opérateur (une entreprise publique ou privée, ou que l’opérateur soit exclusivement dédié au transport ou non), est également traitée dans le présent document.
Le présent document donne des conseils à la fois sur l’optimisation de l’énergie pour chaque mode de transport et sur la sélection du meilleur moyen de transport dans chaque situation. Les conclusions tirées par l’audit énergétique peuvent avoir une influence sur les décisions concernant les infrastructures et les investissements, par exemple dans le cadre de téléconférences ou de réunions en ligne.
Les audits énergétiques des bâtiments et des procédés, associés au transport, peuvent être réalisés en utilisant respectivement l’EN 16247-2, Bâtiments et l’EN 16247-3, Procédés (par exemple, canalisations, dépôts et escaliers mécaniques/trottoirs roulants). La présente Partie de la norme ne couvre pas l’infrastructure d’alimentation en énergie, par exemple la production d’énergie électrique pour les voies ferrées.

Energetske presoje - 4. del: Promet

Ta dokument se uporablja v povezavi s standardom EN 16247-1, Energetske presoje – 1. del: Splošne zahteve, in ga dopolnjuje. Določa dodatne zahteve k standardu EN 16247-1 in se uporablja istočasno.
Opisani postopki se uporabljajo za različne vrste prometa (cestni, železniški, ladijski, letalski), različne razpone (lokalno ali na dolge razdalje) in za elemente, ki se prevažajo (blago in osebe).
Ta dokument določa zahteve, metodologijo in končne izsledke, ki so specifični za energetske presoje v prometnem sektorju; prav tako ta dokument obravnava vsako situacijo, v kateri pride do premika, ne glede na izvajalca (javno ali zasebno podjetje ali če se izvajalec ukvarja izključno s prevozom).
Ta dokument podaja nasvete glede optimizacije energije pri posamezni vrsti prometa in glede izbire najprimernejšega načina prometa v posamezni situaciji; zaključki energetske presoje lahko vplivajo na odločitve glede infrastrukture in naložb (npr. telekonference ali spletna srečanja).
Energetske presoje stavb in procesov, povezanih s prometom, je mogoče izvajati v skladu s standardoma EN 16247-2, Stavbe in EN 16247-3, Procesi (npr. cevovodi, skladišča in tekoče stopnice/tekoče klančine). Ta del standarda ne vključuje infrastrukture, ki zagotavlja energijo (npr. proizvodnja električne energije za železnice).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Aug-2022
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Start Date
17-Aug-2022
Due Date
16-Oct-2021
Completion Date
17-Aug-2022

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 16247-4:2022
English language
24 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day
Draft
prEN 16247-4:2020
English language
23 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
01-november-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 16247-4:2014
Energetske presoje - 4. del: Promet
Energy audits - Part 4: Transport
Energieaudits - Teil 4: Transport
Audits énergétiques - Partie 4: Transport
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 16247-4:2022
ICS:
03.100.70 Sistemi vodenja Management systems
03.220.01 Transport na splošno Transport in general
27.015 Energijska učinkovitost. Energy efficiency. Energy
Ohranjanje energije na conservation in general
splošno
SIST EN 16247-4:2022 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022


EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 16247-4

NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2022
ICS 03.120.10; 27.015; 55.020
Supersedes EN 16247-4:2014
English version

Energy audits - Part 4: Transport
Audits énergétiques - Partie 4 : Transport Energieaudits - Teil 4: Transport
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 July 2022.

CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for
giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical
references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to
any CEN and CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by
translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC
Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and United Kingdom.
























CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2022 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means
Ref. No. EN 16247-4:2022 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 3
Introduction . 4
1 Scope . 5
2 Normative references . 5
3 Terms and definitions . 5
4 Quality requirements . 7
4.1 Qualifications . 7
4.2 Energy audit process . 7
4.2.1 General . 7
4.2.2 Operations department cooperation . 7
4.2.3 Personnel . 7
5 Elements of the energy audit process . 8
5.1 Preliminary contact . 8
5.2 Start-up meeting . 8
5.3 Collecting data . 9
5.4 Field work . 10
5.5 Analysis . 10
5.5.1 General . 10
5.5.2 Energy performance indicators . 11
5.5.3 Transport mode and energy sources . 11
5.6 Report . 11
5.6.1 General . 11
5.6.2 Content of report . 12
5.7 Final meeting . 12
Annex A (normative) Transport sectors . 13
A.1 General . 13
A.2 Road . 13
A.3 Rail . 14
A.4 Aviation . 14
A.5 Marine . 15
Annex B (informative) Sources of information. 16
Annex C (informative) Example of report plan . 19
C.1 Sample plan 1 . 19
C.2 Sample plan 2 . 20
C.3 Sample plan 3 . 21
Bibliography . 24

2

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN 16247-4:2022) has been prepared by the Joint Technical Committee CEN-
CENELEC/JTC 14 “Energy management and energy efficiency in the framework of energy transition”,
the secretariat of which is held by UNI.
This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by February 2023, and conflicting national standards
shall be withdrawn at the latest by February 2023.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of
patent rights. CEN-CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This document supersedes EN 16247-4:2014.
Significant changes compared to the previous edition are:
a) terms and definition updated;
b) structure aligned with EN 16247-1.
This document is part of series EN 16247 “Energy audits”, which comprises the following:
— Part 1: General requirements;
— Part 2: Buildings;
— Part 3: Processes;
— Part 4: Transport;
— Part 5: Competence of energy auditors.
This Part provides additional material to Part 1 for the Transport sector and is intended to be used in
conjunction with Part 1.
This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN and CENELEC by the European
Commission and the European Free Trade Association.
Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards
body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN and CENELEC
websites.
According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,
Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of
North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Türkiye and the
United Kingdom.
3

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
Introduction
An energy audit can help an organization to identify opportunities to improve energy performance. It
can be part of a site wide energy management system.
This document is intended for the energy auditing of mobile assets e.g. vehicles, railways, marine
vessels, aircraft, as well as mobile plant.
Due to the mobility of the assets in transport, energy auditing in this area is especially challenging. For
example, the meetings are harder to organize, the activities involved are harder to inspect.
The first part of this document harmonizes the procedures for energy auditing in transport systems. On
the other hand, there are certain aspects which are particular to every transport mode. For example,
whereas the mobile assets in road transport are numerous, similar and replaced frequently, the assets
for marine and air transport are large and long-lived.
In order to state the energy auditing features of every transport mode, there is a specific section for
each of them at the end of this document.
Finally, the possibility of planning and selecting the mode of transport (and, sometimes, using different
modes for a unique transport service) is also a specific aspect of the transport activity. Therefore, this
standard will place special attention to this topic.
NOTE An energy audit is not a fiscal method, the term and the nature of an energy audit are defined in
EN 16247-1 Energy Audits.
4

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
1 Scope
This document is used in conjunction with and is supplementary to EN 16247-1, Energy audits —
Part 1: General requirements. It provides additional requirements to EN 16247-1 and is applied
simultaneously.
The procedures described here apply to the different modes of transport (road, rail, marine and
aviation), as well as the different ranges (local- to long-distance) and what is transported (i.e. goods and
people).
This document specifies the requirements, methodology and deliverables specific to energy audits in
the transport sector, every situation in which a displacement is made, no matter who the operator is (a
public or private company or whether the operator is exclusively dedicated to transport or not), is also
addressed in this document.
This document advises on both the optimization of energy within each mode of transport, as well as
selecting the best mode of transport in each situation; the conclusions drawn by the energy audit can
influence decisions on infrastructure and investment e.g. in teleconferencing or web meetings.
Energy audits of buildings and processes associated with transport can be conducted respectively with
the EN 16247-2 Buildings and EN 16247-3 Processes, e.g. pipelines, depots and escalators/travelators.
This part of the standard does not include the infrastructure which supplies energy e.g. the electricity
generation of energy for railways.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content
constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For
undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
EN 16247-1:2022, Energy audits — Part 1: General requirements
EN 50591:2019, Railway Applications — Rolling Stock — Specification and verification of energy
consumption
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 16247-1:2022 and the
following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
3.1
transport
activity that implies the movement of people, livestock or goods from one place to another
5

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
3.2
vehicle
object used to perform the transport, may include the container, trailer or carriage where energy is
consumed
Note 1 to entry: This document will use this term, instead of the more general one (audited object), from part 1
of this standard.
3.3
energy
includes fuels, inclusive of biofuels, electricity inclusive of regenerated/recovered energy from braking,
etc.
®1
Note 1 to entry: Excludes feedstock energy sources such as Aqueous Urea Solution (for example AdBlue
ISO 22241-1).
3.4
fleet
group of vehicles
3.5
train set
consist
railway terminology used to describe a “train” which varies between countries, very often a single
scheduled service
Note 1 to entry: In the UK, the interchangeable terms “set” and “unit” are used to refer to a group of
permanently or semi-permanently coupled vehicles, such as those of a diesel multiple unit. The United Kingdom
Section 83(1) of the Railways Act 1993 defines “train” as follows:
a)  two or more items of rolling stock coupled together, at least one of which is a locomotive;
b)  a locomotive not coupled to any other rolling stock.
Note 2 to entry: In the United States, the term “consist” is used to describe the group of rail vehicles which make
up a train.
3.6
operator
person that governs the vehicle operation with his/her own hands, e.g. driver, pilot, helmsman, etc. (not
the organization being audited)
3.7
organization
owner or operator of the fleet of vehicles subject to the audit
3.8
transport service
service provided to a beneficiary for the transport of goods, livestock or of a person from a departure
point to a destination point

1 ®
AdBlue is an example of a suitable product available commercially. This information is given for the
convenience of users of this document and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN or CENELEC of this
product.
6

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
3.9
segment
group of vehicles performing the same type of transport; i.e. subset of a fleet having a certain common
feature
Note 1 to entry: The criteria for segment definition depend on the kind of transport the audited organization
performs and the kind of vehicles used. An example might be differentiating the vehicles performing local
distribution as opposed to long distance shipment in two different segments.
3.10
load factor
ratio of the average load or passenger number to total vehicle capacity in tonnes, volume or
seats/standing
4 Quality requirements
4.1 Qualifications
With reference to EN 16247-5 the energy auditor shall have relevant knowledge of the different modes
of transport and energy sources used in transport by the organization subject to the audit.
4.2 Energy audit process
4.2.1 General
Due to the complexity, mobility and time critical nature of transport operations, the site visit needs to
be done within restrictions for both auditor and operator to allow both parties to complete their duties,
thus this clause states distinct requirements to those specified in EN 16247-1:2022, 4.2.
4.2.2 Operations department cooperation
Transport operations are a complex, time-critical process and being able to audit it without affecting its
final result is imperative.
The organization shall provide the auditor with appropriate access to relevant personnel, records,
documentation or equipment.
The auditor shall agree with the operations department on the needs of both parties to complete their
duties in a proper manner. Failing to do so upfront will put extra difficulties into the auditing process.
When a sampling method is used, the selected sample of vehicle(s) shall be representative of the fleet or
that part of the fleet.
4.2.3 Personnel
In order to perform the audit in a proper manner, the auditor shall have direct access to people within
the organization in charge of the following areas:
a) planning. Personnel responsible for logistics and route management;
b) operations. This department is in charge of organizing the transport operations and specifically of
assigning them to operators and vehicles;
c) maintenance. These are the people responsible for assuring the availability and good performance
of the vehicles, or granting access to service records if maintenance is outsourced;
7

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
d) technical and procurement. Those people responsible for vehicle specifications and acquisition,
including sub-contractors and suppliers;
e) human resources. It is important for the auditor to understand the views of the staff and operators
as they are critical to the energy consumption reduction process. Moreover, direct contact with
operators is advisable;
f) operator training department and/or training personnel;
g) operators. They are one of the keys to eliminating energy wastage and encouraging ecodriving;
h) finance. They usually process financial data associated with energy purchases, particularly
important where energy prices vary week by week.
5 Elements of the energy audit process
5.1 Preliminary contact
Due to the dispersed nature of transport, a focus on communication is of paramount importance. The
auditor shall issue a summary of the purpose and main needs of the audit and communicate this to the
people with responsibility for the organization’s transportation. Where possible, these personnel shall
be present at the start-up meeting.
As the audit progresses, the organization shall be informed of the results, deviations and any
outstanding issues. Likewise, the auditor shall communicate with the organization on issues affecting
the conduct of the audit.
The auditor shall require the organization to inform them of any significant changes that would impact
on the energy audit.
5.2 Start-up meeting
Within the restrictions of normal transport operations and where practicable, the organization shall
enable the relevant personnel (see 4.2.3) to attend the start-up meeting.
The objective is to define the following points:
— scope of work: number of sites included, typology of transport;
— the roles of each, the methodology, the preparation for the field work;
— designation of the person responsible of the energy audit within the organization;
— the mode of travel planning if it is organized;
— fleet renewal procedures and subscribed maintenance contracts;
— training offered to staff;
— the expectations of the audited body.
The auditor selects the types of vehicles to be checked on the site, according to the objective, the scope
of the audit and the level of thoroughness of the energy audit.
8

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
5.3 Collecting data
The auditor shall gather the following information: the energy consumption for every vehicle during the
last year, with intervals that allow for a useful trend analysis (for seasonal analysis or any other
significant factor):
a) criteria used for planning transport operations assignments;
b) description of the routes taken and planning policy;
c) fleet composition: list of all available vehicles along with their age and main technical features
(e.g. vehicle category, fuel type, engine size, emissions rating, ancillaries);
d) operator training conducted for energy consumption reduction (e.g. ecodriving), including
documented records of any resultant reductions;
e) methods of refuelling, where appropriate;
f) evidence of the fuel or electricity consumption metering and relevant training given to operators;
g) energy source pricing documents including historical data over an appropriate period;
h) distance travelled for each vehicle or number of hours of operation during the last year;
i) data regarding goods and passengers to enable the calculation of load factor for the last year;
j) data to enable the calculation of percentage of productive distance and time from operators and
vehicles;
k) if part of transport is outsourced, the auditor shall make sure the activities are identified and raise
questions about whether details on energy figures were requested and made available from the
sub-contractor;
l) where applicable, criteria for supplier and sub-contractor procurement; e.g. energy policy or
performance criteria;
m) maintenance programmes, service and inspection checklists, maintenance records will be asked for
when necessary;
n) policies for vehicle specification, operation, purchase, maintenance, refurbishment and
replacement;
o) actions for development and testing of new techniques and methods of reducing greenhouse gas
emissions by reductions in energy usage or alternative energy sources;
p) if a telemetric or tracking fleet management system is available, the auditor should consider the
opportunity to use more sophisticated data analysis, such as vehicle’s driving condition, operator’s
behaviour, etc.
See Annex B Sources of information for data collection.
9

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
5.4 Field work
The auditor shall conduct an assessment when vehicles are present, the auditor and operations
department personnel shall assess vehicles to observe the issues and opportunities for energy
performance improvement action (EPIA). Every vehicle selected from the sampling method shall be
physically checked, if needed. This may take place out of normal operating hours as appropriate.
Where existing historical data are not reliable, a recording device can be used to record the data of a
representative amount of vehicles during an expanded time period, or where available the vehicles’ on-
board computer should be analysed.
Where insufficient data are available, the auditor may ask permission to personally observe at least one
trip (or a significant part of it) for each of the main transportation activities by the audited organization
in order to assess how the energy efficiency could be optimized. During the trip, the auditor shall either
measure (through an instantaneous recording device, where appropriate) or estimate the consumption
of every phase in the transport process.
Where applicable and appropriate on each organization site, the operations and maintenance
departments shall be visited to assess the organization’s activities during normal working hours.
5.5 Analysis
5.5.1 General
With reference to the analysis (EN 16247-1:2022, 5.7), the report content (below) outlines the potential
outputs from the analysis specific to transport.
The auditor shall take into account the following considerations in order to make the final
recommendations:
a) Energy performance and load factor in every period of the year (12 months);
b) factors affecting the energy consumption, being within or beyond the influence of the audited
organization;
c) planning, scheduling, road topography choices and routes/timetable issues;
d) factors affecting goods quality (temperature control), customer comfort/satisfaction (e.g. use of air
conditioning);
e) improvement capabilities concerning staff (training and recruitment);
f) productivity impact of the different energy influencers (for example, vehicle speed);
g) vehicle operation and maintenance;
h) vehicle refurbishment, replacement and selection;
i) fleet segmentation (according to the type of transport performed);
j) assessment of the recording of energy consumption and their impact on the accuracy of the
available data;
k) assessment of the implied energy performance of outsourcing part of the transportation activity.
10

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
5.5.2 Energy performance indicators
In order to analyse the energy performance, an indicator or group of indicators shall be selected. These
indicators shall be measurable for all modes of transport used by the organization.
A point to bear in mind here is the journey time is required; without which there is no way one can
apply the conclusions of the audit to the operations department.
Some examples are: consumed energy/distance, consumed energy/(distance × net weight) for freight
2 3
transport , consumed energy/(distance × number of passengers) for passenger transport .
In the cases where it is not possible to have accurate data (for example, to evaluate the weight), some
estimation shall be applied.
In the case where the mode of transport is not an option or if it has already been selected in a previous
stage, the indicators used to further analyse the performance can be specific to that transport mode.
5.5.3 Transport mode and energy sources
The auditor shall:
a) Take into account the energy source projections for the different alternatives so as to determine
what the best choice for fleet renewal or expansion is. In order to do that, a price projection for the
different fuel alternatives will be used;
b) Bear in mind other aspects that can also influence the decision. Some examples are maintenance
costs, acquisition cost and the possible Greenhouse Gas emissions calculated using the standard
EN 16258 for compensation in some countries;
c) Where applicable, include other means of transport in the auditing process, so as to determine if a
multimodal operation is adequate. This involves the possibility of using different transport modes
for a certain transport service, as well as the possibility of using a completely different transport
mode when feasible and energetically worthwhile.
5.6 Report
5.6.1 General
The general requirements for the energy audit report are defined in EN 16247-1:2022, 5.8.1.

2
See Eurostat definitions: “Tonne-kilometre (tkm) A tonne-kilometre, abbreviated as tkm, is a unit of measure
of freight transport which represents the transport of one tonne of goods (including packaging and tare
weights of intermodal transport units) by a given transport mode (road, rail, air, sea, inland waterways,
pipeline, etc.) over a distance of one kilometre” Source: Eurostat Glossary [9].
3
See Eurostat definitions: “A passenger-kilometre, abbreviated as pkm, is the unit of measurement
representing the transport of one passenger by a defined mode of transport (road, rail, air, sea, inland
waterways, etc.) over one kilometre” Source: Eurostat Glossary [9].
11

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 16247-4:2022
EN 16247-4:2022 (E)
5.6.2 Content of report
Within the recommendations offered to increase energy performance, the following point’s specific to
transport shall be covered:
a) planning, Routes/Timetables:
1) points to be considered with
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
01-marec-2020
Energetske presoje - 4. del: Promet
Energy audits - Part 4: Transport
Energieaudits - Teil 4: Transport
Audits énergétiques - Partie 4: Transport
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16247-4
ICS:
03.100.70 Sistemi vodenja Management systems
03.220.01 Transport na splošno Transport in general
27.015 Energijska učinkovitost. Energy efficiency. Energy
Ohranjanje energije na conservation in general
splošno
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020 en,fr,de
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020


EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16247-4
NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

January 2020
ICS 03.120.10; 27.015; 55.020
Will supersede EN 16247-4:2014
English version

Energy audits - Part 4: Transport
Audits énergétiques - Partie 4: Transport Energieaudits - Teil 4: Transport
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee
CEN/CLC/JTC 14.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal
Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any
alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A
version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own
language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,
Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are
aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification
of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without
notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

















CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels
© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16247-4:2020 E
reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.

---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
Contents Page
European foreword . 3
Introduction . 4
1 Scope . 5
2 Normative references . 5
3 Terms and definitions . 5
4 Quality requirements . 7
4.1 Qualifications . 7
4.2 Energy audit process . 7
4.2.1 General . 7
4.2.2 Operations department cooperation . 7
4.2.3 Personnel . 7
5 Elements of the energy audit process . 8
5.1 Preliminary contact . 8
5.2 Start-up meeting . 8
5.3 Collecting data . 9
5.4 Field work . 9
5.5 Analysis . 10
5.5.1 General . 10
5.5.2 Energy performance indicators . 11
5.5.3 Transport mode and energy sources . 11
5.6 Report . 12
5.6.1 General . 12
5.6.2 Content of report . 12
5.7 Final meeting . 12
Annex A (normative) Transport sectors . 13
Annex B (informative) Sources of information . 16
Annex C (informative) Example of report plan . 19
Bibliography . 23

2

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
European foreword
This document (EN 16247-4:2xxx) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/CLC/JTC14
WG 1 “Energy audits”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 16247-4:2014.
This Part provides additional material to Part 1 for the Transport sector and should be used in
conjunction with Part 1.
This document is part of the series EN 16247 “Energy audits” which comprises the following:
— Part 1 General requirements;
— Part 2 Buildings;
— Part 3 Processes;
— Part 4 Transport;
— Part 5 Competence of energy auditors.
3

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
Introduction
An energy audit can help an organization to identify opportunities to improve energy efficiency.
It can be part of a site wide energy management system.
This document is intended for the energy auditing of mobile assets e.g. vehicles, railways,
marine vessels, aircraft, as well as mobile plant.
Due to the mobility of the assets in transport, energy auditing in this area is especially
challenging. For example, the meetings are harder to organize, the activities involved are harder
to inspect.
The first part of this document harmonizes the procedures for energy auditing in transport
systems. On the other hand, there are certain aspects which are particular to every transport
mode. For example, whereas the mobile assets in road transport are numerous, similar and
replaced frequently, the assets for marine and air transport are large and long-lived.
In order to state the energy auditing features of every transport mode, there is a specific section
for each of them at the end of this document.
Finally, the possibility of planning and selecting the mode of transport (and, sometimes, using
different modes for a unique transport service) is also a specific aspect of the transport activity.
Therefore, this standard will place special attention to this topic.
NOTE An energy audit is not a fiscal method, the term and the nature of an energy audit are defined
in EN 16247-1 Energy Audits.
4

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
1 Scope
This document is used in conjunction with and is supplementary to EN 16247-1, Energy
audits — Part 1: General requirements. It provides additional requirements to EN 16247-1 and
is applied simultaneously.
The procedures described here apply to the different modes of transport (road, rail, marine and
aviation), as well as the different ranges (local- to long-distance) and what is transported (i.e.
goods and people).
This document specifies the requirements, methodology and deliverables specific to energy
audits in the transport sector, every situation in which a displacement is made, no matter who
the operator is (a public or private company or whether the operator is exclusively dedicated to
transport or not), is also addressed in this document.
This document advises on both the optimization of energy within each mode of transport, as
well as selecting the best mode of transport in each situation; the conclusions drawn by the
energy audit can influence decisions on infrastructure and investment e.g. in teleconferencing
or web meetings.
Energy audits of buildings and processes associated with transport can be conducted
respectively with the EN 16247-2 Buildings and EN 16247-3 Processes e.g. pipelines, depots
and escalators/travelators. This part of the standard does not include the infrastructure which
supplies energy e.g. the electricity generation of energy for railways.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their
content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited
applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any
amendments) applies.
EN 16247-1:2012, Energy audits - Part 1: General requirements
UIC/UNIFE, TEC REC 100 001, Specification and verification of energy consumption for railway
rolling stock, 2010
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document the terms and definitions given in EN 16247-1 and the
following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following
addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
3.1
transport
activity that implies the movement of people, livestock or goods from one place to another
5

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
3.2
vehicle
object used to perform the transport, may include the container, trailer or carriage where
energy is consumed
Note 1 to entry: This document will use this term, instead of the more general one (audited object),
from part 1 of this standard.
3.3
energy
includes fuels, inclusive of biofuels, electricity inclusive of regenerated/recovered energy from
braking etc
Note 1 to entry: Excludes feedstock energy sources such as Aqueous Urea Solution (for example
‘Adblue™’ ISO 22241-1)
3.4
fleet
group of vehicles
3.5
train set
number of carriages, cars, or trucks which are all connected together and which are pulled by an
engine along a railway
Note 1 to entry: Trains carry people and goods from one place to another.
3.6
operator
person that governs the vehicle operation with his/her own hands, e.g. driver, pilot, helmsman,
etc.(not the organization being audited)
3.7
organization
owner or operator of the fleet of vehicles subject to the audit
3.8
transport service
service provided to a beneficiary for the transport of goods, livestock or of a person from a
departure point to a destination point
3.9
segment
group of vehicles performing the same type of transport; i.e. subset of a fleet having a certain
common feature
Note 1 to entry: The criteria for segment definition depend on the kind of transport the audited
organization performs and the kind of vehicles used. An example might be differentiating the vehicles
performing local distribution as opposed to long distance shipment in two different segments.
3.10
operators’ representative
group of workers in charge of communicating the interest of the operators to the management
of the organization
6

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
3.11
load factor
ratio of the average load or passenger number to total vehicle capacity in tonnes, volume or
seats/standing
4 Quality requirements
4.1 Qualifications
With reference to EN 16247-5 the energy auditor shall have relevant knowledge of the different
modes of transport and energy sources used in transport by the organization subject to the
audit.
4.2 Energy audit process
4.2.1 General
Due to the complexity, mobility and time critical nature of transport operations, the site visit
needs to be done within restrictions for both auditor and operator to allow both parties to
complete their duties, thus this clause (4.2) states distinct requirements to those specified in
EN 16247-1:2012, 4.2.
4.2.2 Operations department cooperation
Transport operations are a complex, time-critical process and being able to audit it without
affecting its final result is imperative.
The organization shall provide the auditor with appropriate access to relevant personnel,
records, documentation or equipment.
The auditor shall agree with the operations department on the needs of both parties to
complete their duties in a proper manner. Failing to do so upfront will put extra difficulties into
the auditing process.
When a sampling method is used, the selected sample of vehicle(s) shall be representative of the
fleet or that part of the fleet.
4.2.3 Personnel
In order to perform the audit in a proper manner, the auditor shall have direct access to people
within the organization in charge of the following areas:
a) Planning. Personnel responsible for logistics and route management;
b) Operations. This department is in charge of organizing the transport operations and
specifically of assigning them to operators and vehicles;
c) Maintenance. These are the people responsible for assuring the availability and good
performance of the vehicles, or granting access to service records if maintenance is
outsourced;
d) Technical and procurement. Those people responsible for vehicle specifications and
acquisition, including sub-contractors and suppliers;
7

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
e) Human resources. It is important for the auditor to understand the views of the staff and
operators as they are critical to the energy consumption reduction process. Moreover,
direct contact with operators is advisable;
f) Operator training department and/or training personnel;
g) Operators. They are one of the keys to eliminating energy wastage and encouraging
ecodriving;
h) Finance. They usually process financial data associated with energy purchases, particularly
important where energy prices vary week by week.
5 Elements of the energy audit process
5.1 Preliminary contact
Due to the dispersed nature of transport, a focus on communication is of paramount
importance. The auditor shall issue a summary of the purpose and main needs of the audit and
communicate this to the people with responsibility for the organization’s transportation. Where
possible, these personnel shall be present at the start-up meeting.
As the audit progresses, the organization shall be informed of the results, deviations and any
outstanding issues. Likewise, the auditor shall communicate with the organization on issues
affecting the conduct of the audit.
The auditor shall require the organization to inform them of any significant changes that would
impact on the energy audit.
5.2 Start-up meeting
Within the restrictions of normal transport operations and where practicable, the organization
shall enable the relevant personnel see Clause 4.2.3 to attend the start-up meeting.
The objective is to define the following points:
—— scope of work: number of sites included, typology of transport;
—— the roles of each, the methodology, the preparation for the field work;
—— designation of the person responsible of the energy audit within the organization ;
—— the mode of travel planning if it is organized;
—— fleet renewal procedures and subscribed maintenance contracts;
—— training offered to staff.
—— the expectations of the audited body.
The auditor selects the types of vehicles to be checked on the site, according to the objective, the
scope of the audit and the level of thoroughness of the energy audit.
8

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
5.3 Collecting data
The auditor shall gather the following information: the energy consumption for every vehicle
during the last year, with intervals that allow for a useful trend analysis (for seasonal analysis or
any other significant factor):
a) criteria used for planning transport operations assignments;
b) description of the routes taken and planning policy;
c) fleet composition: list of all available vehicles along with their age and main technical
features (e.g. vehicle category, fuel type, engine size, emissions rating, ancillaries);
d) operator training conducted for energy consumption reduction (e.g. ecodriving), including
documented records of any resultant reductions;
e) methods of refuelling where appropriate;
f) evidence of the fuel or electricity consumption metering and relevant training given to
operators;
g) energy source pricing documents including historical data over an appropriate period;
h) distance travelled for each vehicle or number of hours of operation during the last year;
i) data regarding goods and passengers to enable the calculation of load factor for the last
year;
j) data to enable the calculation of percentage of productive distance and time from operators
and vehicles;
k) if part of transport is outsourced, the auditor shall make sure the activities are identified
and raise questions about whether details on energy figures were requested and made
available from the sub-contractor;
l) where applicable, criteria for supplier and sub-contractor procurement e.g. energy policy or
performance criteria;
m) maintenance programmes, service and inspection checklists, maintenance records will be
asked for when necessary;
n) policies for vehicle specification, operation, purchase, maintenance, refurbishment and
replacement;
o) actions for development and testing of new techniques and methods of reducing
greenhouse gas emissions by reductions in energy usage or alternative energy sources.
See Annex B – sources of information for data collection
5.4 Field work
The auditor shall conduct an assessment when vehicles are present, the auditor and operations
department personnel shall assess vehicles to observe the issues and opportunities for energy
reduction. Every vehicle selected from the sampling method shall be physically checked, if
needed. This may take place out of normal operating hours as appropriate.
9

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16247-4:2020
prEN 16247-4:2020 (E)
Where existing historical data are not reliable, a recording device can be used to record the data
of a representative amount of vehicles during an expanded time period, or where available the
vehicles’ on-board computer should be analysed.
Where insufficient data are available, the auditor may ask permission to personally observe at
least one trip (or a significant part of it) for each of the main transportation activities by the
audited organization in order to assess how the energy efficiency could be optimized. During
the trip, the auditor shall either measur
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.