Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2022)

This document specifies performance requirements for cathodic protection of steel in cement-based concrete, in both new and existing structures. It covers building and civil engineering structures, including carbon steel reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement embedded in the concrete. It is applicable to uncoated steel reinforcement and to organic-coated steel reinforcement. It is not applicable to reinforced concrete containing electrically conductive fibres (e.g. carbon or steel).
This document applies to steel embedded in atmospherically exposed, buried, immersed and tidal elements of buildings or structures.
This document is only applicable to the applications of cathodic protection to steel in concrete which are designed with the intention to, and can be demonstrated to, meet the criteria of protection specified in 8.6. This requires the provision of sufficient performance monitoring systems as specified in 6.3 to all parts of the structure intended to be protected, in order to assess the extent to which the criteria in 8.6 are met.
This document does not apply to galvanic anodes or systems applied into patch repairs to reduce the effects of ‘incipient anodes’. This document does also not apply to any form of cathodic protection systems or other electrochemical treatments that either cannot meet the requirements of 8.6 or are not provided with the performance monitoring systems (see 6.3) that are necessary to assess whether the criteria of protection specified in 8.6 are met.
NOTE 1    Annex A gives guidance on the principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete.
NOTE 2    This document, while not specifically intended to address cathodic protection of steel in any electrolyte except concrete, can be applied to cathodic protection of steel in other cementitious materials such as are found, for example, in early 20th century steel-framed masonry, brick and terracotta clad buildings. In such applications, additional considerations specific to these structures are required in respect of design, materials and installation of cathodic protection; however, the requirements of this document can be applied to these systems.

Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO 12696:2022)

Dieses Dokument legt Leistungsanforderungen an den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton auf Zementbasis sowohl in neuen als auch bestehenden Bauwerken fest. Es umfasst die der Luft ausgesetzten Teile von Gebäuden und Tiefbauwerken, einschließlich in Beton eingebetteter nicht vorgespannter und vorgespannter Bewehrung aus Kohlenstoffstahl. Es ist anwendbar auf unbeschichteten und auf organisch beschichteten Bewehrungsstahl. Es ist nicht anzuwenden für bewehrten Beton, der elektrisch leitfähige Fasern (z. B. Kohlenstoff oder Stahl) enthält.
Dieses Dokument gilt für Stahl, der in Teile von Gebäuden oder in Bauwerke eingebettet ist, die der Luft ausgesetzt, erdverlegt oder unter Wasser befindlich oder durch Gezeiten beeinflusst sind.
Dieses Dokument ist nur anzuwenden für die Anwendungen des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes von Stahl in Beton, die mit dem Ziel der Einhaltung der in 8.6 festgelegten Korrosionsschutzkriterien entwickelt wurden und bei denen sich die Einhaltung dieser Kriterien nachweisen lässt. Hierfür ist die Bereitstellung von ausreichenden Leistungsüberwachungssystemen, wie in 6.3 festgelegt, an allen Teilen des zu schützenden Bauwerks erforderlich, um den Grad, bis zu dem die in 8.6 festgelegten Kriterien erfüllt werden, beurteilen zu können.
Das Dokument ist nicht anzuwenden für galvanische Anoden oder Systeme, die zur Minderung des „Anodeneinleitungseffekts“ in Ausbesserungen eingebracht werden. Das Dokument ist auch nicht anzuwenden für alle Formen von kathodischen Korrosionsschutzsystemen oder sonstigen elektrochemischen Behandlungen, die entweder die Anforderungen nach 8.6 nicht erfüllen können oder nicht mit den Leistungsüberwachungssystemen ausgestattet sind (siehe 6.3), die zur Beurteilung, ob die in 8.6 festgelegten Schutzkriterien erfüllt werden, notwendig sind.
ANMERKUNG 1   Anhang A enthält Leitlinien zu den Grundsätzen des kathodischen Korrosionsschutzes und dessen Anwendung auf Stahl in Beton.
ANMERKUNG 2   Dieses Dokument, das zwar nicht speziell für den kathodischen Schutz von Stahl in irgendeinem Elektrolyten, ausgenommen Beton, vorgesehen ist, kann für den kathodischen Schutz von Stahl in anderen zementartigen Werkstoffen, wie sie z. B. bei in Stahlrahmen eingesetztem Mauerwerk, Bausteinen und mit Terrakotta verkleideten Bauwerken aus dem frühen 20. Jahrhundert zu finden sind, angewendet werden. Bei derartigen Anwendungen sind zusätzliche Überlegungen für diese Bauwerke hinsichtlich Ausführung, Werkstoffen und Einbau des kathodischen Schutzes erforderlich; die Anforderungen des vorliegenden Dokumentes können jedoch auf diese Systeme angewendet werden.

Protection cathodique de l’acier dans le béton (ISO 12696:2022)

Katodna zaščita jekla v betonu (ISO 12696:2022)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
24-Apr-2021
Publication Date
19-Jun-2022
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
25-May-2022
Due Date
30-Jul-2022
Completion Date
20-Jun-2022

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
01-julij-2022
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 12696:2017
Katodna zaščita jekla v betonu (ISO 12696:2022)
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2022)
Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO 12696:2022)
Protection cathodique de l’acier dans le béton (ISO 12696:2022)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 12696:2022
ICS:
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
77.140.15 Jekla za armiranje betona Steels for reinforcement of
concrete
91.080.40 Betonske konstrukcije Concrete structures
SIST EN ISO 12696:2022 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
EN ISO 12696
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2022
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.060; 77.140.15 Supersedes EN ISO 12696:2016
English Version
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO 12696:2022)

Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton (ISO Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO

12696:2022) 12696:2022)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 May 2022.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2022 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 12696:2022 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
EN ISO 12696:2022 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
EN ISO 12696:2022 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 12696:2022) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156

"Corrosion of metals and alloys" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 219 “Cathodic

protection” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2022, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2022.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 12696:2016.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national standards

body/national committee. A complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CEN website.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 12696:2022 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 12696:2022 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12696
Third edition
2022-05
Cathodic protection of steel in
concrete
Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton
Reference number
ISO 12696:2022(E)
© ISO 2022
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
ISO 12696:2022(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2022

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on

the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below

or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
ISO 12696:2022(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1 Quality management ......................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Persons .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Design ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Structure assessment and repair ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Records .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Visual inspection and delamination survey ................................................................................................................. 4

5.4 Chloride analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.5 Carbonation depth measurement .......................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Concrete cover and reinforcement location ................................................................................................................. 5

5.7 Reinforcement electrical continuity.................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Steel/concrete potential ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.9 Concrete electrical resistivity .................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.10 Repair.............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.10.2 Concrete removal ............................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10.3 Reinforcement preparation ...................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10.4 Concrete reinstatement ............................................................................................................................................... 6

5.11 Cementitious overlay ........................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.12 New structures ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Cathodic protection system components .................................................................................................................................. 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Anode systems ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.2 Conductive coating anode systems .................................................................................................................... 9

6.2.3 Activated titanium anode systems ................................................................................................................. 10

6.2.4 Titania ceramic anodes ............................................................................................................................................. 11

6.2.5 Conductive cementitious anodes ...................................................................................................................... 11

6.2.6 Embedded galvanic anodes ................................................................................................................................... 11

6.2.7 Surface-mounted galvanic anodes...................................................................................................................12

6.2.8 Buried and immersed anodes ..............................................................................................................................12

6 . 3 Mon it or i n g s en s or s .......................................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

6.3.2 Portable reference electrodes ............................................................................................................................. 15

6.3.3 Other sensors .....................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 M onitoring instrumentation ................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.4.1 General ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.4.2 Digital meters ........................................................................................................................................... .......................... 16

6.4.3 Data loggers ......................................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.5 Data management system ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.6 Direct current cables...................................................................................................................................................................... 18

6.7 Junction boxes ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.8 Power supplies ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 19

6.9 Transformer-rectifiers ................................................................................................................................................................. 19

7 Installation procedures .............................................................................................................................................................................21

7.1 Electrical continuity ....................................................................................................................................................................... 21

iii
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
ISO 12696:2022(E)

7.2 Performance monitoring system ........................................................................................................................................ 21

7.3 Connections to steel in concrete .......................................................................................................................................... 22

7.4 Concrete repairs associated with the cathodic protection components .........................................22

7.5 Surface preparation for anode installation ................................................................................................................ 22

7.6 Anode installation ............................................................................................................................................................................ 23

7.7 Connections to the anode system ....................................................................................................................................... 23

7.8 Anode overlay, surface sealant or decorative coating application ........................................................23

7.9 Electrical installation .................................................................................................................................................................... 24

7.10 Testing during installation .......................................................................................................................................................25

8 Commissioning....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.1 Visual inspection ............................................................................................................................................................................... 25

8.2 Pre-energizing measurements ..............................................................................................................................................25

8.3 Initial energizing of impressed current systems .................................................................................................. 26

8.4 Initial adjustment of impressed current systems ................................................................................................ 26

8.5 Initial performance assessment ........................................................................................................................................... 27

8.6 Criteria of protection: Interpretation of performance assessment data .........................................28

9 System records and documentation ............................................................................................................................................29

9.1 Quality and test records ........................................................................................................................................... ...................29

9.2 Installation and commissioning report .........................................................................................................................29

9.3 Operation and maintenance manual ................................................................................................................................ 30

10 Operation and maintenance .................................................................................................................................................................30

10.1 Intervals and procedures ........................................................................................................................................................... 30

10.2 System review ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 31

10.3 System review report .................................................................................................................................................................... 31

Annex A (informative) Principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in

concrete ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................32

Annex B (informative) Design process ...........................................................................................................................................................40

Annex C (informative) Notes on anode systems ...................................................................................................................................47

Annex D (informative) Notes on reference electrodes ..................................................................................................................52

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
ISO 12696:2022(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys, in

collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC

219, Cathodic protection of steel in concrete, in accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation

between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12696:2016), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the scope has been revised to clarify that, in order to comply with this document, it is necessary for

the cathodic protection system to have sufficient monitoring provisions to demonstrate that the

system meets the criteria of protection specified in 8.6;
— subclause 8.6 has been revised;
— Annex A has been revised and its figures have been updated;

— Clause A.7 has been moved to the new Annex D and a new Clause A.7 “Benefits of cathodic protection

current when criteria in 8.6 are not fully met” has been added;
— Annex B has been revised completely;
— a new clause, Clause C.5 “Hybrid anodes”, has been added;
— a new annex, Annex D “Notes on reference electrodes”, has been added;
— the references in the whole document have been revised.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www.iso.org/members.html.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
ISO 12696:2022(E)
Introduction

This document applies to cathodic protection of steel in concrete, with the concrete atmospherically

exposed, buried or immersed.

As the criteria of protection for steel in buried or immersed concrete are those applicable to cathodic

protection of steel in atmospherically exposed concrete, this revision of ISO 12696:2016 incorporates

cathodic protection of steel in buried and immersed concrete. The provision of cathodic protection

current can often be more economically provided to steel in buried and immersed concrete by using

buried or immersed anode systems detailed in International Standards for buried and immersed steel

structures, rather than the anode systems that are suitable for applications to steel in atmospherically

exposed concrete. Therefore, reference is made to other International Standards in this respect while

the cathodic protection performance criteria for steel in concrete are specified in this document for all

exposures.

There are other electrochemical treatments intended to provide corrosion control for steel in

concrete. These techniques include re-alkalization and chloride extraction and are not incorporated

[10] [11]

in this document. See EN 14038-1:2016 and EN 14038-2:2020 for information on electrochemical

treatments.

Cathodic protection of steel in concrete is a technique that has been demonstrated to be successful in

appropriate applications in providing cost effective long-term corrosion control for steel in concrete.

It is a technique that requires specific design calculations and definition of installation procedures in

order to be successfully implemented. This document does not represent a design code for cathodic

protection of steel in concrete, but represents a performance standard for which it is anticipated that

a detailed design and specification for materials, installation, commissioning and operation will be

prepared by experts and experienced persons.
© ISO 2022 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 12696:2022
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12696:2022(E)
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for cathodic protection of steel in cement-based

concrete, in both new and existing structures. It covers building and civil engineering structures,

including carbon steel reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement embedded in the concrete. It is

applicable to uncoated steel reinforcement and to organic-coated steel reinforcement. It is not applicable

to reinforced concrete containing electrically conductive fibres (e.g. carbon or steel).

This document applies to steel embedded in atmospherically exposed, buried, immersed and tidal

elements of buildings or structures.

This document is only applicable to the applications of cathodic protection to steel in concrete which

are designed with the intention to, and can be demonstrated to, meet the criteria of protection specified

in 8.6. This requires the provision of sufficient performance monitoring systems as specified in 6.3 to

all parts of the structure intended to be protected, in order to assess the extent to which the criteria in

8.6 are met.

This document does not apply to galvanic anodes or systems applied into patch repairs to reduce the

effects of ‘incipient anodes’. This document does also not apply to any form of cathodic protection

systems or other electrochemical treatments that either cannot meet the requirements of 8.6 or are not

provided with the performance monitoring systems (see 6.3) that are necessary to assess whether the

criteria of protection specified in 8.6 are met.

NOTE 1 Annex A gives guidance on the principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete.

NOTE 2 This document, while not specifically intended to address cathodic protection of steel in any

electrolyte except concrete, can be applied to cathodic protection of steel in other cementitious materials such as

are found, for example, in early 20 century steel-framed masonry, brick and terracotta clad buildings. In such

applications, additional considerations specific to these structures are required in respect of design, materials

and installation of cathodic protection; however, the requirements of this document can be applied to these

systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8044, Corrosion of metals and alloys — Vocabulary

ISO 15257, Cathodic protection — Competence levels of cathodic protection persons — Basis for a

certification scheme

IEC 60502-1, Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV

(Um
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021
01-april-2021
Katodna zaščita jekla v betonu (ISO/DIS 12696:2021)
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete (ISO/DIS 12696:2021)
Kathodischer Korrosionsschutz von Stahl in Beton (ISO/DIS 12696:2021)
Protection cathodique de l’acier dans le béton (ISO/DIS 12696:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 12696
ICS:
77.060 Korozija kovin Corrosion of metals
77.140.15 Jekla za armiranje betona Steels for reinforcement of
concrete
91.080.40 Betonske konstrukcije Concrete structures
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 12696
ISO/TC 156 Secretariat: SAC
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2021-02-15 2021-05-10
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete
Protection cathodique de l'acier dans le béton
ICS: 77.140.15; 77.060
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 12696:2021(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021
ISO/DIS 12696:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 12696:2021
ISO/DIS 12696:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Quality management systems .................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Persons .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.3 Design ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Structure assessment and repair ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Records .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.3 Visual inspection and delamination survey ................................................................................................................... 4

5.4 Chloride analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Carbonation depth measurement ........................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6 Concrete cover and reinforcement location................................................................................................................... 5

5.7 Reinforcement electrical continuity ..................................................................................................................................... 5

5.8 Steel/concrete potential ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.9 Concrete electrical resistivity ..................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.10 Repair .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.10.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10.2 Concrete removal............................................................................................................................................................. 6

5.10.3 Reinforcement preparation .................................................................................................................................... 6

5.10.4 Concrete reinstatement ............................................................................................................................................. 6

5.11 Cementitious overlay ......................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.12 New structures ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6 Cathodic protection system components .................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Anode systems ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2.2 Conductive coating anode systems .................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.3 Activated titanium anode systems .................................................................................................................10

6.2.4 Titania ceramic anodes ...........................................................................................................................................11

6.2.5 Conductive cementitious anodes ....................................................................................................................11

6.2.6 Embedded galvanic anodes .................................................................................................................................11

6.2.7 Surface-mounted galvanic anodes .................................................................................................................12

6.2.8 Buried and immersed anodes............................................................................................................................12

6.3 Monitoring sensors ..........................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.3.2 Portable reference electrodes ...........................................................................................................................14

6.3.3 Other sensors ...................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4 Monitoring instrumentation ....................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.4.2 Digital meters ..................................................................................................................................................................16

6.4.3 Data loggers ......................................................................................................................................................................16

6.5 Data management system ..........................................................................................................................................................17

6.6 Direct current cables .......................................................................................................................................................................17

6.7 Junction boxes .......................................................................................................................................................................................18

6.8 Power supplies .....................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.9 Transformer-rectifiers ......... ..........................................................................................................................................................19

7 Installation procedures ..............................................................................................................................................................................20

7.1 Electrical continuity ........................................................................................................................................................................20

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7.2 Performance monitoring system ..........................................................................................................................................21

7.3 Connections to steel in concrete ...........................................................................................................................................22

7.4 Concrete repairs associated with the cathodic protection components ............................................22

7.5 Surface preparation for anode installation..................................................................................................................22

7.6 Anode installation .............................................................................................................................................................................22

7.7 Connections to the anode system ........................................................................................................................................23

7.8 Anode overlay, surface sealant or decorative coating application ..........................................................23

7.9 Electrical installation ......................................................................................................................................................................24

7.10 Testing during installation .........................................................................................................................................................24

8 Commissioning ....................................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.1 Visual inspection ................................................................................................................................................................................25

8.2 Pre-energizing measurements ...............................................................................................................................................25

8.3 Initial energizing of impressed current systems ....................................................................................................26

8.4 Initial adjustment of impressed current systems ..................................................................................................26

8.5 Initial performance assessment ............................................................................................................................................26

8.6 Criteria of protection: Interpretation of performance assessment data ............................................28

9 System records and documentation ..............................................................................................................................................29

9.1 Quality and test records ...............................................................................................................................................................29

9.2 Installation and commissioning report ..........................................................................................................................29

9.3 Operation and maintenance manual .................................................................................................................................29

10 Operation and maintenance ..................................................................................................................................................................30

10.1 Intervals and procedures ............................................................................................................................................................30

10.2 System review .......................................................................................................................................................................................31

10.3 System review report .....................................................................................................................................................................31

Annex A (informative) Principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete ...32

Annex B (informative) Design Process ............................................................................................................................................................40

Annex C (informative) Notes on anode systems .....................................................................................................................................47

Annex D (informative) Notes on reference electrodes ....................................................................................................................52

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 156, Corrosion of metals and alloys and

CEN/TC 219, Cathodic protection of steel in concrete.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12696:2016), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— 3.1 “steel surface ratio” has been added;
— 8.6 has been revised;

— Annex A has been revised: the figures in Annex A has been updated; A.7 has been moved to the new

Annex D and a new Clause A.7 “Benefits of Cathodic Protection Current when Criteria in 8.6 are not

fully met” has been added;
— Annex B has been revised completely;
— New Annex D;
— C.5 “Hybrid anodes” has been added;
— The references in the whole document has been revised.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

This document applies to cathodic protection of steel in concrete, with the concrete atmospherically

exposed, buried or immersed.

Because the criteria of protection for steel in buried or immersed concrete are those applicable to

cathodic protection of steel in atmospherically exposed concrete, this revision of EN 12696:2016

incorporates cathodic protection of steel in buried and immersed concrete. The provision of cathodic

protection current can often be more economically provided to steel in buried and immersed concrete

by using buried or immersed anode systems detailed in International Standards for buried and

immersed steel structures, rather than the anode systems that are suitable for applications to steel

in atmospherically exposed concrete. Therefore, reference is made to other International Standards in

this respect while the cathodic protection performance criteria for steel in concrete are defined in this

document for all exposures.

There are other electrochemical treatments intended to provide corrosion control for steel in concrete.

These techniques include re-alkalization and chloride extraction and are not incorporated into this

document. EN 14038-1:2016 and prEN 14038-2:2019 have been published.

Cathodic protection of steel in concrete is a technique that has been demonstrated to be successful in

appropriate applications in providing cost effective long-term corrosion control for steel in concrete.

It is a technique that requires specific design calculations and definition of installation procedures in

order to be successfully implemented. This document does not represent a design code for cathodic

protection of steel in concrete, but represents a performance standard for which it is anticipated, in

order to comply with this document, a detailed design and specification for materials, installation,

commissioning and operation will be prepared by expert and experienced persons.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 12696:2021(E)
Cathodic protection of steel in concrete
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for cathodic protection of steel in cement-based

concrete, in both new and existing structures. It covers building and civil engineering structures,

including carbon steel reinforcement and prestressed reinforcement embedded in the concrete. It is

applicable to uncoated steel reinforcement and to organic-coated steel reinforcement. It is not applicable

to carbon fibre reinforced concrete.

This document applies to steel embedded in atmospherically exposed, buried, immersed and tidal

elements of buildings or structures.

This document applies only to the applications of cathodic protection to steel in concrete which are

designed with the intention to, and can be demonstrated to, meet the Criteria of Protection as defined

in 8.6. This requires the provision of sufficient performance monitoring systems as defined in 6.3 to all

parts of the structure intended to be protected, in order to assess the extent to which the Criteria in 8.6

are met.

This may exclude from the Scope of this document galvanic anodes or systems applied into patch repairs

to reduce the effects of ‘incipient anodes’. This may also exclude from the Scope of this document any

form of cathodic protection systems or other electrochemical treatments that either cannot meet the

requirements of 8.6 or are not provided with the performance monitoring systems (see 6.3) that are

necessary to assess whether the Criteria of Protection as defined in 8.6 are met.

NOTE 1 Annex A gives guidance on the principles of cathodic protection and its application to steel in concrete.

NOTE 2 This document, while not specifically intended to address cathodic protection of steel in any

electrolyte except concrete, can be applied to cathodic protection of steel in other cementitious materials such as

are found, for example, in early 20th century steel-framed masonry, brick and terracotta clad buildings. In such

applications, additional considerations specific to these structures are required in respect of design, materials

and installation of cathodic protection; however, the requirements of this document can be applied to these

systems.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies

EN 1504 (all parts), Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures —

Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation of conformity

EN 14629, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures — Test methods —

Determination of chloride content in hardened concrete

EN 14630, Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete structures — Test methods —

Determination of carbonation depth in hardened concrete by the phenolphthalein method

ISO 15257, Cathodic protection — Competence levels of cathodic protection persons — Basis for a

certification scheme

IEC 60502-1, Power cables with extruded insulation and their accessories for rated voltages from 1 kV

(Um = 1,2 kV) to 30 kV (Um = 36 kV) — Part 1: Cables for rated voltages of 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV

(Um = 3,6 kV)
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IEC 60529, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures (IP Code)

IEC 61140, Protection against electric shock — Common aspects for installation and equipment

IEC 61558-1, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 1: General

requirements and tests

IEC 61558-2-1, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 2-1:

Particular requirements and tests for separating transformers and power supplies incorporating separating

transformers for general applications

IEC 61558-2-2, Safety of power transformers, power supplies, reactors and similar products — Part 2-2:

Particular requirements and tests for control transformers and power supplies incorporating control

transformers

IEC 61558-2-4, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for supply voltages

up to 1 100 V — Part 2-4: Particular requirements and tests for isolating transformers and power supply

units incorporating isolating transformers

IEC 61558-2-13, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for supply

voltages up to 1 100 V — Part 2-13: Particular requirements and tests for auto transformers and power

supply units incorporating auto transformers

IEC 61558-2-16, Safety of transformers, reactors, power supply units and similar products for voltages

up to 1 100 V — Part 2-16: Particular requirements and tests for switch mode power supply units and

transformers for switch mode power supply units

IEC 62262, Degrees of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment against external

mechanical impacts (IK code)
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8044 and EN 1504 (all parts)

and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
steel surface ratio
ratio of surface area of steel to surface area of concrete
3.2
zone
part of a cathodic protection system

Note 1 to entry: Anode systems can be divided into separate zones to supply current to a fully continuous

reinforcement mesh. Alternatively, a single anode zone can supply current to separate, electrically isolated,

zones within the reinforcement system. Zones can comprise an individual anode zone for each reinforcement

zone or exposure condition. As the current provision to each of the zones in each of these alternatives can be

separately measured, all of them are generically called “cathodic protection zones” and specifically “anode zones”

or “cathode zones”.
3.3
humectant
hygroscopic material, i.e. a substance that promotes the retention of moisture

Note 1 to entry: It can be applied to the surface of a galvanic anode to keep the concrete-anode interface moist.

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4 General
4.1 Q
...

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