Friction stir welding - Aluminium - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO 25239-1:2020)

This document defines terms related to friction stir welding.
In this document, the term “aluminium” refers to aluminium and its alloys.

Rührreibschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 25239-1:2020)

Dieses Dokument definiert Begriffe für das Rührreibschweißen.
Der Begriff „Aluminium“ bezieht sich in diesem Dokument auf Aluminium und seine Legierungen.

Soudage par friction-malaxage - Aluminium - Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO 25239-1:2020)

Le présent document définit les termes relatifs au soudage par friction-malaxage.
Dans le présent document, le terme « aluminium » se rapporte à l'aluminium et ses alliages.

Varjenje z gnetenjem - Aluminij - 1. del: Slovar (ISO 25239-1:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
03-Aug-2019
Publication Date
11-Oct-2020
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
11-Aug-2020
Due Date
16-Oct-2020
Completion Date
12-Oct-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
01-november-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2012
Varjenje z gnetenjem - Aluminij - 1. del: Slovar (ISO 25239-1:2020)
Friction stir welding - Aluminium - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO 25239-1:2020)
Rührreibschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO 25239-1:2020)

Soudage par friction-malaxage - Aluminium - Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO 25239-1:2020)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 25239-1:2020
ICS:
01.040.25 Izdelavna tehnika (Slovarji) Manufacturing engineering
(Vocabularies)
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
EN ISO 25239-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
July 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 01.040.25; 25.160.10 Supersedes EN ISO 25239-1:2011
English Version
Friction stir welding - Aluminium - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO
25239-1:2020)

Soudage par friction-malaxage - Aluminium - Partie 1: Rührreibschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO

Vocabulaire (ISO 25239-1:2020) 25239-1:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 12 July 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 25239-1:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
EN ISO 25239-1:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
EN ISO 25239-1:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 25239-1:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC IIW

"International Institute of Welding" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 121 “Welding

and allied processes” the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by January 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by January 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 25239-1:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 25239-1:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 25239-1:2020 without any

modification.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 25239-1
Second edition
2020-06
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
Reference number
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to

the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see

www .iso .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

Welding, Solid State Welding and Allied Joining Process, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 121, Welding and allied processes, in accordance

with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 25239-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— new definitions have been added for joint area deformation, operator, plunge phase, root flaw,

stationary shoulder tool and temperature control;

— definitions of incomplete penetration, multi run welding, production welding test and single run

welding have been deleted.
A list of all parts in the ISO 25239 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. In 1991, Wayne Thomas

at TWI invented friction stir welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no melting).

The increasing use of FSW has created the need for this document in order to ensure that welding is

carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. This document focuses on the FSW of aluminium because, at the time of publication, the

majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include railway carriages,

consumer products, food processing equipment, aerospace structures, and marine vessels.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 25239-1:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 25239-1:2020(E)
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope
This document defines terms related to friction stir welding.
In this document, the term “aluminium” refers to aluminium and its alloys.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/TR 25901 (all parts), Welding and allied processes — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/TR 25901 (all parts) and the

following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databa
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
01-julij-2019
Varjenje z gnetenjem - Aluminij - 1. del: Slovar (ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019)
Friction stir welding - Aluminium - Part 1: Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019)
Rührreibschweißen - Aluminium - Teil 1: Begriffe (ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019)

Soudage par friction-malaxage - Aluminium - Partie 1: Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS 25239-

1:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 25239-1
ICS:
01.040.25 Izdelavna tehnika (Slovarji) Manufacturing engineering
(Vocabularies)
25.160.10 Varilni postopki in varjenje Welding processes
77.120.10 Aluminij in aluminijeve zlitine Aluminium and aluminium
alloys
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 25239-1
IIW Secretariat: ISO secretariat
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2019-05-22 2019-08-14
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
Soudage par friction-malaxage — Aluminium —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire
ICS: 01.040.25; 25.160.10
Member bodies are requested to consult relevant national interests in ISO/TC
44/SC 10 before casting their ballot to the e-Balloting application.
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
This draft International Standard is submitted to all ISO member bodies for
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
voting, as a standard prepared by an international standardizing body in
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
accordance with Council Resolution 42/1999. The proposer, the International
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
Institute of Welding (IIW), has been recognized by the ISO Council as an
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
international standardizing body for the purpose of Council Resolution
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
42/1999.
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by IIW, International Institute of Welding, Commission III, Resistance

Welding, Solid State Welding and Allied Joining Process.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 25239-1:2011), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— to be entered closer to publication
A list of all parts in the ISO 25239- series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
Introduction

Welding processes are widely used in the fabrication of engineered structures. During the second half

of the twentieth century, fusion welding processes, wherein fusion is obtained by the melting of parent

material and usually a filler metal, dominated the welding of large structures. Then, in 1991, Wayne

Thomas at TWI invented friction stir welding (FSW), which is carried out entirely in the solid phase (no

melting).

The increasing use of FSW has created the need for this document in order to ensure that welding is

carried out in the most effective way and that appropriate control is exercised over all aspects of the

operation. This document focuses on the FSW of aluminium because, at the time of publication, the

majority of commercial applications for FSW involved aluminium. Examples include railway carriages,

consumer products, food processing equipment, aerospace structures, and marine vessels.

The parts of this document are:
Part 1: Vocabulary, defines terms specific to FSW.

Part 2: Design of weld joints, specifies design requirements for friction stir weld joints in aluminium.

Part 3: Qualification of welding operators, specifies requirements for the qualification of a welding

operator for the FSW of aluminium.

Part 4: Specification and qualification of welding procedures, specifies requirements for the specification

and qualification of welding procedures for the FSW of aluminium. A welding procedure specification

(WPS) is needed to provide a basis for planning welding operations and for quality control during

welding. Welding is considered a special process in the terminology of standards for quality systems.

Standards for quality systems usually require that special processes be carried out in accordance with

written procedure specifications. Metallurgical deviations constitute a special problem. Because non-

destructive testing of the mechanical properties is impossible at the present level of technology, this

has resulted in the establishment of a set of rules for qualification of the welding procedure prior to the

release of the WPS to actual production. ISO 25239-4 defines these rules.

Part 5: Quality and inspection requirements, specifies a method for determining the capability of a

fabricator to use the FSW process for the production of aluminium products of the specified quality. It

defines specific quality requirements but does not assign those requirements to any specific product

group. To be effective, welded structures should be free from serious problems in production and

in service. To achieve that goal, it is necessary to provide controls from the design phase through

material selection, fabrication, and inspection. For example, poor design can create serious and costly

difficulties in the workshop, on site, or in service. Incorrect material selection can result in welding

problems, such as cracking. Welding procedures have to be correctly formulated and qualified to avoid

imperfections. To ensure the fabrication of a quality product, management should understand the

sources of potential trouble and introduce appropriate quality and inspection procedures. Supervision

should be implemented to ensure that the specified quality is achieved.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
Friction stir welding — Aluminium —
Part 1:
Vocabulary
1 Scope

This part of ISO 25239 defines friction stir welding terms. In this part of ISO 25239, the term “aluminium”

refers to aluminium and its alloys.

NOTE In addition to terms in English and French (two of the three official ISO languages), this part of

ISO 25239 gives the equivalent terms in German; these are published under the responsibility of the member body

for Germany (DIN). However, only the terms and definitions given in the official languages can be considered as

ISO terms and definitions.
2 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
2.1
adjustable tool probe

tool whose probe length, rotation speed, and direction of probe rotation are adjustable, and rotation

and speed of direction may be different from those of the shoulder during welding

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: This tool enables joining to be accomplished without creating excessive toe flash at the start and

exit hole.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 25239-1:2019
ISO/DIS 25239-1:2019(E)
Key
1 shoulder
2 unwelded workpiece
3 probe
4 probe moving downward
5 welded workpiece
6 probe at required position for welding
7 probe moving upw
...

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