This document provides guidance on taking and handling samples related to oil spill identification in legal proceedings. Guidance is given on obtaining samples from both the spill and its potential source.
Preservation of evidence is an essential part of legal procedures and this document presents appropriate oil sampling procedures.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment.
This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and to determine the applicability of any other restrictions for this purpose.
IMPORTANT - Most countries have teams with specialists trained in sampling on board of ships. Do not take unnecessary risks, seek assistance from such teams where available.
NOTE   For the sake of clarity, the word ‘oil’ is used throughout this document. It can equally refer to crude oil, a petroleum product or mixtures of such.

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This document specifies a method to identify and compare the compositional characteristics of oil samples. Specifically, it describes the detailed analytical and data processing methods for identifying the characteristics of spill samples and establishing their correlation to suspected source oils. Even when samples or data from suspected sources are not available for comparison, establishing the specific nature (e.g. refined petroleum, crude oil, waste oil, etc.) of the spilled oil still helps to constrain the possible source(s).
This methodology is restricted to petroleum related products containing a significant proportion of hydrocarbon-components with a boiling point above 150 °C. Examples are: crude oils, higher boiling condensates, diesel oils, residual bunker or heavy fuel oils, lubricants, and mixtures of bilge and sludge samples, as well as distillate fuels and blends. While the specific analytical methods are perhaps not appropriate for lower boiling oils (e.g. kerosene, jet fuel, or gasoline), the general concepts described in this methodology, i.e. statistical comparison of weathering-resistant diagnostic ratios, are applicable in spills involving these kinds of oils.
Paraffin based products (e.g. waxes, etc.) are outside the scope of this method because too many compounds are removed during the production process [37]. However, the method can be used to identify the type of product involved.
Although not directly intended for identifying oil recovered from groundwater, vegetation, wildlife/tissues, soil, or sediment matrices, they are not precluded. However, caution is needed as extractable compounds can be present in these matrices that alter and/or contribute additional compounds compared to the source sample. If unrecognized, the contribution from the matrix can lead to false “non-matches”. It is therefore advisable to analyse background sample(s) of the matrix that appear unoiled.
When analysing “non-oil” matrices additional sample preparation (e.g. clean-up) is often required prior to analysis and the extent to which the matrix affects the correlation achieved is to be considered. Whether the method is applicable for a specific matrix depends upon the oil concentration compared to the “matrix concentration”. In matrices containing high concentrations of oil, a positive match can still be concluded. In matrices containing lower concentrations of oil, a false “non-match” or an “inconclusive match” can result from matrix effects. Evaluation of possible matrix effects is beyond the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a column switching gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of benzene content in the range 0,05 % (V/V) to 6 % (V/V) in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 °C.
The method described in this document is suitable for determining benzene in petrol, including petrol containing oxygenates up to E10 (up to 3,7 % (m/m) oxygen content), in line with the relevant EC Directives [1].
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (V/V)" and "% (m/m)" are used to represent respectively the volume fraction and the mass fraction.
WARNING - Use of this document might involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document defines a gas chromatographic analysis for the determination of the composition of fuel gases, as used in refinery heating gas. These results are used to calculate the carbon content and the lower calorific value.
With this gas chromatographic analysis, an overall of 23 refinery heating gas components are determined in concentrations as typically found in refineries (see Table 1 for further details).
Water is not analysed. The results represent dry gases.
NOTE 1   Depending on the equipment used, there is a possibility to determine higher hydrocarbons as well.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
IMPORTANT — This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to stabilized crude oils and for the boiling range distribution and the recovery up to and including n-nonane. A stabilized crude oil is defined as having a Reid Vapour Pressure equivalent to or less than 82,7 kPa as determined by IP 481 [3].
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, ω, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING —The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel. Additionally, the benzene and toluene content, oxygenated compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the terms % (m/m) and % (V/V) are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with total aromatics of 19,32 % (V/V) up to 46,29 % (V/V); total olefins from 0,40 % (V/V) up to 26,85 % (V/V); oxygenates from 0,61 % (V/V) up to 9,85 % (V/V); oxygen content from 1,50 % (m/m) to 12,32 % (m/m); benzene content from 0,38 % (V/V) up to 1,98 % (V/V) and toluene content from 5,85 % (V/V) up to 31,65 % (V/V).
The method has also been tested for individual oxygenates. A precision has been determined for a total volume of methanol from 1,05 % (V/V) up to 16,96 % (V/V); a total volume of ethanol from 0,50 % (V/V) up to 17,86 % (V/V); a total volume of MTBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,70 % (V/V), a total volume of ETBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,49 % (V/V), a total volume of TAME from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 5,92 % (V/V), and a total volume of TAEE from 0,98 % (V/V) up to 15,59 % (V/V).
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from 0,40 % (V/V) to 26,85 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, this test method can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.
NOTE 2   For Procedure A, applicability of this document has also been verified for the determination of n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these compounds.
Procedure B describes the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 – C5 alcohols) in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V). The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V) before the analysis by GC.
The sample can be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample are only available for the oxygenated groups.
NOTE 3   For Procedure B, the precision can be used for an ethanol fraction from about 50 % up to 85 % (V/V). For the ether fraction, the precision as specified in Table 6 can be used for samples containing at least 11 % (V/V) of ethers. For the higher alcohol fraction, too few data were obtained to derive a full precision statement and the data presented in Table 6 are therefore only indicative.
NOTE 4   An overlap between C9 and C10 aromatics can occur. However, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

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This document describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to crude oils. The boiling range distribution and recovery to C100 or C120 can be determined.
Two procedures are described: single and dual analysis mode. The basis of each is the calculation procedure as described in Annex A.
Procedure A (or Single analysis mode) determines the boiling range through C100 or C120 in a single analysis.
Procedure B (or Dual analysis mode) combines procedure A with the boiling point distribution from C1 up to C9 using the Detailed Hydrocarbon Analysis (DHA) according EN 15199-4. The results of both analyses are merged into one boiling point distribution.
NOTE 1 There is no specific precision statement for the combined results obtained by procedure B. For the precision of the boiling range distribution according to procedure B the precision statements of procedure A and EN 15199-4 apply. No precision has been determined for the results after merging.
NOTE 2 For the purpose of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, μ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
WARNING - Use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to distillates with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, for example, middle distillates and lubricating base stocks.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphtha’s, reformates, gasolines) or middle distillates like Diesel and Jet fuel.
Petroleum or petroleum products containing blending components which contain heteroatoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analysed by this test method.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature, and which have a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) above 750 °C, for example, heavy distillate fuels and residuals. The method is not applicable to bituminous samples.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines) or middle distillates like Diesel and Jet fuel.
Petroleum or petroleum products containing blending components, which contain hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue, are not to be analysed by this test method.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this document. This document does not apply to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature.
The document describes two procedures.
a)   Procedure A allows a larger selection of columns and analysis conditions, such as packed and capillary columns as well as a thermal conductivity detector in addition to the flame ionization detector. Analysis times range from 14 min to 60 min.
b)   Procedure B is restricted to only three capillary columns and requires no sample dilution. The analysis time is reduced to about 8 min.
Both procedures have been successfully applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 20 % (volume fraction).
NOTE    For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (mass fraction)" and "% (volume fraction)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ), the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination, in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 °C, of individual organic oxygenate compounds in the range 0,17 % (m/m) to 15 % (m/m) in a direct analysis (without dilution), and total organically bound oxygen up to 3,9 % (m/m).
For samples for which one of the oxygenate compounds content is higher than 15 % (m/m), a procedure with a dilution of the sample before the analysis is given.
NOTE 1   The conversion from percent mass to percent volume is done using the calculation mentioned in 8.3 and 9.5.3.
NOTE 2   Precision data are not available for an oxygenate compound content higher than 15 % (m/m); see Introduction.
NOTE 3   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, respectively the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this European Standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of methanol in automotive ethanol (E85) fuel by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. Fuel quality specifications for this product exist, see Bibliography Entry [1].
The measurement range for the methanol is from about 0,5 % (V/V) to about 1,5 % (V/V). Other methanol contents can also be determined, however no precision data for results outside the specified range is available.
NOTE    For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a determination method of methanol in automotive ethanol (E85) fuel by capillary gas chromatography using heart cutting technique and flame ionization detection. Fuel quality specifications for this product exist, see Bibliography Entry [1].
This standard is applicable to fuels having a methanol content from about 0,5 % (V/V) to about 1,5 % (V/V). Other methanol contents can also be determined, however no precision data for results outside the specified range is available.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a determination method of high boiling components in petrol according to EN 228 [1] and ethanol automotive fuels according to CEN/TS 15293 [2] by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. This method is applicable to high boiling material, such as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) or diesel fuel, having a boiling point greater than or equal to 1-methyl-naphthalene.
The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. This method pays special attention to fatty acid methyl esters.
In petrol the measurement range for the high boiling fraction is from about 0,7 % (m/m) to about 2,5 % (m/m). For the FAME fraction the range is from about 0,2 % (m/m) to about 2 % (m/m).
In ethanol automotive fuel the measurement range is from about 0,2 % (m/m) to about 2,2 % (m/m), for the FAME fraction the range is from about 0,05 % (m/m) to about 1,5 % (m/m)
NOTE 1   When calculating the FAME fraction, this method only takes the C18-isomers into account.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING -The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This Technical Report presents the study on the application of EN 14517 [2] to other oxygenates. This report supports an extension of the scope of the method, which has been explicitly requested by ISO/TC 28 at the time of revision of EN 14517 and was agreed to result in the parallel Standard EN ISO 22854 [3].
This Technical Report is published as background information to judge the approval of the use of the method for the determination of all oxygenates as mentioned in the European Fuels Directive. This Technical Report should also support the use of multidimensional chromatography as the method for disputes on oxygenates in EN 228 [1].
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for ethanol, in which higher alcohols (propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, butan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol (isobutanol), 2 methylbutan 1 ol, and 3 methylbutan 1 ol) from 0,1 % up to 2,5 % (m/m), methanol from 0,1 % up to 3 % (m/m) and other impurities, in the range from 0,1 % up to 2 % (m/m) are determined.
Impurities are all the compounds not attributed to the groups of higher alcohols or methanol.
Due to possible interferences, the method is not applicable to denatured ethanol samples.
Water, if present in the sample, is not included in this analysis, because a signal for water is not visible in the chromatogram. Therefore, if "alcohol content" is called up in a specification, water needs to be considered separately in the calculations.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term “% (m/m)” is used to represent the mass fraction (ω).

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This European Standard specifies a procedure for the determination of the content of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in extender oils which are commonly used in the rubber industry for the production of tyres or parts of tyres. The method also yields the sum of the eight individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed in Table 1.
The procedure has been tested and verified for the PAHs listed in Table 1 (those required by the European Commission [1]) and additional PAHs as listed in Table A.2.
Analysis of other PAHs is possible in principle, but sufficient quality assurance performed by the user is necessary to secure the analysis.
The application range for this method is from approximately 4 mg/kg to approximately 15 mg/kg for the eight individual PAHs and from approximately 0,5 mg/kg to approximately 2 mg/kg for BaP.
NOTE 1   The intended working range for this method is in the 0,1 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg range. For the lower levels precision has not yet been established.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction (...).
(...)

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This document specifies a method of test for the determination of polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) and polychlorinated benzyl toluenes (PCBT) in petroleum products and related materials by means of a specified gas chromatographic separation procedure. Following the gas chromatographic separation, quantification procedures are described for PCT Aroclor 5442, PCT Aroclor 5460 and PCBT (Ugilec 141).
This document is applicable to unused, used and treated (e.g. dechlorinated) petroleum products including synthetic lubricating oils, to petroleum products and synthetic lubricating oils suitably recovered from other materials (e.g. from waste materials) and to mixtures of vegetable oils.
NOTE 1   This document has been developed as an extension of EN 12766 Parts 1 and 2 to provide a method of determining the total PCB content in accordance with Articles 2, 3 and 4 of EC Directive 96/59/EC [1]. The total PCB content is calculated by summation of PCB content, determined according to EN 12766-2, and PCTs and PCBTs according to this document.
The three classes of materials measured in this standard can be quantified if they occur at concentrations greater than given in Table 1.
Table 1 - Concentrations for quantification
Class of material   Minimumconcentration   Method applied
PCB, polychlorinated biphenyls   8 mg / kg   (EN 12766-2 - Method A)
   4 mg / kg   (EN 12766-2 - Method B)
PCT   10 mg / kg   (EN 12766-3)
PCBT   5 mg / kg   (EN 12766-3)
Total PCB and related products a   25 mg / kg   (EN 12766-2 and EN 12766-3)
a This value is only a best estimate. Real field conditions may, depending on the concentrations in the three different classes, result in other, more limited or more improved application ranges. It is the user's responsibility to demonstrate that the analysis has been performed in a valid calibrated concentration range.

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Updated precision data for benzene levels around 1% and below, as given in the Report of WG 9, doc. N 1108.

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This standard specifies two calculation procedures ("method A" and "method B") for PCB content. The basis for this quantification is taken from the chromatographic results of EN 12766-1:2000 in which all necessary experimental procedures are described for the specific analysis of unused, used and treated (e.g. dechlorinated) petroleum products including synthetic lubricating oils and mixtures of vegetable oils. The method is also applicable to petroleum products and synthetic lubricating oils suitably recovered from other materials, e.g. from waste materials. Both methods have different strengths and weaknesses which are described in the next paragraphs and which must be considered before use in a specific application. Proper application of either method A or method B needs to be carefully considered before use in a specific application.
Using method A, special care needs to be exercised to avoid interferences from non PCB substances which may occur in the chromatogram. Therefore, method A can be used predominantly for the analysis of used and unused insulating oils. It is recommended not to use calculation method A without special precautions for other than above-mentioned products. Calculation method A can produce two alternative sets of results, ("All Probables" and "All Possibles"). Therefore, care needs to  be taken in order to interpret these results in the correct manner.
Method B uses as intermediate result the sum of six congeners, which belong to the most abundant in almost all technical PCB materials, thereby minimizing potential interferences from other (coeluting) non PCB substances. To obtain the PCB content, the intermediate sum from six congeners needs to be multiplied by a multiplication factor. Calculation Method B can be used predominantly for the analysis of liquids from used and waste materials of unknown origin and for samples with low PCB contents.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method using column switching for the quantitative determination of individual organic oxygenate compounds in the range  0,17 % (m/m) to 15 % (m/m) and total organically bound oxygen up 3,7 % (m/m) in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220° C. NOTE 1: The final boiling point can be measured by using prEN ISO 3405:1998. NOTE 2: For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies a method to determine the concentration of up to 12 individual or defined unresolved small groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in petroleum products and related materials by means of a specified gaschromatographic separation procedure. The gas chromatographic separation is valid for the different quantification procedures described in Part 2 of this European Standard.

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This document specifies a method to identify and compare the compositional characteristics of oil samples. Specifically, it describes the detailed analytical and data processing methods for identifying the characteristics of spill samples and establishing their correlation to suspected source oils. Even when samples or data from suspected sources are not available for comparison, establishing the specific nature (e.g. refined petroleum, crude oil, waste oil, etc.) of the spilled oil still helps to constrain the possible source(s).
This methodology is restricted to petroleum related products containing a significant proportion of hydrocarbon-components with a boiling point above 150 °C. Examples are: crude oils, higher boiling condensates, diesel oils, residual bunker or heavy fuel oils, lubricants, and mixtures of bilge and sludge samples, as well as distillate fuels and blends. While the specific analytical methods are perhaps not appropriate for lower boiling oils (e.g. kerosene, jet fuel, or gasoline), the general concepts described in this methodology, i.e. statistical comparison of weathering-resistant diagnostic ratios, are applicable in spills involving these kinds of oils.
Paraffin based products (e.g. waxes, etc.) are outside the scope of this method because too many compounds are removed during the production process [37]. However, the method can be used to identify the type of product involved.
Although not directly intended for identifying oil recovered from groundwater, vegetation, wildlife/tissues, soil, or sediment matrices, they are not precluded. However, caution is needed as extractable compounds can be present in these matrices that alter and/or contribute additional compounds compared to the source sample. If unrecognized, the contribution from the matrix can lead to false “non-matches”. It is therefore advisable to analyse background sample(s) of the matrix that appear unoiled.
When analysing “non-oil” matrices additional sample preparation (e.g. clean-up) is often required prior to analysis and the extent to which the matrix affects the correlation achieved is to be considered. Whether the method is applicable for a specific matrix depends upon the oil concentration compared to the “matrix concentration”. In matrices containing high concentrations of oil, a positive match can still be concluded. In matrices containing lower concentrations of oil, a false “non-match” or an “inconclusive match” can result from matrix effects. Evaluation of possible matrix effects is beyond the scope of this document.

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This test method is a standard procedure for the determination of saturates, olefins, aromatics and oxygenates in unleaded petrol using gas chromatography and vacuum ultraviolet detection (GC-VUV).
Concentrations of compound classes and certain individual compounds are determined by mass fraction % (m/m) or volume fraction % (V/V). The concentration ranges for which precision has been determined are as given in Table 1.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction, respectively.
The method is found to be applicable to other oxygenates including isopropanol, iso-butanol, tert-butanol, n-propanol, acetone, tert-pentanol and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE), however precision has not been determined.
Table 1 — Ranges of method applicability
Property   Units   Applicable range
Saturates   % (V/V)   21,48 to 80,87
Olefins   % (V/V)   0,22 to 41,90
Aromatics   % (V/V)   2,35 to 64,55
Benzene   % (V/V)   0,20 to 2,54
Toluene   % (V/V)   0,87 to 30,97
Ethylbenzene   % (V/V)   0,20 to 3,45
Xylenes   % (V/V)   0,49 to 18,59
Methanol   % (V/V)   0,07 to 15,30
Ethanol   % (V/V)   0,08 to 24,96
MTBE   % (V/V)   0,22 to 22,21
ETBE   % (V/V)   0,13 to 23,44
TAME   % (V/V)   0,24 to 21,96
TAEE   % (V/V)   0,24 to 8,60
Oxygen   % (m/m)   0,52 to 12,19
Individual hydrocarbon components are typically not baseline-separated by the procedure described in this test method. The coelutions are resolved at the detector using VUV absorbance spectra (Annex A) and deconvolution algorithms.
While this test method reports by mass fraction % (m/m) or volume fraction % (V/V) for several specific components that can be present in unleaded petrol, it does not attempt to speciate all possible components that can occur in unleaded petrol. In particular, this test method is not intended as a type of detailed hydrocarbon analysis (DHA).
This test method has been tested for unleaded petrol according EN 228 [1]; the method can apply to petrol blending streams but has not been extensively tested for such applications.
WARNING — The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of n-butyl phenyl ether (BPE, also known as butoxy-benzene) in gas oils, kerosene, diesel fuel and biodiesel blends. The method uses a two-column gas chromatograph with an FID-type of detector. The application range is 0,1 mg/l to 21,25 mg/l of BPE, with a limit of detection of 0,05 mg/l.
NOTE   This corresponds to 1 % to 150 % of the average marking level of the ACCUTRACE™ Plus required by Commission Implementing Decision (EU) 2022/197 [1] of 17 January 2022 establishing a common fiscal marker for gas oils and kerosene.
The method is found to be applicable to determinations beyond this range or for specific other chemical markers that fall within the distillation temperature range of middle-distillates, but for that no precision has been determined.
WARNING —The use of this document may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this document to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document specifies two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so. The measurement ranges that apply to this method are given in Table 2 and Table 3.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel. Additionally, the benzene and toluene content, oxygenated compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the terms % (m/m) and % (V/V) are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with total aromatics of 19,32 % (V/V) up to 46,29 % (V/V); total olefins from 0,40 % (V/V) up to 26,85 % (V/V); oxygenates from 0,61 % (V/V) up to 9,85 % (V/V); oxygen content from 1,50 % (m/m) to 12,32 % (m/m); benzene content from 0,38 % (V/V) up to 1,98 % (V/V) and toluene content from 5,85 % (V/V) up to 31,65 % (V/V).
The method has also been tested for individual oxygenates. A precision has been determined for a total volume of methanol from 1,05 % (V/V) up to 16,96 % (V/V); a total volume of ethanol from 0,50 % (V/V) up to 17,86 % (V/V); a total volume of MTBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,70 % (V/V), a total volume of ETBE from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 15,49 % (V/V), a total volume of TAME from 0,99 % (V/V) up to 5,92 % (V/V), and a total volume of TAEE from 0,98 % (V/V) up to 15,59 % (V/V).
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from 0,40 % (V/V) to 26,85 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, this test method can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.
NOTE 2   For Procedure A, applicability of this document has also been verified for the determination of n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these compounds.
Procedure B describes the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 – C5 alcohols) in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V). The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V) before the analysis by GC.
The sample can be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample are only available for the oxygenated groups.
NOTE 3   For Procedure B, the precision can be used for an ethanol fraction from about 50 % up to 85 % (V/V). For the ether fraction, the precision as specified in Table 6 can be used for samples containing at least 11 % (V/V) of ethers. For the higher alcohol fraction, too few data were obtained to derive a full precision statement and the data presented in Table 6 are therefore only indicative.
NOTE 4   An overlap between C9 and C10 aromatics can occur. However, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a column switching gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of benzene content in the range 0,05% (V/V) to 6% (V/V) in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220°C.  The method described in this standard is suitable for determining benzene in petrol, including petrol containing oxygenates, in line with the relevant EC Directives. Warning: The use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This draft European Standard defines a gas chromatographic analysis for the determination of the composition of fuel gases, as used in refinery heating gas. These results are used to calculate the carbon content and the lower calorific value.
With this gas chromatographic analysis, an overall of 23 refinery heating gas components are determined in concentrations as typically found in refineries (see Table 1 for further details).
Water is not analyzed. The results represent dry gases.
NOTE 1   Depending on the equipment used, there is a possibility to determine higher hydrocarbons as well.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this draft European Standard, the terms "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
IMPORTANT - This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.

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This European Standard describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionization detection. The standard is applicable to stabilized crude oils and for the boiling range distribution and the recovery up to and including n-nonane. A stabilized crude oil is defined as having a Reid Vapour Pressure equivalent to or less than 82,7 kPa as determined by IP 481 [3].
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, ω, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING —The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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ISO 22854:2016 specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and ethanol (E85) automotive fuel. Additionally, the benzene content, oxygenate compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the terms % (m/m) and % (V/V) are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
ISO 22854:2016 defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with total aromatics of up to 50 % (V/V); total olefins from about 1,5 % (V/V) up to 30 % (V/V); oxygenates from 0,8 % (V/V) up to 15 % (V/V); total oxygen from about 1,5 % (m/m) to about 3,7 % (m/m); and benzene of up to 2 % (V/V). The system can be used for ethers with 5 or more C atoms up to 22 % (V/V) but the precision has not been established up to this level.
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from about 1,5 % (V/V) to about 30 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, this test method can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.
NOTE 2 For Procedure A, precision data have been established for the oxygenate compounds in automotive motor gasoline samples containing ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl-methyl ether (TAME), iso-propanol, iso-butanol, tert-butanol, methanol and ethanol. The derived precision data for methanol do not comply with the precision calculation as presented in this International Standard. Applicability of this International Standard has also been verified for the determination of n-propanol, acetone, and di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). However, no precision data have been determined for these compounds.
Procedure B describes the procedure for the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 ? C5 alcohols) in ethanol (E85) automotive fuel containing ethanol between 50 % (V/V) and 85 % (V/V). The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V) before the analysis by GC. If the ethanol content is unknown, it is advisable to use a dilution of 4:1 when analysing the sample.
The sample can be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample are only available for the oxygenated groups.
NOTE 3 For Procedure B, the precision can be used for an ethanol fraction from about 50 % (V/V) up to 85 % (V/V). For the ether fraction, the precision as specified in Table 6 can be used for samples containing at least 11 % (V/V) of ethers. For the higher alcohol fraction, too few data were obtained to derive a full precision statement and the data presented in Table 6 are therefore only indicative.
NOTE 4 While developing this test method, the final boiling point was limited to 215 °C.
NOTE 5 An overlap between C9 and C10 aromatics can occur. However, the total is accurate. Isopropyl benzene is resolved from the C8 aromatics and is included with the other C9 aromatics.

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This European Standard describes a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to crude oils. The boiling range distribution and recovery to C100 or C120 can be determined.
Two procedures are described: single and dual analysis mode. The basis of each is the calculation procedure as described in Annex A.
NOTE 1   This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING : Use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature, and which have a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) above 750 °C, for example, heavy distillate fuels and residuals. The method is not applicable to bituminous samples.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines, diesel). Components containing hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analyzed by this test method.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to distillates with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, for example, middle distillates and lubricating base stocks.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines, diesel). Components containing hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analyzed by this test method.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING — The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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ISO 3924:2016 specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this International Standard. This International Standard is not applicable to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature.
The method has successfully been applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 10 % (V/V).

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, may do so.
The precision statement of the test method has been established for diesel fuels with and without FAME blending components, with a mono-aromatic content in the range from 6 % (m/m) to 30 % (m/m), a di-aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 10 % (m/m), a tri+-aromatic content from 0 % (m/m) to 2 % (m/m), a polycyclic aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 12 % (m/m), and a total aromatic content from 7 % (m/m) to 42 % (m/m).
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction and the volume fraction of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
WARNING - The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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CCMC origin: line missing in Table 1 (corrigendum issued for the English and German versions, no French version available)

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination, in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 °C, of individual organic oxygenate compounds in the range 0,17 % (m/m) to 15 % (m/m) in a direct analysis (without dilution), and total organically bound oxygen up to 3,9 % (m/m).
For samples for which one of the oxygenate compounds content is higher than 15 % (m/m), a procedure with a dilution of the sample before the analysis is given.
NOTE 1   Precision data are not available for an oxygenate compound content higher than 15 % (m/m).
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ.
WARNING  The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this European Standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard defines a chromatographic analysis for the determination of the composition of fuel gases, as used in refineries refining heating gas. These results are used to calculate the carbon content and lower caloric value. With this gas chromatographic analysis, an overall of 23 components are determined in concentrations as typically found in refineries.
Water is not analysed. The results represent dry fuel gas.
NOTE 1   Depending on the equipment used, there is a possibility to determine higher hydrocarbons as well.
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ).
IMPORTANT - This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations.

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ISO 3924:2010 specifies a method for the determination of the boiling-range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this International Standard. ISO 3924:2010 is not applicable to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature.
ISO 3924:2010 has successfully been applied to samples containing biodiesel up to 10 %.

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ISO 22854:2014 specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline and automotive ethanol fuel (E85). Additionally, the benzene content, oxygenate compounds and the total oxygen content can be determined.
This International Standard defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with a total volume fraction of aromatics of up to 50 %; a total volume fraction of olefins from about 1,5 % up to 30 %; a volume fraction of oxygenates, from 0,8 % up to 15 %; a total mass fraction of oxygen from about 1,5 % to about 3,7 %; and a volume fraction of benzene of up to 2 %. The system may be used for a volume fraction of ethers with 5 or more C atoms up to 22 % but the precision has not been established up to this level
Although this test method may be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % (V/V), the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from about 1,5 % (V/V) to about 30 % (V/V).
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, this test method may also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.
Procedure B describes the procedure for the analysis of oxygenated groups (ethanol, methanol, ethers, C3 ? C5 alcohols) in (automotive) ethanol fuels containing an ethanol volume fraction between 50 % and 85 %. The gasoline is diluted with an oxygenate-free component to lower the ethanol content to a value below 20 % (V/V) before the analysis by GC. If the ethanol content is known, the dilution factor can be established accordingly. If it is unknown, it is advised to use a dilution of 4:1 when analysing the sample.
The sample may be fully analysed including hydrocarbons. Precision data for the diluted sample is only available for the oxygenated groups.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 5 % (V/V) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen may interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and polyalkenes, if present, may do so.
The precision statement of the test method has been established for diesel fuels with and without FAME blending components, with a mono-aromatic content in the range from 6 % (m/m) to 30 % (m/m), a di-aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 10 % (m/m), a tri+-aromatic content from 0 % (m/m) to 2 % (m/m), a polycyclic aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 12 % (m/m), and a total aromatic content from 7 % (m/m) to 42 % (m/m).
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, and  the volume fraction of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
WARNING — The use of this standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated wit

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This European Standard specifies a determination method of high boiling components in petrol according to EN 228 [1] by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. This method is applicable to high boiling material, such as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) or diesel fuel, having a boiling point greater than or equal to 1-methyl-naphthalene.
This European Standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. This method pays special attention to fatty acid methyl esters.
The measurement range for the high boiling fraction is from 0,7 % (m/m) to 2,5 % (m/m). For the FAME fraction, the range is from 0,2 % (m/m) to 2 % (m/m).
NOTE 1   When calculating the FAME fraction, this method only takes the C18-isomers into account
NOTE 2   For the purposes of this standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ) and the volume fraction (µ) of a material respectively.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This Technical Report presents the study on the application of EN 14517 to other oxygenates. This report supports an extension of the scope of the method, which has been explicitly requested by ISO/TC 28 at the time of revision of EN 14517 and was agreed to result in the parallel Standard EN ISO 22854.
This report is published as background information to judge the approval of the use of the method for the determination of all oxygenates as mentioned in the European Fuels Directive. Next, this report should support the use of multidimensional chromatography as the method for disputes on oxygenates in EN 228.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction.

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This European Standard specifies a gas chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of individual organic oxygenate compounds in the range 0,17 % (m/m) to 15 % (m/m) and total oxygen up to 3,7 % (m/m) in unleaded petrol having a final boiling point not greater than 220 oC. This European Standard is applicable to the determination of oxygen containing compounds and total oxygen in unleaded petrol in line with the relevant EU Directive 1). 1) EU Directive 85/536/EEC, Council Directive on crude-oil savings through the use of substitute fuel components in petrol.

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ISO 22854:2008 specifies the gas chromatographic (GC) method for the determination of saturated, olefinic and aromatic hydrocarbons in automotive motor gasoline. Additionally, the benzene content, oxygenate compounds and the total oxygenate content can be determined.
ISO 22854:2008 is applicable to automotive motor gasoline with a total volume fraction of aromatics of up to 50 %; a total volume fraction of olefins from about 1,5 % up to 30 %; a volume fraction of oxygenates, from 0,8 % up to 15 %; a total mass fraction of oxygen from about 1,5 % to about 3 %; and a volume fraction of benzene of up to 2 %.
Although this test method can be used to determine higher-olefin contents of up to 50 % volume fraction, the precision for olefins was tested only in the range from about 1,5 % volume fraction to about 30 % volume fraction.
Although specifically developed for the analysis of automotive motor gasoline that contains oxygenates, ISO 22854:2008 can also be applied to other hydrocarbon streams having similar boiling ranges, such as naphthas and reformates.

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