ISO 7345:2018 defines physical quantities used in the thermal performance of buildings and building elements, and gives the corresponding symbols and units.
NOTE Because the scope of this document is restricted to thermal performance and energy use in the built environment, some of the definitions it contains differ from those given ISO 80000-5.

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ISO 12569:2017 establishes methods to obtain the ventilation rate or specific airflow rate in a building space (which is considered to be a single zone) using a tracer gas.
The measurement methods apply for spaces where the combined conditions concerning the uniformity of tracer gas concentration, measurement of the exhaust gas concentration, effective mixed zone and/or fluctuation of ventilation are satisfied.
ISO 12569:2017 provides three measurement methods using a tracer gas: concentration decay method, continuous dose method, and constant concentration method.
NOTE Specific measurement conditions are given in Table 1.

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ISO/TR 52018-2:2017 refers to ISO 52018‑1.
ISO 52018‑1 gives a succinct enumeration of possible requirements related to thermal energy balance features and to fabric features. It also provides tables for regulators to report their choices in a uniform manner. ISO/TR 52018-2:2017 provides many background considerations that can help both private actors and public authorities, and all stakeholders involved, to take informed decisions.
ISO/TR 52018-2:2017 does not contain any normative provision.

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ISO/TR 52019-2:2017 contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 6946, ISO 10211, ISO 13370, ISO 13786, ISO 13789 and ISO 14683.
ISO/TR 52019-2:2017 does not contain any normative provision.

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ISO 52022-3:2017 specifies a detailed method, based on spectral data of the transmittance and reflectance of the constituent materials (solar protection devices and the glazing), to determine the total solar energy transmittance, the total light transmittance and other relevant solar-optical data of the combination. If spectral data are not available, the methodology can be adapted to use integrated data.

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ISO 12631:2017 specifies a method for calculating the thermal transmittance of curtain walls consisting of glazed and/or opaque panels fitted in, or connected to, frames.
The calculation includes:
- different types of glazing, e.g. glass or plastic; single or multiple glazing; with or without low emissivity coating; with cavities filled with air or other gases;
- frames (of any material) with or without thermal breaks;
- different types of opaque panels clad with metal, glass, ceramics or any other material.
Thermal bridge effects at the rebate or connection between the glazed area, the frame area and the panel area are included in the calculation.
The calculation does not include:
- effects of solar radiation;
- heat transfer caused by air leakage;
- calculation of condensation;
- effect of shutters;
- additional heat transfer at the corners and edges of the curtain walling;
- connections to the main building structure nor through fixing lugs;
- curtain wall systems with integrated heating.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 12631:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 10211:2017 sets out the specifications for a three-dimensional and a two-dimensional geometrical model of a thermal bridge for the numerical calculation of
- heat flows, in order to assess the overall heat loss from a building or part of it, and
- minimum surface temperatures, in order to assess the risk of surface condensation.
These specifications include the geometrical boundaries and subdivisions of the model, the thermal boundary conditions, and the thermal values and relationships to be used.
ISO 10211:2017 is based upon the following assumptions:
- all physical properties are independent of temperature;
- there are no heat sources within the building element.
ISO 10211:2017 can also be used for the derivation of linear and point thermal transmittances and of surface temperature factors.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 10211:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 13370:2017 provides methods of calculation of heat transfer coefficients and heat flow rates for building elements in thermal contact with the ground, including slab‐on‐ground floors, suspended floors and basements. It applies to building elements, or parts of them, below a horizontal plane in the bounding walls of the building situated
- at the level of the inside floor surface, for slab‐on‐ground floors, suspended floors and unheated basements;
NOTE 1 In some cases, external dimension systems define the boundary at the lower surface of the floor slab.
- at the level of the external ground surface, for heated basements.
ISO 13370:2017 includes calculation of the steady‐state part of the heat transfer (the annual average rate of heat flow) and the part due to annual periodic variations in temperature (the seasonal variations of the heat flow rate about the annual average). These seasonal variations are obtained on a monthly basis and, except for the application to dynamic simulation programmes in Annex D, ISO 13370:2017 does not apply to shorter periods of time.
NOTE 2 Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 13370:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO/TR 52010-2:2017 contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 52010‑1.
ISO/TR 52010-2:2017 does not contain any normative provision.

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ISO 6946:2017 provides the method of calculation of the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance of building components and building elements, excluding doors, windows and other glazed units, curtain walling, components which involve heat transfer to the ground, and components through which air is designed to permeate.
The calculation method is based on the appropriate design thermal conductivities or design thermal resistances of the materials and products for the application concerned.
The method applies to components and elements consisting of thermally homogeneous layers (which can include air layers).
ISO 6946:2017 also provides an approximate method that can be used for elements containing inhomogeneous layers, including the effect of metal fasteners, by means of a correction term given in Annex F. Other cases where insulation is bridged by metal are outside the scope of ISO 6946:2017.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 6946:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000‑1.

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ISO 52016-1:2017 specifies calculation methods for the assessment of:
a) the (sensible) energy need for heating and cooling, based on hourly or monthly calculations;
b) the latent energy need for (de-)humidification, based on hourly or monthly calculations;
c) the internal temperature, based on hourly calculations;
d) the sensible heating and cooling load, based on hourly calculations;
e) the moisture and latent heat load for (de-)humidification, based on hourly calculations;
f) the design sensible heating or cooling load and design latent heat load using an hourly calculation interval;
g) the conditions of the supply air to provide the necessary humidification and dehumidification.
The calculation methods can be used for residential or non-residential buildings, or a part of it, referred to as "the building" or the "assessed object".
ISO 52016-1:2017 also contains specifications for the assessment of thermal zones in the building or in the part of a building. The calculations are performed per thermal zone. In the calculations, the thermal zones can be assumed to be thermally coupled or not.
The calculation methods have been developed for the calculation of the basic energy loads and needs, without interaction with specific technical building systems, and for the calculation of the system specific energy loads and needs, including the interaction with specific systems. The hourly calculation procedures can also be used as basis for calculations with more extensive system control options.
ISO 52016-1:2017 is applicable to buildings at the design stage, to new buildings after construction and to existing buildings in the use phase.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 52016-1:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 14683:2007 deals with simplified methods for determining heat flows through linear thermal bridges which occur at junctions of building elements.
ISO 14683:2007 specifies requirements relating to thermal bridge catalogues and manual calculation methods.
Default values of linear thermal transmittance are given in Annex A for information.

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ISO 52022-1:2017 specifies a simplified method based on thermal, solar and light characteristics of the glazing and solar and light characteristics of the solar protection device, to estimate the total solar energy transmittance, direct energy transmittance and the light transmittance of a solar protection device combined to a glazing.

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ISO 13786:2017 specifies the characteristics related to the dynamic thermal behaviour of a complete building component and provides methods for their calculation. It also specifies the information on building materials required for the use of the building component. Since the characteristics depend on the way materials are combined to form building components, ISO 13786:2017 is not applicable to building materials or to unfinished building components.
The definitions given in ISO 13786:2017 are applicable to any building component. A simplified calculation method is provided for plane components consisting of plane layers of substantially homogeneous building materials.
Annex C provides simpler methods for the estimation of the heat capacities in some limited cases. These methods are suitable for the determination of dynamic thermal properties required for the estimation of energy consumption. These approximations are not appropriate, however, for product characterization.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 13786:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 52010-1:2017 specifies a calculation procedure for the conversion of climatic data for energy calculations.
The main element in ISO 52010-1:2017 is the calculation of solar irradiance on a surface with arbitrary orientation and tilt. A simple method for conversion of solar irradiance to illuminance is also provided.
The solar irradiance and illuminance on an arbitrary surface are applicable as input for energy and daylighting calculations, for building elements (such as roofs, facades and windows) and for components of technical building systems (such as thermal solar collectors, PV panels).
Other parameters of climatic data needed to assess the thermal and moisture performance of buildings, building elements or technical building systems [like wind, temperature, moisture and long-wave (thermal) radiation] are to be obtained according to the procedures in ISO 15927‑4. These data are listed in ISO 52010-1:2017 as input and passed on as output without any conversion.
NOTE 1 The reason for passing these data via ISO 52010-1:2017 is to have one single and consistent source for all EPB standards and to enable any conversion or other treatment if needed for specific application.
NOTE 2 Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 52010-1:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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The set of EPB assessment standards produces a great number of overall and partial EPB indicators as outputs, which can be used for different purposes. ISO 52018-1:2017 deals with the use as requirement of partial EPB indicators related to the fabric and related to the thermal balance of the building. Thermal balance aspects concern both the heating and cooling needs and the free floating temperatures, especially with respect to overheating or too cold indoor temperatures. ISO 52018-1:2017 can support both private parties and public regulators (and all stakeholders involved in the regulatory process) with the "post-processing" of these outputs.
ISO 52018-1:2017 provides standardized tables for reporting, in a structured and transparent manner, the choices that are to be made with respect to the partial EPB requirements covered by ISO 52018-1:2017. The tables are non-restrictive, thus allowing for full regulatory flexibility.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 52018-1:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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The set of EPB assessment standards produces a great number of overall and partial EPB indicators as outputs. ISO 52003-1:2017 provides general insight to both private parties and public regulators (and all stakeholders involved in the regulatory process) on how to make good use of these outputs for different purposes (post-processing).
ISO 52003-1:2017 describes the relation between the EPB indicators and the EPB requirements and EPB ratings, and it discusses the importance of project-specific, tailored values as requirement or reference for certain EPB indicators. ISO 52003-1:2017 also includes a couple of possible EPB labels and it lists the different steps to be taken when establishing an EPB certification scheme.
ISO 52003-1:2017 provides standardized tables for reporting in a structured and transparent manner the choices that are to be made with respect to overall EPB requirements. The tables are non-restrictive, thus allowing for full regulatory flexibility. ISO 52003-1:2017 does not provide such tables for partial EPB requirements (related to the fabric or technical buildings systems), as this is dealt with in other documents.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 52003-1:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO/TR 52016-2:2017 contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 52016‑1 and ISO 52017‑1.
These documents give calculation methods for the assessment of:
- the (sensible and latent) energy load and need for heating and cooling, based on hourly calculations;
- the (sensible and latent) energy need for heating and cooling, based on monthly calculations (ISO 52016‑1);
- the internal temperature, based on hourly calculations; and
- the design (sensible and latent) heating and cooling load, based on hourly calculations.
ISO/TR 52016-2:2017 does not contain any normative provisions.
NOTE A description of the rationale behind the reorganization of the cluster of strongly related and partly overlapping ISO and CEN standards is given in Annex H.

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ISO 13789:2017 specifies a method and provides conventions for the calculation of the steady‐state transmission and ventilation heat transfer coefficients of whole buildings and parts of buildings. It is applicable both to heat loss (internal temperature higher than external temperature) and to heat gain (internal temperature lower than external temperature). For the purpose of ISO 13789:2017, the heated or cooled space is assumed to be at uniform temperature.
Annex C provides a steady‐state method to calculate the temperature in unconditioned spaces adjacent to conditioned spaces.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 13789:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 10077-1:2017 specifies methods for the calculation of the thermal transmittance of windows and pedestrian doors consisting of glazed and/or opaque panels fitted in a frame, with and without shutters.

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ISO 10077-2:2017 specifies a method and gives reference input data for the calculation of the thermal transmittance of frame profiles and of the linear thermal transmittance of their junction with glazing or opaque panels.
The method can also be used to evaluate the thermal resistance of shutter profiles and the thermal characteristics of roller shutter boxes and similar components (e.g. blinds).
ISO 10077-2:2017 also gives criteria for the validation of numerical methods used for the calculation.
ISO 10077-2:2017 does not include effects of solar radiation, heat transfer caused by air leakage or three-dimensional heat transfer such as pinpoint metallic connections. Thermal bridge effects between the frame and the building structure are not included.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 10077-2:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO/TR 52003-2:2017 refers to ISO 52003‑1. It contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 52003‑1 and does not contain any normative provisions.
NOTE The relation with other EPB standards, product standards and product policy is shown schematically in Figure 4 of Clause 6.

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ISO/TR 52022-2:2017 contains information to support the correct understanding and use of ISO 10077‑1, ISO 10077‑2, ISO 12631, ISO 52022‑1 and ISO 52022‑3.
This technical report does not contain any normative provision.

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ISO 52017-1:2017 specifies the general assumptions, boundary conditions and equations for the calculation, under transient hourly or subhourly conditions, of the internal temperatures (air and operative) and/or the heating, cooling and humidification and dehumidification loads to hold a specific (temperature, moisture) set point, in a single building zone. No specific numerical techniques are imposed by ISO 52017-1:2017.
Specific calculation procedures based on the generic calculation procedures of ISO 52017-1:2017 are given in ISO 52016-1. The specific simplifications, assumptions and boundary conditions in ISO 52016-1 are tailored to the respective application areas, such as the energy need for heating and cooling and for humidification and dehumidification, hourly internal temperature, design heating and cooling and humidification and dehumidification load.
NOTE Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 52017-1:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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ISO 12572:2016 specifies a method based on cup tests for determining the water vapour permeance of building products and the water vapour permeability of building materials under isothermal conditions. Different sets of test conditions are specified.
The general principles are applicable to all hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic building materials and products, including insulation materials and including those with facings and integral skins. Annexes give details of test methods suitable for different material types.
The results obtained by this method are suitable for design purposes, production control and for inclusion in product specifications.

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ISO 6781-3:2015 specifies the qualifications and competence requirements for personnel who (i) perform thermographic investigations on buildings, (ii) interpret the data emanating from thermographic investigations, and (iii) report the results of thermographic investigations.
ISO 6781-3:2015 provides the basis for a statement of conformity, in three classes, of the knowledge, skills and abilities of individuals to perform thermographic measurements, analysis and reporting of results for small buildings, residential buildings, and commercial and institutional buildings.
ISO 6781-3:2015 is not applicable to specialized equipment or other specific situations.

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ISO 9972:2015 is intended for the measurement of the air permeability of buildings or parts of buildings in the field. It specifies the use of mechanical pressurization or depressurization of a building or part of a building. It describes the measurement of the resulting air flow rates over a range of indoor-outdoor static pressure differences.
ISO 9972:2015 is intended for the measurement of the air leakage of building envelopes of single-zone buildings. For the purpose of this International Standard, many multi-zone buildings can be treated as single-zone buildings by opening interior doors or by inducing equal pressures in adjacent zones.
ISO 9972:2015 does not address evaluation of air permeability of individual components.

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This European Standard describes a set of procedures for using existing standardized CEN or ISO test and calculation methods to determine the declared thermal performance of reflective insulation products. This European Standard supports and does not replace existing CEN or ISO test methods.
This European Standard applies to any thermal insulation product that derives a proportion of its claimed thermal properties from the presence of one or more reflective or low emissivity surfaces together with any associated airspace(s). It does not replace the existing procedures for the determination of the thermal performance of products already covered by an existing harmonized product standard where the declared value of these products does not specifically include any claims attributable to the emissivity of the facing.

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This Technical Specification provides additional information to that given in EN 12667, EN 12664, EN 12939 and ISO 8302 on the design of apparatus and operational procedures required to determine the thermal resistance of thermal insulation products in the temperature range 100 °C to 850 °C using the guarded hot plate method.

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ISO 15758:2014 specifies a method for calculating the density of the water vapour flow rate in cold pipe insulation systems, and the total amount of water diffused into the insulation over time. The calculation method presupposes that water vapour can only migrate into the insulation system by diffusion, with no contribution from airflow. It also assumes the use of homogeneous, isotropic insulation materials so that the water vapour partial pressure is constant at all points equidistant from the axis of the pipe.
ISO 15758:2014 is applicable when the temperature of the medium in the pipe is above 0 °C. It applies to pipes inside buildings as well as in the open air.

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ISO 12571:2013 specifies two alternative methods for determining hygroscopic sorption properties of porous building materials and products:
a) using desiccators and weighing cups (desiccator method);
b) using a climatic chamber (climatic chamber method).
The desiccator method is the reference method.
ISO 12571:2013 does not specify the method for sampling.
The methods specified in ISO 12571:2013 can be used to determine the moisture content of a sample in equilibrium with air at a specific temperature and humidity.

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2012-12-06 GVN: Draft for // vote available at ISO/CS (see notification in dataservice on 2012-12-04)

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ISO 13788:2012 gives simplified calculation methods for:
The internal surface temperature of a building component or building element below which mould growth is likely, given the internal temperature and relative humidity. The method can also be used to assess the risk of other internal surface condensation problems.
The assessment of the risk of interstitial condensation due to water vapour diffusion. The method used does not take account of a number of important physical phenomena including the variation of material properties with moisture content; capillary suction and liquid moisture transfer within materials; air movement from within the building into the component through gaps or within air spaces; the hygroscopic moisture capacity of materials.
The time taken for water, from any source, in a layer between two high vapour resistance layers to dry out and the risk of interstitial condensation occurring elsewhere in the component during the drying process.

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This Technical Report describes a method of test for determining the resistance of pitched roof coverings to wind-driven and deluge rain.
The test method is applicable to discontinuously laid unsealed small roof covering elements such as clay tiles, concrete tiles, slates, fibre cement slates and stones.
NOTE   The test method may be adapted for fittings.

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2011-02-08 EMA: // final draft received in ISO/CS (see notification from 2011-02-07 in dataservice).
MINOR AMENDMENT!!!     MINOR AMENDMENT!!!     MINOR AMENDMENT!!!     MINOR AMENDMENT!!!

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ISO 23993:2008 gives methods to calculate design thermal conductivities from declared thermal conductivities for the calculation of the thermal performance of building equipment and industrial installations.
These methods are valid for operating temperatures from -200 °C to +800 °C.
The conversion factors, established for the different influences, are valid for the temperature ranges indicated in the relevant clauses or annexes.

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This part of ISO 12567 specifies a method to measure the thermal transmittance of a door or window system. It is applicable to all effects of frames, sashes, shutters, blinds, screens, panels, door leaves and fittings. It is not applicable to - edge effects occurring outside the perimeter of the specimen, - energy transfer due to solar radiation on the specimen, - effects of air leakage through the specimen, and - roof windows and projecting products, where the external face projects beyond the cold side roof surface.

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ISO 12567-1:2010 specifies a method to measure the thermal transmittance of a door or window system. It is applicable to all effects of frames, sashes, shutters, blinds, screens, panels, door leaves and fittings.
It is not applicable to edge effects occurring outside the perimeter of the specimen, energy transfer due to solar radiation on the specimen, effects of air leakage through the specimen, and roof windows and projecting products, where the external face projects beyond the cold side roof surface.

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ISO 15927-3:2009 specifies two procedures for providing an estimate of the quantity of water likely to impact on a wall of any given orientation. It takes account of topography, local sheltering and the type of building and wall.
The first method, based on coincident hourly rainfall and wind data, defines the method of calculation of the annual average index, which influences the moisture content of an absorbent surface, such as masonry, and the spell index, which influences the likelihood of rain penetration through masonry and joints in other walling systems.
The second method, based on average wind data and a qualitative recording of the presence and intensity of rain (the present weather code for rain), defines a method for calculating the spell length during which an absorbent material such as masonry is moistened, having a 10 % probability of being exceeded in any year (commonly referred to as having a mean return period of 10 years).
ISO 15927-3:2009 provides a comparison between the two methods.
ISO 15927-3:2009 gives procedures to correct the results of both methods for topography, local sheltering and the type of building and wall.
The methods included in ISO 15927-3:2009 do not apply in mountainous areas with sheer cliffs or deep gorges, in areas in which more than 25 % of the annual rainfall comes from severe convective storms, and in areas and during periods when a significant proportion of precipitation is made up of snow or hail.

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ISO 15927-2:2009 gives the definition, and specifies methods of calculation and presentation of the monthly external design climate to be used in determining the design cooling load of buildings and the design of air conditioning systems.

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ISO 12241:2008 gives rules for the calculation of heat-transfer-related properties of building equipment and industrial installations, predominantly under steady-state conditions. ISO 12241:2008 also gives a simplified approach for the treatment of thermal bridges.

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ISO 10456:2007 specifies methods for the determination of declared and design thermal values for thermally homogeneous building materials and products, together with procedures to convert values obtained under one set of conditions to those valid for another set of conditions. These procedures are valid for design ambient temperatures between -30 °C and +60 °C.
ISO 10456:2007 provides conversion coefficients for temperature and for moisture. These coefficients are valid for mean temperatures between 0 °C and 30 °C.
ISO 10456:2007 also provides design data in tabular form for use in heat and moisture transfer calculations, for thermally homogeneous materials and products commonly used in building construction.

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ISO 9346:2007 defines physical quantities and other terms in the field of mass transfer relevant to buildings, building elements and systems, building components and building materials. For physical quantities the standard also gives the corresponding symbols and units.

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ISO 15927-6:2007 specifies the definition, method of computation and method of presentation of data on accumulated temperature differences, used for assessing the energy used for space heating in buildings. These are normally expressed in degree‑hours or degree-days, and such data are often referred to simply as "heating degree-hours" or "heating degree-days".
ISO 15927-6:2007 includes approximate methods for calculating accumulated temperature differences based on hourly or daily mean temperatures and for estimating monthly values to any base temperature, for use when data computed directly from meteorological air temperature records are not available.
In some countries, a threshold temperature different from the base temperature is used. ISO 15927-6:2007 does not cover this.

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This standard specifies the equations to be used in a simulation method for calculating the non steady transfer of heat and moisture through building structures.  
It also provides a benchmark example intended to be used for validating a simulation method claiming conformity with this standard, together with the allowed tolerances.
The equations in this standard take account of the following storage and one-dimensional transport phenomena:
-   heat storage in dry building materials and absorbed water;
-   heat transport by moisture-dependent thermal conduction;
-   latent heat transfer by vapour diffusion;
-   moisture storage by vapour sorption and capillary forces;
-   moisture transport by vapour diffusion;
-   moisture transport by liquid transport (surface diffusion and capillary flow).
The equations described in this standard account for the following climatic variables:
-   internal and external temperature;
-   internal and external humidity;
-   solar and longwave radiation;
-   precipitation (normal and driving rain);
-   wind speed and direction.
The hygrothermal equations described in this standard shall not be applied in cases where:
-   convection takes place through holes and cracks;
-   two-dimensional effects play an important part (e.g. rising damp, conditions around thermal bridges, effect of gravitational forces);
•   hydraulic, osmotic, electrophoretic forces are present;
daily mean temperatures in the component exceed 50 °C.

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This Technical Report supplements technical information on modelling of heat transfer in products of high and medium thermal resistance when the thickness effect may be relevant; by doing this it supplies minimum background information on the interpolating equations to be used in the procedures described in EN 12939 to test thick products of high and medium thermal resistance.
All testing procedures to evaluate the thermal performance of thick specimens require utilities, which are essentially based on interpolating functions containing a number of material parameters and testing conditions. Interpolating functions and material parameters are not the same for all materials.
Essential phenomena and common interpolating functions are presented in Clause 4, which is followed by separate equations for each material family.
This Technical Report also gives diagrams derived from the above interpolating equations to assess the relevance of the thickness effect for some insulating materials.

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ISO 12567-2:2005 specifies a method to measure the thermal transmittance of roof windows and projecting windows. It does not include: edge effects occurring outside the perimeter of the specimen, energy transfer due to solar radiation on the specimen and effects of air leakage through the specimen.

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