This International Standard specifies a method for microwave-assisted extraction of elements from samples
using aqua regia as the extraction solution for the determination of elements. This method is applicable to all
types of soil and soil material.
Aqua regia extraction is suitable for the release of trace and major element fractions in soil. Aqua regia is not
suitable for the extraction of elements from refractory compounds, such as SiO2, TiO2 and Al2O3.
The extraction with aqua regia is operationally defined and will not necessarily release all elements completely.
The microwave method is generic and can be implemented using a wide variety of equipment, provided:
a) the extraction mixture ratio is unchanged;
b) the extraction temperature is known.
Solutions produced by the microwave method are suitable for analysis, for example, by using atomic
absorption spectrometry (flame: FAAS, hydride generation: HGAAS, cold vapour: CVAAS, graphite furnace;
GFAAS), inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP/OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass
spectrometry (ICP/MS).
NOTE Due to the presence of chloride in the extraction solution, limitations for the application of analytical
techniques can occur.

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ISO 14507:2003 specifies three methods for the pretreatment of soil samples in the laboratory prior to the determination of organic contaminants:
if volatile organic compounds are to be measured;
if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured, if the result of the subsequent analysis must be accurate and reproducible, and if the sample contains particles larger than 2 mm and/or the contaminant is heterogeneously distributed;
if non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field-moist sample, or if the largest particles of the sample are smaller than 2 mm and the contaminant is homogeneously distributed. This procedure is also applicable if reduced accuracy and repeatability are acceptable.
The pretreatment described in ISO 14507:2003 is used in combination with an extraction procedure in which the contaminant is available for the extraction liquid.
NOTE For the pretreatment of soil samples for the purposes of determining non-volatile inorganic compounds and physico-chemical soil characteristics, see ISO 11464.

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This document gives guidance on the:
— investigation of sites, where either it is known that soil contamination is present, or the presence of
soil contamination is suspected;
— investigation of sites where no soil contamination is expected, but the soil quality is to be determined
(e.g. to make sure that there is no contamination present);
— investigation in anticipation of a need to manage re-use or disposal of excavated soil which might be
contaminated;
— collection of information that is necessary for risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans (e.g. whether remediation is required and suggestions as to how this might be best
achieved).
Although the information on soil quality for the risk assessment and/or the development of remedial
action plans is gathered by applying this document, it does not give guidance on the decisions and
actions that follow from a site investigation, for example, risk assessment and decisions about the
requirements for remediation (if any).

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This document provides guidance on the sampling of soils of
— natural and near-natural sites,
— natural arboreal areas including forests and woods,
— areas used for agriculture (arable and pasture sites),
— areas used for horticulture (including domestic gardens, allotments), and
— areas used for special crop-cultivation, orchards, vineyards, commercial plantations and forests, etc.
It is applicable to
— soil investigations and evaluations in the field, and
— collection of samples for chemical, geochemical, physical, and biological characterization of soil and
soil materials in the laboratory.
This document sets out appropriate strategies for the design of sampling programmes, field procedures
and subsequent treatment of samples for transport and storage prior to sample pretreatment (e.g.
drying, milling). It is intended to be used in conjunction with the other parts of the ISO 18400 series.
Attention is, in particular, drawn to the requirements concerning collection, handling and storage of
soil for assessment of biological functions in ISO 18400-206.
NOTE 1 Groundwater and surface water can be adversely impacted by agricultural and related activities,
such as nitrates and pesticides, and by translocation of soil particles. In turn, knowledge about water quality
can provide information about possible sources of groundwater contamination or contaminating run-off.
Investigation of groundwater and surface water quality is outside of the scope of this document; relevant
guidance is given in the ISO 5667 series of standards. ISO 15175 provides guidance on the relationship between
soil properties and groundwater quality.
NOTE 2 It could also be appropriate to investigate ambient air, vegetation, potable water supplies and a variety
of other media depending on the findings of the preliminary investigation.

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This document establishes general principles for packing, preservation, transport and delivery of
samples of soil and related materials with an emphasis on requirements for when chemical analysis
of the samples is required, but with the intention that the general procedures are to be adapted as
appropriate when other forms of testing are required (e.g. biological testing, physical tests on disturbed
or undisturbed samples). Special procedures for specific sampling purposes are given in other parts of
ISO 18400 (see also 7.2).
This document is intended to be read in conjunction with ISO 18512.

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ISO/IEC 17025:2017 specifies the general requirements for the competence, impartiality and consistent operation of laboratories.
ISO/IEC 17025:2017 is applicable to all organizations performing laboratory activities, regardless of the number of personnel.
Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities, organizations and schemes using peer-assessment, accreditation bodies, and others use ISO/IEC 17025:2017 in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories.

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This European Standard specifies the pretreatment required for sludge, treated biowaste and soil (including soil-like materials), that are subject to the analysis of organic as well as inorganic chemical and physicochemical parameters. The pretreatment of samples aims at preparing a (small) test sample which is representative for the original sample. This European Standard describes the pretreatment which could be performed under field conditions if necessary and the sample pretreatment under laboratory conditions. For determining inorganic chemical and physico-chemical parameters this European Standard describes procedures to prepare: - test samples for tests under field moist conditions; - test samples for testing after drying, crushing, grinding, sieving etc.; - test samples of liquid sludge. For determination of organic compounds three pretreatment methods are specified: - a pretreatment method if volatile organic compounds are to be measured; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the result of the following analysis will be accurate and reproducible; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field moist sample or if only indicative results are required. The choice of the method depends above all on the volatility of the analyte. It also depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the heterogeneity of the sample and the following analytical procedure.

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This International Standard specifies the pretreatments required for soil samples that are to be subjected to physico-chemical analyses of stable and non-volatile parameters and describes the following five types of pretreatment of samples: drying, crushing, sieving, dividing and milling. The pretreatment procedures described in this International Standard are not applicable if they affect the results of the determinations to be made. This International Standard is also not applicable to samples when volatile compounds are measured. In general, International Standards for analytical methods will state when it is necessary to adopt other procedures.

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Specifies a method for the extraction, with aqua regia, of trace elements from soils and similar materials containing less than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon. Materials containing more than about 20 % (m/m) organic carbon will require treatment with additional nitric acid. The resulting solution is suitable for the determination of trace elements using appropriate atomic spectrometric techniques.

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This European Standard specifies the pretreatment required for sludge, treated biowaste and soil (including soil-like materials), that are subject to the analysis of organic as well as inorganic chemical and physicochemical parameters. The pretreatment of samples aims at preparing a (small) test sample which is representative for the original sample. This European Standard describes the pretreatment which could be performed under field conditions if necessary and the sample pretreatment under laboratory conditions. For determining inorganic chemical and physico-chemical parameters this European Standard describes procedures to prepare: - test samples for tests under field moist conditions; - test samples for testing after drying, crushing, grinding, sieving etc.; - test samples of liquid sludge. For determination of organic compounds three pretreatment methods are specified: - a pretreatment method if volatile organic compounds are to be measured; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the result of the following analysis will be accurate and reproducible; - a pretreatment method if moderately volatile to non-volatile organic compounds are to be measured and the extraction procedure prescribes a field moist sample or if only indicative results are required. The choice of the method depends above all on the volatility of the analyte. It also depends on the particle size distribution of the material, the heterogeneity of the sample and the following analytical procedure.

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