The scope of this European Standard is restricted to the measurement of vertical wheel forces and calculation of derived quantities on vehicles in service. Measurements of a train in motion are used to estimate the static forces.
Derived quantities can be:
-   axle loads;
-   side to side load differences of a wheel set, bogie, vehicle;
-   overall mass of vehicle or train set;
-   mean axle load of a vehicle or train set.
This standard is not concerned with the evaluation of:
-   dynamic wheel force or derived quantities;
-   wheel condition (i.e. shape, profile, flats);
-   lateral wheel force;
-   combination of lateral and vertical wheel forces.
The standard defines accuracy classes for measurements to be made at any speed greater than 5 km/h within the calibrated range, which may be up to line speed.
The aim of this standard is to obtain measurement results that give representative values for the distribution of vertical wheel forces of a running vehicle, which under ideal conditions will be similar to those that can be obtained from a standing vehicle.
This standard does not impose any restrictions on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the measuring system can be installed.
The standard lays down minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters. Also defined are accuracy classes for the parameters measured and the procedure for verifying the calibration.
The measuring system proposed in this standard should not be considered as safety critical. If the measuring system is connected to a train traffic command and control system then requirements that are not part of this standard may apply.
Measuring systems complying with this standard have the potential to enhance safety in the railway sector. However, the current operating and maintenance procedures rather than this standard are mandatory for ensuring safety levels in European rail networks.

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This document covers the following aspects:
—   Definition of a common method to assess track loading of a heavy rail vehicle for lines of 1 435 mm track gauge in curve radii below 250 m (test zone 5), which is not part of the acceptance testing according to EN 14363. This method is restricted to vehicles with maximum vertical wheelset forces up to 225 kN. It includes consideration of:
—   on-track measurements with instrumented wheelsets;
—   on-track measurements with local measurement sites;
—   simulation including description of requirements for use;
—   recalculation of EN 14363 results including description of requirements for use;
—   simple parameter check (dispensation from assessment of track loading).
—   Description of available knowledge of running behaviour of existing vehicles.
—   Description of observed track wear and damage related to traffic mix, track loading results of vehicles and axle loads related to track design.
The decision which railway line requires these tests is not part of this specification.
This specification can support national regulations in this field but does not affect directly existing national regulations such as [4] and [5].

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This European Standard defines the process for assessment of the running characteristics of railway vehicles for the European network of standard gauge tracks (nominally 1 435 mm).
In addition to the assessment of the running characteristics of vehicles for acceptance processes, this standard also defines quantities and dependencies that are not directly used for acceptance purposes. This information is for example intended for the validation of simulation models. It can also be used to define operating conditions outside the reference conditions to be used for the approval.
The assessment of running characteristics applies to vehicles which:
-   are newly developed;
-   have had relevant design modifications; or
-   have changes in their operating conditions.
The assessment process is based on specified target test conditions (see 3.1) given in this document.
Experience over many years has demonstrated that vehicles complying with this standard can be operated safely on infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions, if the current general operating rules are applied. As an example it is generally current practice to restrict cant deficiency in curves below a certain radius. It may be necessary to adapt these operating rules, if a deterioration of the infrastructure conditions is observed. These operating rules are defined on a national basis. The procedure to evaluate these operating rules is out of the scope of this standard.
NOTE 1   There are margins included in the specified limit values and the statistical evaluation. They cannot be quantified, but they explain why vehicles can also be operated at full speed and cant deficiency in many cases outside of the target test conditions.
This standard also enables the demonstration of compliance against the target test conditions for the case that their combination is not achievable during tests. It is also possible to carry out the assessment of a vehicle for limited test conditions such as test zones 1 and 2 or reduced speed or reduced cant deficiency. In this case the approval of the vehicle shall be restricted accordingly.
NOTE 2   National regulations sometimes allow the increase or decrease of the values for speed, curve radius and cant deficiency for local operation based on safety considerations taking into account the local characteristics of the infrastructure (track layout, track structure, track geometrical quality and contact conditions). These local characteristics can be different from those included in the assessment for the vehicle acceptance.
NOTE 3   The methods of this standard can also be applied to gather information about the compatibility between the vehicle and infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions. The results of such investigations can be used to determine safe operating rules for such infrastructure conditions.
Where testing the vehicle demonstrates that the performance of a vehicle complies with the requirements of this standard when operating at maximum speed and maximum cant deficiency under infrastructure conditions that are more severe than the target test conditions, the obtained results are accepted and there is no need to carry out additional tests to fulfil the requirements defined in this standard.
This standard addresses four aspects:
1)   Vehicles
The assessment of the running characteristics applies principally to all railway vehicles. The document contains acceptance criteria for all types of vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 225 kN (of the highest loaded wheelset of the vehicle in the assessed load configuration specified in 5.3.2). In addition for freight vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 250 kN the acceptance criteria are defined. The acceptance criteria given in this document apply to vehicles designed to operate on standard gauge tracks.

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This document is applicable to the lines with standard track gauge (1 435 mm) and wider track gauges of the heavy rail system  and the vehicles that are operated on these lines. This includes machines used for construction, maintenance, inspection, repair and renewal when they are operated in running mode, but not, when they are in working or travelling mode.
This document specifies methods of classification of existing and new lines of the heavy rail system and the categorization of rail vehicles.
This document gives guidance to a reliable and established management of the interface between rail vehicles and the heavy rail network and does not impose any requirements on either vehicles or infrastructure.
The application of this document enables to ensure the static route compatibility between a rail vehicle and the heavy rail network with respect to the vertical load carrying capacity.
It contains requirements relevant to:
—   classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of lines of the heavy rail network;
—   allocation of rail vehicles to line categories (categorization);
—   determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
This document does not apply to:
—   assessments of compatibility based on the parameter axle load alone;
—   compatibility checks for cases where an additional dynamic analysis is required (for example according to EN 1991 2);
—   requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train;
—   the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are classified in accordance with the RA (Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent line categories in accordance with this European Standard is given in Annex F;
—   the publication of line categories.
The requirements of this document do not replace any regulations related to running behaviour of vehicles described by the assessment quantities for running safety, track loading and ride characteristics (see EN 14363).

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This document establishes definitions and evaluation methods for wheel-rail contact geometry parameters influencing the vehicle running dynamic behaviour:
-   the rolling radius difference between the two wheels of a wheelset (Δr-function) which serves as a basis for all further calculations;
-   the equivalent conicity function from which are derived:
-   a single equivalent conicity value for a specified amplitude which is relevant for the assessment of vehicle running stability on straight track and in very large radius curves according to EN 14363;
-   the nonlinearity parameter which characterizes the shape of this function and is related to the vehicle behaviour particularly in the speed range close to the running stability limit;
-   the rolling radii coefficient which is used to describe the theoretical radial steering capability of a wheelset in a curved track.
Additional information is given about the relationship between the contact angles of the two wheels of a wheelset (Δtanγ-function) and about the roll angle parameter.
NOTE   Out of the presented parameters only those related to the contact angle are relevant for independently rotating wheels of wheel pairs.
Descriptions of possible calculation methods are included in this document. Test case calculations are provided to achieve comparable results and to check the proper implementation of the described algorithms.
To validate alternative methods not described in this document acceptance criteria are given for the equivalent conicity function. This includes reference profiles, profile combinations, tolerances and reference results with tolerance limits.
This document also includes minimum requirements for the measurement of wheel and rail profiles as well as of the parameters needed for the transformation into a common coordinate system of right- and left-hand profiles.
This document does not define limits for the wheel-rail contact geometry parameters and gives no tolerances for the rail profile and the wheel profile to achieve acceptable results.
For the application of this document some general recommendations are given.

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This document provides background information regarding the changes from EN 15302:2008+A1:2010 to the revised version dated 2021, including the reasons for decisions and additional explanation and guidance that is not appropriate in the standard.
The range of equivalent conicity results obtained with different software tools is described. The additional wheel-rail contact parameters, rolling radii coefficient and nonlinearity parameter, are explained. More information is also provided on the different calculation methods and the updated reference profiles for the assessment. The influence of simplifications used in determination of equivalent conicity is discussed.
To provide more information on the importance of considering the complete measurement and calculation process, methods for plausibility checks, eliminating outliers and assessing the uncertainty and repeatability of measurements are included as well as assessments of the smoothing process.
Guidance is given on fields of application of the wheel-rail contact parameters, on the selection of appropriate reference profiles (choice of reference rail profile and rail inclination for assessing wheel profiles and vice versa) and on handling special cases.
As some references in EN 14363 to wheel-rail contact test conditions have caused difficulties in understanding, clarifications issued by ERA are mentioned.
Interpretation of equivalent conicity results, using tools such as conicity maps, is discussed and various approximations such as ‘quick conicity’ assessments are also described.
Information is included on possible additional wheel-rail contact parameters, not yet ready for standardization, but where further experience is needed.
NOTE   In this document the commonly used term “wheel-rail contact geometry” is used as a synonym for the more precise term “wheelset-track contact geometry”.

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This document applies to the measurement of vertical wheel forces of railway vehicles in maintenance workshops and at manufacturing sites. It also deals with derived quantities that are used to describe the vehicle’s vertical wheel force distribution.
The document defines the assessment and acceptance criteria for the measurement process. The requirements for this assessment support the specification, the design and the operation of the measurement process. It is considered that the measurements are made either statically or quasi-statically. This document is applicable to all railway vehicles.
The commercial weighing of vehicles is not covered by the scope of this document, nor does it define in which cases the wheel forces of a vehicle will be measured.

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This document is related to EN 15654-1, Railway applications - Measurement of vertical forces on wheels and wheelsets - Part 1: On-track measurement sites for vehicles in service, which lays down minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters during operation in service.
The aim of this document is to describe approval and verification procedures to validate the functional and metrological characteristics of measurement systems and confirm them over time.
The goal is to obtain the comparability and reproducibility of measurement results under different boundary conditions. To minimize the number of tests, the approval and verification procedures are divided into:
-   type approval,
-   initial verification,
-   in-service verification.
The accuracy class of a measurement system depends on the measurement device, vehicle and track characteristics. Test procedures covering these influences are described to ensure reproducibility in all networks.
The procedures described in this document do not impose any restrictions on the design of measurement sites, on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the measuring system can be installed.
The annexes include examples for test procedures, calculation of maximum permissible errors and statistical test methods.

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EN 14363 contains a lot of requirements which were modified during the last revision. The scope was also extended. It was found in the working group, that many decisions that were taken to formulate these modifications need to be documented to improve understanding and to allow a later further development if practice of applications shows the necessity. The work for the revision was organised in 8 subgroups. Many of these subgroups recorded the way to the proposals in reporting templates, which were used for the editing work. Afterwards discussion was ongoing in WG 10 and in the enquiry process. This available information needs to be summarised and presented in a common format in order to allow people not involved in the discussions to understand the background of the modifications.

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This European Standard defines the acceptance process to be followed by vehicles that are operated in trains capable of generating high longitudinal forces and that are susceptible, as a result of their design, to derailment as a result of being subjected to these forces.
This European Standard applies to the following types of freight wagons equipped with standard ends as defined in this EN:
-   single wagons;
-   permanently coupled units with side buffers and screw couplers between the vehicles;
-   permanently coupled units with diagonal buffers with screw couplers between the vehicles;
-   articulated units with three 2-axle bogies;
-   low-floor wagons with eight or more axles (e.g. rolling road wagon  ).
The following vehicles are not currently in the scope of this European Standard:
-   wagons that are not subjected to extensive longitudinal compressive forces due to their operational environment (as train composition, braking regime, track layout);
-   wagons with automatic couplers  );
-   wagons with 3-axle bogies  );
-   permanently coupled units with a bar coupler between the vehicles  );
-   articulated wagons with more than three 2-axle bogies.
Acceptance criteria and test conditions as well as conditions for the dispensation from tests are defined in this European Standard.
This document applies principally to wagons which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks in Europe (1 435 mm).
NOTE   The influence on railway systems using other gauges is not sufficiently understood to extend the scope of this document to gauges other than standard.

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This European Standard defines the process to determine the conditions under which dispensation from on-track testing according to EN 14363 can be given to freight wagons. In its application this document specifies the means by which dispensation from on-track tests is possible.
This European Standard is subordinate to EN 14363.
This European Standard is not limited to any type of freight vehicle; however certain types, which have been previously accepted under the auspices of UIC, are considered to have a continuing dispensation from on-track testing. These freight vehicles are detailed within this document.
The dispensation conditions described in this document apply to all freight vehicles used in international, multilateral or national rail freight transportation, which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks (1 435 mm). The various rail-inclinations used in Europe (1:20, 1:40 and 1:30) are covered by the conditions for dispensation.
NOTE   The test procedures described in this standard (and in EN 14363) can be applied also to applications with other track gauges e.g. 1 524 mm or 1 668 mm. The limit values could be different, as the details of the network are not known by the authors of this standard. If established running gear are existing in such restricted networks the related ranges of running gear and vehicle parameters for dispensation from on-track tests might be specified together with the operational parameters (speed, cant deficiency, maximum axle load) based on previous tests and operating experiences. These limit values and parameters will be specified under national responsibility.
This European Standard only contains requirements for characteristics related to requirements for on-track tests specified in EN 14363.

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This document defines the assessment of endurable longitudinal compressive forces (LCF) of a vehicle. The endurable longitudinal compressive forces is a parameter depending on the vehicle design. It is used to estimate the risk of derailment as a result of being subjected to these forces, under operating conditions.
NOTE 1   As operating conditions may vary in several aspects (infrastructure, train configurations etc.), this document defines uniform assessments of endurable longitudinal compressive force per vehicle in specific operating conditions. One of these endurable longitudinal compressive forces is derived from UIC 530-2, which is based on practical tests performed in ERRI-B12. Other endurable longitudinal compressive forces as the outcome of this document are central input parameters in the methodology of IRS 40421. IRS 40421 derives train and operational parameters from the outcome of EN 15839 which are vehicle parameters.
This document applies to the following types of vehicles:
—   single wagons;
—   permanently coupled units with side buffers and screw couplers between the vehicles;
—   permanently coupled units with diagonal buffers with screw couplers between the vehicles;
—   permanently coupled units with a bar coupler between the vehicles;
—   articulated units with three 2-axle bogies;
—   wagons with 3-axle bogies; low-floor wagons with eight or more axles (e.g. rolling road wagon);
—   vehicles with central couplers;
—   on-track machines (OTM) as defined in EN 14033-1.
NOTE 2   The document defines the acceptance process to be followed by vehicles that are operated in a way that high longitudinal compressive forces may occur in the trains due to their to their operational environment (e. g. train composition, braking regime, track layout). Therefore, vehicles among the previous list which are not subjected to high longitudinal compressive forces may not need to fulfil this document.
The following vehicles are not in the scope of this document:
—   articulated wagons with more than three 2-axle bogies;
—   locomotives and passenger rolling stocks;
—   vehicles that are only operated in passenger trains.
Acceptance criteria and test conditions as well as conditions for simulation and test dispensation are defined in this document.
This document applies principally to vehicles which operate without restrictions on standard gauge tracks in Europe (1 435 mm).
NOTE 3   The influence on railway systems using other gauges is not sufficiently understood to extend the scope of this document to gauges other than standard.
NOTE 4   For wagons with central couplers, a need for assessment of derailment risk due to Longitudinal Forces on other gauges (1 524 mm, 1 600 mm, 1 668 mm) has been expressed. The influence on railway systems using other gauges is not sufficiently understood. This document only introduces some notions to assess it independently from the gauge.

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This document defines the process to determine the conditions under which dispensation from on-track testing according to EN 14363:2016+A2:2022 can be given to freight wagons. In its application this document specifies the means by which dispensation from on-track tests is possible.
This document is subordinate to EN 14363:2016+A2:2022.
The dispensation conditions described in this document apply to all freight wagons and non-powered special vehicles with operating conditions of freight trains, which are operated on the heavy rail network with standard gauge (1 435 mm).
NOTE 1   The various rail-inclinations used in Europe (1:20, 1:40 and 1:30) are covered by the conditions for dispensation.
This document is not limited to any type of freight vehicle; however, freight wagons with defined parameters and equipped with certain running gear types, which have been previously accepted, are considered to have a continuing dispensation from on-track testing. The parameters of these freight wagons and running gear are detailed within this document.
NOTE 2   The test procedures described in this document (and in EN 14363:2016+A2:2022) can be applied also to applications with other track gauges e.g. 1 524 mm or 1 668 mm. The limit values could be different. If established running gear are existing in such restricted networks the related ranges of running gear and vehicle parameters for dispensation from on-track tests might be specified together with the operational parameters (speed, cant deficiency, maximum axle load) based on previous tests and operating experiences. These limit values and parameters will be specified on national level.
This document only contains requirements for characteristics related to requirements for on-track tests specified in EN 14363:2016+A2:2022.

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The scope of this European Standard is restricted to the measurement of vertical wheel forces and calculation of derived quantities on vehicles in service. Measurements of a train in motion are used to estimate the static forces.
Derived quantities can be:
-   axle loads;
-   side to side load differences of a wheel set, bogie, vehicle;
-   overall mass of vehicle or train set;
-   mean axle load of a vehicle or train set.
This standard is not concerned with the evaluation of:
-   dynamic wheel force or derived quantities;
-   wheel condition (i.e. shape, profile, flats);
-   lateral wheel force;
-   combination of lateral and vertical wheel forces.
The standard defines accuracy classes for measurements to be made at any speed greater than 5 km/h within the calibrated range, which may be up to line speed.
The aim of this standard is to obtain measurement results that give representative values for the distribution of vertical wheel forces of a running vehicle, which under ideal conditions will be similar to those that can be obtained from a standing vehicle.
This standard does not impose any restrictions on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the measuring system can be installed.
The standard lays down minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters. Also defined are accuracy classes for the parameters measured and the procedure for verifying the calibration.
The measuring system proposed in this standard should not be considered as safety critical. If the measuring system is connected to a train traffic command and control system then requirements that are not part of this standard may apply.
Measuring systems complying with this standard have the potential to enhance safety in the railway sector. However, the current operating and maintenance procedures rather than this standard are mandatory for ensuring safety levels in European rail networks.

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This European Standard establishes an evaluation procedure for determining equivalent conicity.

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This European Standard defines the acceptance process to be followed by vehicles that are operated in trains capable of generating high longitudinal forces and that are susceptible, as a result of their design, to derailment as a result of being subjected to these forces.
This European Standard applies to the following types of freight wagons equipped with standard ends as defined in this EN:
— single wagons;
— permanently coupled units with side buffers and screw couplers between the vehicles;
— permanently coupled units with diagonal buffers with screw couplers between the vehicles;
— articulated units with three 2-axle bogies;
— low-floor wagons with eight or more axles (e.g. rolling road wagon 1).
The following vehicles are not currently in the scope of this European Standard:
— wagons that are not subjected to extensive longitudinal compressive forces due to their operational environment (as train composition, braking regime, track layout);
— wagons with automatic couplers 2);
— wagons with 3-axle bogies 3);
— permanently coupled units with a bar coupler between the vehicles 4);
— articulated wagons with more than three 2-axle bogies.
Acceptance criteria and test conditions as well as conditions for the dispensation from tests are defined in this European Standard.
This document applies principally to wagons which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks in Europe (1 435 mm).
NOTE The influence on railway systems using other gauges is not sufficiently understood to extend the scope of this document to gauges other than standard.

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This European Standard defines the process for assessment of the running characteristics of railway vehicles for the European network of standard gauge tracks (nominally 1 435 mm).
In addition to the assessment of the running characteristics of vehicles for acceptance processes, the standard also defines quantities and dependencies that are not directly used for acceptance purposes. This information is for example intended for the validation of simulation models. It can also be used to define operating conditions outside the reference conditions to be used for the approval.
The assessment of running characteristics applies to vehicles which:
are newly developed;
have had relevant design modifications; or
have changes in their operating conditions.
The assessment process is based on specified target test conditions (see 3.1) given in this document.
Experience over many years has demonstrated that vehicles complying with this standard can be operated safely on infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions, if the current general operating rules are applied. As an example it is generally current practice to restrict cant deficiency in curves below a certain radius. It may be necessary to adapt these operating rules, if a deterioration of the infrastructure conditions is observed. These operating rules are defined on national basis. The procedure to evaluate these operating rules is out of the scope of this standard.
NOTE 1   There are margins included in the specified limit values and the statistical evaluation. They cannot be quantified, but they explain why vehicles can also be operated at full speed and cant deficiency in many cases outside of the target test conditions.
The standard also enables the demonstration of compliance against the target test conditions for the case that their combination is not achievable during tests. It is also possible to carry out the assessment of a vehicle for limited test conditions such as test zones 1 and 2 or reduced speed or reduced cant deficiency. In this case the approval of the vehicle shall be restricted accordingly.
NOTE 2   National regulations sometimes allow the increase or decrease of the values for speed, curve radius and cant deficiency for local operation based on safety considerations taking into account the local characteristics of the infrastructure (track layout, track structure, track geometrical quality and contact conditions). These local characteristics can be different from those included in the assessment for the vehicle acceptance.
NOTE 3   The methods of this standard can also be applied to gather information about the compatibility between the vehicle and infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions. The results of such investigations can be used to determine safe operating rules for such infrastructure conditions.
Where testing the vehicle demonstrates that the performance of a vehicle complies with the requirements of this standard when operating at maximum speed and maximum cant deficiency under infrastructure conditions that are more severe than the target test conditions, the obtained results are accepted and there is no need to carry out additional tests to fulfil the requirements defined in this standard. This standard addresses four aspects:
1)   Vehicles
The assessment of the running characteristics applies principally to all railway vehicles. The document contains acceptance criteria for all types of vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 225 kN (of the highest loaded wheelset of the vehicle in the assessed load configuration specified in 5.3.2). In addition for freight vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 250 kN the acceptance criteria are defined. The acceptance criteria given in this document apply to vehicles designed to operate on standard gauge tracks.
2)   Infrastructure
In the acceptance process the range of curve radii is (...)

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This EN regulates the testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of freight vehicles with static wheel loads higher than 112,5 kN and up to 125 kN.All the requirements of EN 14363:2005 are applicable with some adaptations concerning the conditions of line tests and limit values for some assessment quantities.Only differences that are applicable to vehicles within the scope of this document are listed.

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This EN regulates the on-track testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of railway vehicles equiped with a cant deficiency compensation system and/or vehicles intended to operate with a higher cant deficiency than stated in EN 14363:2005, Annex G. In most cases the procedure is the same as defined in EN 14363:2005, only the differences that are applicable to these vehicles are listed.

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The scope of this European Standard is restricted to the measurement of vertical wheel forces and calculation of derived quantities on vehicles in service. Measurements of a train in motion are used to estimate the static forces.
Derived quantities can be:
-   axle loads;
-   side to side load differences of a wheel set, bogie, vehicle;
-   overall mass of vehicle or train set;
-   mean axle load of a vehicle or train set.
This standard is not concerned with the evaluation of:
-   dynamic wheel force or derived quantities;
-   wheel condition (i.e. shape, profile, flats);
-   lateral wheel force;
-   combination of lateral and vertical wheel forces.
The standard defines accuracy classes for measurements to be made at any speed greater than 5 km/h within the calibrated range, which may be up to line speed.
The aim of this standard is to obtain measurement results that give representative values for the distribution of vertical wheel forces of a running vehicle, which under ideal conditions will be similar to those that can be obtained from a standing vehicle.
This standard does not impose any restrictions on the types of vehicles that can be monitored, or on which networks or lines the measuring system can be installed.
The standard lays down minimum technical requirements and the metrological characteristics of a system for measuring and evaluating a range of vehicle loading parameters. Also defined are accuracy classes for the parameters measured and the procedure for verifying the calibration.
The measuring system proposed in this standard should not be considered as safety critical. If the measuring system is connected to a train traffic command and control system then requirements that are not part of this standard may apply.
Measuring systems complying with this standard have the potential to enhance safety in the railway sector. However, the current operating and maintenance procedures rather than this standard are mandatory for ensuring safety levels in European rail networks.

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This European Standard defines the process for assessment of the running characteristics of railway vehicles for the European network of standard gauge tracks (nominally 1 435 mm).
In addition to the assessment of the running characteristics of vehicles for acceptance processes, this standard also defines quantities and dependencies that are not directly used for acceptance purposes. This information is for example intended for the validation of simulation models. It can also be used to define operating conditions outside the reference conditions to be used for the approval.
The assessment of running characteristics applies to vehicles which:
-   are newly developed;
-   have had relevant design modifications; or
-   have changes in their operating conditions.
The assessment process is based on specified target test conditions (see 3.1) given in this document.
Experience over many years has demonstrated that vehicles complying with this standard can be operated safely on infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions, if the current general operating rules are applied. As an example it is generally current practice to restrict cant deficiency in curves below a certain radius. It may be necessary to adapt these operating rules, if a deterioration of the infrastructure conditions is observed. These operating rules are defined on a national basis. The procedure to evaluate these operating rules is out of the scope of this standard.
NOTE 1   There are margins included in the specified limit values and the statistical evaluation. They cannot be quantified, but they explain why vehicles can also be operated at full speed and cant deficiency in many cases outside of the target test conditions.
This standard also enables the demonstration of compliance against the target test conditions for the case that their combination is not achievable during tests. It is also possible to carry out the assessment of a vehicle for limited test conditions such as test zones 1 and 2 or reduced speed or reduced cant deficiency. In this case the approval of the vehicle shall be restricted accordingly.
NOTE 2   National regulations sometimes allow the increase or decrease of the values for speed, curve radius and cant deficiency for local operation based on safety considerations taking into account the local characteristics of the infrastructure (track layout, track structure, track geometrical quality and contact conditions). These local characteristics can be different from those included in the assessment for the vehicle acceptance.
NOTE 3   The methods of this standard can also be applied to gather information about the compatibility between the vehicle and infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions. The results of such investigations can be used to determine safe operating rules for such infrastructure conditions.
Where testing the vehicle demonstrates that the performance of a vehicle complies with the requirements of this standard when operating at maximum speed and maximum cant deficiency under infrastructure conditions that are more severe than the target test conditions, the obtained results are accepted and there is no need to carry out additional tests to fulfil the requirements defined in this standard.
This standard addresses four aspects:
1)   Vehicles
The assessment of the running characteristics applies principally to all railway vehicles. The document contains acceptance criteria for all types of vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 225 kN (of the highest loaded wheelset of the vehicle in the assessed load configuration specified in 5.3.2). In addition for freight vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 250 kN the acceptance criteria are defined. The acceptance criteria given in this document apply to vehicles designed to operate on standard gauge tracks.

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This European Standard describes methods of classification of existing and new railway lines and the categorization of vehicles. The standard specifies the technical requirements for ensuring the compatibility of the interface between a vehicle and infrastructure with respect to the vertical load carrying capacity of a line. The standard is suitable for use on freight, passenger and mixed traffic lines with standard track gauge and wider than standard track gauge. It contains requirements relevant to:
-   classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of railway infrastructure;
-   design of railway vehicles;
-   determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
A summary of the classification of infrastructure and the categorization of vehicles is given in Annex B.
The assessment of the vertical load carrying capacity of civil engineering structures, track, sub-grade and earthworks by the use of the load models defined in Annex A permits the classification of infrastructure into line categories.
This European Standard identifies on which lines vehicles are compatible to the infrastructure for regular traffic regarding vertical load effects.
Line categories are provided for:
-   all traffic types;
-   heavy freight traffic;
-   locomotives;
-   multiple units;
-   lightweight passenger traffic.
Mobile railway infrastructure construction and maintenance equipment (e.g. rail mounted plant, cranes) in working mode and portable trolleys as defined by EN 13977 are outside the scope of this European Standard.
This European Standard does not cover the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are classified in accordance with the RA (Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent categories in accordance with this European Standard is given in Annex Q.
This European Standard does not cover requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train.
The requirements of this European Standard do not replace any regulations related to running behaviour of vehicles described by the assessment quantities for running safety, track loading and ride characteristics (see EN 14363).
This Standard does not impose any requirements to vehicles or infrastructure, but gives guidance to a simplified management of the interface between vehicles and infrastructure.
Publication of line categories is outside the scope of this European Standard.

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This European Standard establishes an evaluation procedure for determining equivalent conicity. A benchmark calculation is specified to achieve comparable results on a consistent basis for the equivalent conicity, which may be calculated by different methods not given in this European Standard. This European Standard also proposes possible calculation methods. Informative examples of the use of the Klingel formula (see Annex B) and linear regression of the r-function (see Annex C) are included in this European Standard.
This European Standard includes reference profiles, profile combinations, tolerances and reference results with tolerance limits, which allow the user to assess the acceptability of a measuring and calculation system including random- and grid- errors of the measuring system. It sets down the principles of calculation that need to be followed but does not impose any particular numerical calculation method.
This European Standard does not define limits for the equivalent conicity and gives no tolerances for the rail profile and the wheel profile to achieve acceptable results for the conicity.
For purposes outside the scope of this European Standard (e.g. simulation of vehicle behaviour) it can be useful or necessary to use more sophisticated theories. These methods are not within the scope of this European Standard.
For the application of this European Standard some general recommendations are given in Annex I.

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This European Standard defines the process for assessment of the running characteristics of railway vehicles for the European network of standard gauge tracks (nominally 1 435 mm).
In addition to the assessment of the running characteristics of vehicles for acceptance processes, the standard also defines quantities and dependencies that are not directly used for acceptance purposes. This information is for example intended for the validation of simulation models. It can also be used to define operating conditions outside the reference conditions to be used for the approval.
The assessment of running characteristics applies to vehicles which:
are newly developed;
have had relevant design modifications; or
have changes in their operating conditions.
The assessment process is based on specified target test conditions (see 3.1) given in this document.
Experience over many years has demonstrated that vehicles complying with this standard can be operated safely on infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions, if the current general operating rules are applied. As an example it is generally current practice to restrict cant deficiency in curves below a certain radius. It may be necessary to adapt these operating rules, if a deterioration of the infrastructure conditions is observed. These operating rules are defined on national basis. The procedure to evaluate these operating rules is out of the scope of this standard.
NOTE 1   There are margins included in the specified limit values and the statistical evaluation. They cannot be quantified, but they explain why vehicles can also be operated at full speed and cant deficiency in many cases outside of the target test conditions.
The standard also enables the demonstration of compliance against the target test conditions for the case that their combination is not achievable during tests. It is also possible to carry out the assessment of a vehicle for limited test conditions such as test zones 1 and 2 or reduced speed or reduced cant deficiency. In this case the approval of the vehicle shall be restricted accordingly.
NOTE 2   National regulations sometimes allow the increase or decrease of the values for speed, curve radius and cant deficiency for local operation based on safety considerations taking into account the local characteristics of the infrastructure (track layout, track structure, track geometrical quality and contact conditions). These local characteristics can be different from those included in the assessment for the vehicle acceptance.
NOTE 3   The methods of this standard can also be applied to gather information about the compatibility between the vehicle and infrastructure with conditions more severe than the target test conditions. The results of such investigations can be used to determine safe operating rules for such infrastructure conditions.
Where testing the vehicle demonstrates that the performance of a vehicle complies with the requirements of this standard when operating at maximum speed and maximum cant deficiency under infrastructure conditions that are more severe than the target test conditions, the obtained results are accepted and there is no need to carry out additional tests to fulfil the requirements defined in this standard. This standard addresses four aspects:
1)   Vehicles
The assessment of the running characteristics applies principally to all railway vehicles. The document contains acceptance criteria for all types of vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 225 kN (of the highest loaded wheelset of the vehicle in the assessed load configuration specified in 5.3.2). In addition for freight vehicles with nominal static vertical wheelset forces up to 250 kN the acceptance criteria are defined. The acceptance criteria given in this document apply to vehicles designed to operate on standard gauge tracks.
2)   Infrastructure
In the acceptance process the range of curve radii is (...)

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This European Standard specifies the on-track testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of railway vehicles equipped with a cant deficiency compensation system and/or vehicles intended to operate with a higher cant deficiency than stated in EN 14363:2005, Annex G.
In most cases the procedure is the same as defined in EN 14363, only the differences for the special case are listed.
The testing of the running characteristics applies principally to all vehicles used in public transport which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks (1 435 mm).
NOTE 1   The testing of the running characteristics of:
-   railways with different track layout,
-   railways with non-standard gauge tracks
can be conducted by analogy with this European Standard.
The testing of running characteristics is part of the test for the acceptance of running characteristics of vehicles which
-   are newly developed,
-   have had relevant design modifications, or
-   have changes in their operating regimes.
The testing and acceptance of running characteristics refers to the complete vehicle including the running gear. If a running gear, which has already been tested and accepted, is to be used under a vehicle body of another design, this is considered to be a design modification. The procedure as described in 5.2 is used.
NOTE 2   In addition to the testing of running characteristics for the acceptance of vehicles, the regulations can be generally applied in other technical tasks, e.g.:
-   the checking for compliance against development contracts;
-   the optimization of components, vehicles or running gear;
-   the testing of influences, influencing parameters and relationships of dependence;
-   the monitoring of track or vehicles in operational use.
The application of the full method and the stated limit values reflects unrestricted international operation.
Testing for acceptance of vehicles is based on some reference conditions of track. If these are not respected on certain lin

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This European Standard specifies the testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of freight vehicles with static axle loads higher than 225 kN and up to 250 kN.
All requirements of EN 14363 are applicable with some adaptations concerning:
-   the conditions of line tests;
-   limit values for some assessment quantities.
Only differences for the special cases are listed.
The testing of the running characteristics applies principally to all freight vehicles, which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks (1 435 mm).
NOTE 1   The testing of the running characteristics of:
-   railways with different track layout,
-   railways with non-standard gauge tracks
can be conducted by analogy with this European Standard.
The testing of running characteristics is part of the test for the acceptance of running characteristics of vehicles which
-   are newly developed,
-   have had relevant design modifications, or
-   have changes in their operating regimes.
The testing and acceptance of running characteristics refers to the complete vehicle including the running gear. If a running gear, which has already been tested and accepted, is used under a vehicle body of another design, this is considered a design modification. The procedure as described in EN 14363:2005, 5.2 is used.
NOTE 2   In addition to the testing of running characteristics for the acceptance of vehicles, the regulations can be generally applied in other technical tasks, e.g.:
-   the checking for compliance against development contracts;
-   the optimization of components, vehicles or running gear;
-   the testing of influences, influencing parameters and relationships of dependence;
-   the monitoring of track or vehicles in operational use.
The application of the full method and the stated limit values reflects unrestricted international operation.
Testing for acceptance of vehicles is based on some reference conditions of track. If these are not respected on certain lines, appropriate measures w

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This document regulates the testing for acceptance of the running characteristics of railway vehicles (hereafter called vehicles). The testing of the running characteristics applies principally to all vehicles used in public transport which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks (1 435 mm).
NOTE 1   The testing of the running characteristics of:
-   railways with different track layout, e.g. tramways, metros and underground railways;
-   railways with non-standard gauge tracks
can be conducted by analogy with this document.
The testing of running characteristics is part of the type testing of vehicles which
-   are newly developed,
-   have had relevant design modifications, or
-   have changes in their operating regimes.
The testing and acceptance of running characteristics refers to the complete vehicle including the running gear. If a running gear, which has already been tested and accepted, is to be used under a vehicle body of another design, this is considered to be a design modification. The procedure as described in 5.2 is used.
NOTE 2   In addition to the testing of running characteristics for the acceptance of vehicles, the regulations can be generally applied in other technical tasks, e.g.:
-   the checking for compliance against development contracts;
-   the optimisation of components, vehicles or running gear;
-   the testing of influences, influencing parameters and relationships of dependence;
-   the monitoring of track or vehicles in operational use.

  • Standard
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This European Standard describes methods of classification of existing and new railway lines and the categorisation of vehicles. The standard specifies the technical requirements for ensuring the compatibility of the interface between vehicle and infrastructure. The standard is suitable for use on freight, passenger and mixed traffic lines and contains requirements relevant to:
-   classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of railway infrastructure;
-   design of railway vehicles;
-   determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
A summary of the classification of infrastructure and categorisation of vehicles is given in Annex B.
The assessment of the vertical load carrying capacity of civil engineering structures, track, sub-grade and earthworks by the use of the load models defined in Annex A permits the classification of infrastructure into line categories.
This European Standard identifies on which lines vehicles are compatible to the infrastructure under normal operation conditions without further checks regarding vertical load effects.
The methodology described in this European Standard is not valid for high speed rail traffic. Tilting traffic and the working of rail mounted plant and cranes etc. are also outside the scope of this European Standard. This European Standard does not cover the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are to be classified in accordance with the RA (Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent categories in accordance with this European Standard is given in Annex C.
This European Standard does not cover requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train.
The requirements of this European Standard do not replace regulations relating to e.g. dynamic wheel/rail contact force limits, vehicle ride considerations, vehicle structural design limitations, etc.

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This European Standard defines the acceptance process to be followed by vehicles that are operated in trains capable of generating high longitudinal forces and that are susceptible, as a result of their design, to derailment as a result of being subjected to these forces.
This European Standard applies to the following types of freight wagons equipped with standard ends as defined in this EN:
-   single wagons;
-   permanently coupled units with side buffers and screw couplers between the vehicles;
-   permanently coupled units with diagonal buffers with screw couplers between the vehicles;
-   articulated units with three 2-axle bogies;
-   low-floor wagons with eight or more axles (e.g. rolling road wagon  ).
The following vehicles are not currently in the scope of this European Standard:
-   wagons that are not subjected to extensive longitudinal compressive forces due to their operational environment (as train composition, braking regime, track layout);
-   wagons with automatic couplers  );
-   wagons with 3-axle bogies  );
-   permanently coupled units with a bar coupler between the vehicles  );
-   articulated wagons with more than three 2-axle bogies.
Acceptance criteria and test conditions as well as conditions for the dispensation from tests are defined in this European Standard.
This document applies principally to wagons which operate without restriction on standard gauge tracks in Europe (1 435 mm).
NOTE   The influence on railway systems using other gauges is not sufficiently understood to extend the scope of this document to gauges other than standard. Where applicable, the described criteria are part of the type testing of wagons which are newly developed or have had relevant design modifications. The testing and acceptance refers to the complete vehicle including the running gear.

  • Standard
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This European Standard describes methods of classification of existing and new railway lines and the categorisation of vehicles. The standard specifies the technical requirements for ensuring the compatibility of the interface between vehicle and infrastructure. The standard is suitable for use on freight, passenger and mixed traffic lines and contains requirements relevant to:
-   classification of the vertical load carrying capacity of railway infrastructure;
-   design of railway vehicles;
-   determination of payload limits of freight wagons.
A summary of the classification of infrastructure and categorisation of vehicles is given in Annex B.
The assessment of the vertical load carrying capacity of civil engineering structures, track, sub-grade and earthworks by the use of the load models defined in Annex A permits the classification of infrastructure into line categories.
This European Standard identifies on which lines vehicles are compatible to the infrastructure under normal operation conditions without further checks regarding vertical load effects.
The methodology described in this European Standard is not valid for high speed rail traffic. Tilting traffic and the working of rail mounted plant and cranes etc. are also outside the scope of this European Standard. This European Standard does not cover the system used in Great Britain, where all lines and vehicles are to be classified in accordance with the RA (Route Availability) System. A guide to the equivalent categories in accordance with this European Standard is given in Annex C.
This European Standard does not cover requirements relating to the maximum total mass or maximum length of a train.
The requirements of this European Standard do not replace regulations relating to e.g. dynamic wheel/rail contact force limits, vehicle ride considerations, vehicle structural design limitations etc.

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  • Draft
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This European Standard establishes an evaluation procedure for determining equivalent conicity. A benchmark calculation is specified to achieve comparable results on a consistent basis for the equivalent conicity, which may be calculated by different methods not given in this European Standard. This European Standard also proposes possible calculation methods. Informative examples of the use of the Klingel formula (see Annex B) and linear regression of the r-function (see Annex C) are included in this European Standard.
This European Standard includes reference profiles, profile combinations, tolerances and reference results with tolerance limits, which allow the user to assess the acceptability of a measuring and calculation system including random- and grid- errors of the measuring system. It sets down the principles of calculation that need to be followed but does not impose any particular numerical calculation method.
This European Standard does not define limits for the equivalent conicity and gives no tolerances for the rail profile and the wheel profile to achieve acceptable results for the conicity.
For purposes outside the scope of this European Standard (e.g. simulation of vehicle behaviour) it can be useful or necessary to use more sophisticated theories. These methods are not within the scope of this European Standard.
For the application of this European Standard some general recommendations are given in Annex I.

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