ISO 18203:2016 specifies a method of measuring the case hardening depth, surface hardening depth, nitriding hardness depth and total thickness of surface hardening depth obtained, e.g. thermal (flame and induction hardening, electron beam hardening, laser beam hardening, etc.) or thermochemical (carbonitriding, carburizing and hardening, hardening and nitriding, etc.) treatment.

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This document specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) for the determination of the vanadium content in steel.
The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,01 % (mass fraction) and 0,80 % (mass fraction), provided that the tungsten content in a 1,0 g test portion is not higher than 1,0 % and/or the titanium content is not higher than 0,5 %.

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This International Standard specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method for the
determination of the cobalt content in steel and iron.
The method is applicable to cobalt contents between 0,003 % (m/m) and 5,0 % (m/m).

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This document specifies a method of converting room temperature percentage elongations after
fracture obtained on various proportional and non-proportional gauge lengths to other gauge lengths.
Formula (1), on which conversions are based, is considered to be reliable when applied to carbon,
carbon manganese, molybdenum and chromium molybdenum steels within the tensile strength range
300 N/mm2 to 700 N/mm2 and in the hot-rolled, hot-rolled and normalized or annealed conditions, with
or without tempering.
These conversions are not applicable to:
a) cold reduced steels;
b) quenched and tempered steels;
c) austenitic steels.
These conversions are not applicable when the gauge length exceeds 25 S0 or where the width to
thickness ratio of the test piece exceeds 20.

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This document specifies a method of converting room temperature percentage elongations after
fracture obtained on various proportional and non-proportional gauge lengths to other gauge lengths.
Formula (1), on which conversions are based, is considered to be reliable when applied to austenitic
stainless steels within the tensile strength range 450 to 750 N/mm2 and in the solution treated
condition.
These conversions are not applicable to:
a) cold reduced steels;
b) quenched and tempered steels;
c) non-austenitic steels.
These conversions are not applicable when the gauge length exceeds 25 0S or where the width to
thickness ratio of the test piece exceeds 20.

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This document specifies an infrared absorption method after combustion in an induction furnace for
the determination of the low carbon content in unalloyed steel.
The method is applicable to carbon contents between 0,000 3 % (mass fraction) and 0,009 % (mass
fraction).

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This document specifies the method for the verification and validation of models for the determination of the property data of steels. It is applicable where modelling of mechanical or physical properties is used to substitute conventional testing for specific inspection. Models can
be based on statistical data, thermo-physical data or indirect measurement (e.g. measurement of magnetic or ultrasonic data).
This document applies only for verification and validation of models for providing the properties of rolled or heat treated products such as plates, sheets, strip, sections, bars, etc.
This document is used to demonstrate the ability of the model to supply property data which is equivalent to data, which is measured by conventional testing.
NOTE: Validation of models is part of auditing the quality management system performed by an independent body.

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This document specifies an infrared absorption method after combustion in an induction furnace for the determination of the low carbon content in unalloyed steel. The method is applicable to carbon contents between 0,000Â 3Â % (mass fraction) and 0,009Â % (mass fraction).

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This document provides guidance for calculating the CO2 intensity at steel plants with all types of process routes, by defining the boundary, CO2 emission factors and the intermediate products for which upstream emissions are considered for all types of process routes. In particular, this document provides guidance applicable to the ISO 14404 series to the types of steel plants listed below. This document also includes the Universal Calculation Sheet, which covers all relevant emission sources from ISO 14404-1, ISO 14404-2 and ISO 14404-3 to assist the calculation of CO2 emissions. i. Steel plants with different process routes from ISO 14404-1, ISO 14404-2 and ISO 14404-3 (7.2.1) ii. Steel plants with more than one process route (7.2.2) iii. Steel plants purchasing pig iron from the outside (7.2.3) iv. Steel plants and rerollers purchasing part or all of crude steel from outside (7.2.4) Moreover, this document provides additional guidance to the entire ISO 14404 series for the following topics. a) Evaluation of exported slags b) Evaluation of by-product gas c) Evaluation of stock d) Selection of calorific values and emission factors for electricity and fuel Conversion to energy consumption and to consumption efficiency can be obtained using Annex A. While the use of the calculation result is outside the scope of this document, appropriate applications and inappropriate application are recommended in Annex B.

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This document specifies an order for listing elements within the chemical composition of steels and most other iron-based alloys, excluding foundry irons. NOTE This document has been developed and is used by ISO/TC 17/SC 4, but can also be used by other ISO/TC 17 subcommittees.

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This document specifies a potentiometric titration method for the determination of vanadium in steel
and cast iron.
The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,04 % (mass fraction) and 2 % (mass fraction).

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This document specifies a potentiometric titration method for the determination of vanadium in steel and cast iron. The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,04 % (mass fraction) and 2 % (mass fraction).

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This document defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons. This document specifies five grades of ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast iron by a classification based on mechanical properties determined on machined test pieces prepared from: — separately cast samples, side-by-side cast or cast-on samples; — samples cut from a casting. This document also specifies two grades by a classification as a function of hardness.

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1 Scope This document specifies the properties of unalloyed and low-alloyed grey cast irons used for castings that have been manufactured in sand moulds or in moulds with comparable thermal behaviour. This document specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast irons by any of the following: a) the tensile strength of cast samples; b) if agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the tensile strength of samples cut from a casting; c) if agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser, the hardness of the material determined on castings or on a cast-on knob. If agreed by the manufacturer and the purchaser, the combination of tensile strength from option a) or option b) and plus hardness from option c) can be specified. Information on specifying a combination of tensile strength and hardness is given in Annex B. This document specifies eight grades of grey cast iron according to tensile strength (see Table 1) and six grades of grey cast iron according to Brinell hardness (see Table 2). This document does not apply to grey cast irons used for pipes and pipe fittings and continuous cast products. This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for grey iron castings. NOTE General information on the engineering properties of grey cast irons is provided in ISO/TR 10809-1.

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EN-ISO 439 specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steels and cast irons. The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5, 0 % {mass fraction).

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EN-ISO 643 specifies a micrographic method of determining apparent ferritic oraustenitic grain size in steels. It describes the methods of revealing grainboundaries and of estimating the mean grain size of specimens with unimodal sizedistribution. Although grains are three-dimensional in shape, the metallographicsectioning plane can cut through a grain at any point from a grain corner, tothe maximum diameter of the grain, thus producing a range of apparent grainsizes on the two-dimensional plane, even in a sample with a perfectly consistentgrain size.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steel and cast iron.
The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5,0 % {mass fraction).
NOTE    For samples containing molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, zirconium or high levels of chromium, the results are less accurate than for unalloyed matrixes.

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This document specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) for the determination of the vanadium content in steel. The method is applicable to vanadium contents between 0,01 % (mass fraction) and 0,80 % (mass fraction), provided that the tungsten content in a 1,0 g test portion is not higher than 1,0 % and/or the titanium content is not higher than 0,5 %.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method for the determination of the silicon content in steel and cast iron. The method is applicable to silicon contents between 0,10 % (mass fraction) and 5,0 % {mass fraction). NOTE For samples containing molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, zirconium or high levels of chromium, the results are less accurate than for unalloyed matrixes.

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This document specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by
comparative visual analysis.
The purpose of this document is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It
is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular
application.
The particular material grades are specified mainly by mechanical properties and, in the case of
austenitic and abrasion resistant cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation
of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the
requirements specified in the relevant material standard.

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This document specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by comparative visual analysis.
The purpose of this document is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular application.
The particular material grades are specified mainly by mechanical properties and, in the case of austenitic and abrasion resistant cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the requirements specified in the relevant material standard.

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This Working Draft specifies an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method for the determination of the chromium content (mass fraction) between 5,0 % (m/m) and 27,0 % (m/m) in alloyed steels.
The method doesn't apply to alloyed steels having niobium and/or tungsten contents higher than 0,1 %.

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This document specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) for the determination of calcium content in non-alloy and low alloy steels.
The method is applicable to calcium contents between 0,000 4 % and 0,012 %.
The method can be adapted to higher calcium contents by changing the test portion or the dilution process, provided the criteria in 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 are still met.

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This document specifies a flame atomic absorption spectrometric method (FAAS) for the determination of lead content in non-alloy and low alloy steels.
The method is applicable to lead contents between 0,005 % and 0,5 %.
The method can be adapted to lower or higher lead contents by changing the test portion or the dilution process, provided the criteria in 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 are still met.

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This document specifies a method of classifying the microstructure of graphite in cast irons by comparative visual analysis. The purpose of this document is to provide information about the method of graphite classification. It is not intended to give information on the suitability of cast-iron types and grades for any particular application. The particular material grades are specified mainly by mechanical properties and, in the case of austenitic and abrasion resistant cast irons, by their chemical composition. The interpretation of graphite form and size does not allow a statistically valid statement on the fulfilment of the requirements specified in the relevant material standard.

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This document specifies an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric method for the determination of the chromium content (mass fraction) between 5,0 % (m/m) and 27,0 % (m/m) in alloyed steels.
The method doesn't apply to alloyed steels having carbon contents higher than 1 % and niobium and/or tungsten contents higher than 0,1 %.

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This document specifies a test method for evaluating nodularity in spheroidal graphite cast irons by comparative visual analysis and image analysis techniques. This document provides figures for different levels of nodularity and graphite particle count of spheroidal graphite cast irons for visual analysis.

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This document defines grades and the corresponding requirements for malleable cast irons.
This document specifies five grades of whiteheart malleable cast iron and nine grades of blackheart malleable cast iron, based on mechanical properties measured on cast samples (which are test pieces).
This document specifies Brinell hardness values determined only when these values are requested by the purchaser.
This document does not cover technical delivery conditions for malleable cast iron castings. Reference should be made to EN 1559 1 [3] and EN 1559 3 [4].
This document does not cover chemical composition, except phosphorus (see Clause 6).

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This document gives guidelines for the determination of the chemical composition of steel and iron by reference to published International Standards, including their range of application and principles of the methods. Graphical representation of the precision data precision data for the methods is given in Annex A. The list of International Standards is summarized in Annex B.

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This document specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen in steel.
The method is applicable to the determination of nitrogen mass fraction between 0,000 6 % and
0,050 % in low alloy steels and between 0,010 % and 0,050 % in high alloy steels.
The method does not apply to samples containing silicon nitrides or having silicon contents higher
than 0,6 %.

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This European Standard applies to welded wrought steel enclosures pressurised with dry air, inert gases, for example sulphur hexafluoride or nitrogen or a mixture of such gases, used in indoor and outdoor installations of high-voltage switchgear and controlgear with rated voltages above 1kV, where the gas is used principally for its dielectric and/or arc-quenching properties with rated voltages.
-   above 1 kV and up to and including 52 kV and with gas-filled compartments with design pressure higher than 300 kPa relative pressure (gauge);
-   and with rated voltage above 52 kV.
The enclosures comprise parts of electrical equipment not necessarily limited to the following examples:
-   circuit-breakers;
-   switch-disconnectors;
-   disconnectors;
-   earthing switches;
-   current transformers;
-   voltage transformers;
-   surge arrestors;
-   busbars and connections;
-   etc.
The scope also covers enclosures of pressurized components such as the centre chamber of live tank switchgear, gas-insulated current transformers, etc.

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The present Technical Report gives guidance regarding the chemical composition controls of steels (except chrome plated products) and cast irons in respect of the European legislation, namely Directives 2011/65/EU (RoHS) [1], repealing 2002/95/EU, the Commission Delegated Directive EU 2015/863 amending Annex II to Directive 2011/65/EU [10] and 2000/53/EC (ELV) [2].
These Directives require the characterization of these materials for Cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and the four phthalates DEHP, BBP DBP and DIBP. Nevertheless, the Directives do not reflect the correspondence between these elements/compounds and the normal composition of each material concerned. In other words, for every material there is an obligation to determine all the compounds listed, independently of the relevance of such controls.

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This document specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen in steel.
The method is applicable to the determination of nitrogen mass fraction between 0,000 6 % and 0,050 % in low alloy steels and between 0,010 % and 0,050 % in high alloy steels.
The method does not apply to samples containing silicon nitrides or having silicon contents higher than 0,6 %.

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The present Technical Report gives guidance regarding the chemical composition controls of steels (except chrome plated products) and cast irons in respect of the European legislation, namely Directives 2011/65/EU (RoHS) [1], repealing 2002/95/EU, the Commission Delegated Directive EU 2015/863 amending Annex II to Directive 2011/65/EU [10] and 2000/53/EC (ELV) [2].
These Directives require the characterization of these materials for Cadmium (Cd), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and the four phthalates DEHP, BBP DBP and DIBP. Nevertheless, the Directives do not reflect the correspondence between these elements/compounds and the normal composition of each material concerned. In other words, for every material there is an obligation to determine all the compounds listed, independently of the relevance of such controls.

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This document specifies guidelines and requirements for conducting life cycle inventory (LCI) studies of steel products reflecting steel's capacity for closed-loop recycling, including: a) specification of the functional unit used for LCI calculation of steel products; b) definition of the system boundaries used for LCI calculation of steel products; c) evaluation of scrap in LCI calculation of steel products; d) evaluation of co-products in LCI calculation of steel products; e) reporting of LCI calculation results of steel products. The application of LCI results, including life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), is outside the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen in steel. The method is applicable to the determination of nitrogen mass fraction between 0,000 6 % and 0,050 % in low alloy steels and between 0,010 % and 0,050 % in high alloy steels. The method does not apply to samples containing silicon nitrides or having silicon contents higher than 0,6 %.

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This document lists, under Clause 3, the European Standards which are currently available for the determination of the chemical composition of steels and cast irons.
In Clause 4, this Technical Report provides details on the range of application and gives the principle of the method for each standard.
Annex A gives a list of other European Standards and CEN Technical Reports applicable for the determination of the chemical composition of steels and cast irons.
Annex B gives a list of withdrawn Euronorms, together with the corresponding replacement European Standards, if any.
Annex C shows graphical representations of the content ranges of the methods available in this Technical Report. Figure C.1 gives the content ranges of the referee methods, Figure C.2 gives the content ranges of the routine methods and Figure C.3 represents the fields of application of all the methods available.
Annex D provides a trilingual key of the abbreviations used in the Figures given in Annex C.
NOTE Three methods applicable for the analysis of some ferro-alloys are listed in Annex A.

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ISO 9606-1:2012 specifies the requirements for qualification testing of welders for fusion welding of steels.
It provides a set of technical rules for a systematic qualification test of the welder, and enables such qualifications to be uniformly accepted independently of the type of product, location and examiner or examining body.
When qualifying welders, the emphasis is placed on the welder's ability manually to manipulate the electrode, welding torch or welding blowpipe, thereby producing a weld of acceptable quality.
The welding processes referred to in ISO 9606-1:2012 include those fusion-welding processes which are designated as manual or partly mechanized welding. It does not cover fully mechanized and automated welding processes.

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This draft European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This draft European Standard specifies 2 groups of spheroidal graphite cast iron grades by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples. The first group deals mainly with ferritic to pearlitic grades. The second group deals with solid-solution strengthened ferritic grades.
This draft European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559 1 [3] and EN 1559 3 [4]).
This draft European Standard does not cover all aspects of:
-   ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 1564 [5];
-   low alloyed ferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 16124 [6];
-   continuous cast iron bars which are specified in EN 16482 [7];
-   austenitic cast irons which are specified in EN 13835 [8];
-   spheroidal graphite cast irons used for pipes, fittings and their joints which are the subject of EN 545 [9], EN 598 [10] and EN 969 [11];
-   the grades of spheroidal graphite cast irons as specified in EN 545 which are used for products such as industrial valves, non-industrial manually operated shut-off valves and flanges and their joints, which are the subject of the applicable European product standards.

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This European Standard defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for spheroidal graphite cast irons.
This European Standard specifies 2 groups of spheroidal graphite cast iron grades by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples. The first group deals mainly with ferritic to pearlitic grades. The second group deals with solid-solution strengthened ferritic grades.
This European Standard does not cover technical delivery conditions for iron castings (see EN 1559 1 [3] and EN 1559 3 [4]).
This European Standard does not cover:
-   ausferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 1564 [7];
-   low alloyed ferritic spheroidal graphite cast irons which are specified in EN 16124 [8];
-   continuous cast iron bars which are specified in EN 16482 [7];
-   austenitic cast irons which are specified in EN 13835 [8];
-   spheroidal graphite cast irons used for pipes, fittings and their joints which are the subject of EN 545 [11], EN 598 [12] and EN 969 [13];
-   the grades of spheroidal graphite cast irons as specified in EN 545 which are used for products such as industrial valves, non-industrial manually operated shut-off valves and flanges and their joints, which are the subject of the applicable European product standards.

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This document specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and
cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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This document defines the decarburization and specifies three methods of measuring the depth of
decarburization of steel products.

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This document defines the grades and the corresponding requirements for spheroidal graphite cast irons. This document specifies two groups of spheroidal graphite cast iron grades by a classification based on mechanical properties measured on machined test pieces prepared from cast samples. The first group deals mainly with ferritic to pearlitic grades. The second group deals with solid-solution strengthened ferritic grades. This document also gives an informative classification as a function of hardness. This document does not apply to the following: — spheroidal graphite cast irons used for pipes, fittings and accessories which are specified in accordance with ISO 2531 and ISO 7186; — highly alloyed (austenitic) spheroidal cast irons which are specified in accordance with ISO 2892; — ausferritic cast irons which are specified in accordance with ISO 17804.

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ISO 4829-1:2018 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate.
The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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This document defines important terms used in the heat treatment of ferrous materials.
NOTE The term ferrous materials include products and workpieces of steel and cast iron.
Annex A provides an alphabetical list of terms defined in this document, as well as their equivalents in
French, German, Chinese and Japanese.
Table 1 shows the various iron-carbon (Fe-C) phases.

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ISO 4829-1:2018 specifies a spectrophotometric method for the determination of total silicon in steel and cast iron using reduced molybdosilicate. The method is applicable to the determination of silicon mass fraction between 0,05 % and 1,0 %.

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This document specifies the approach to be followed when developing procedures for the ultrasonic
testing of the following welds:
— welds in stainless steels;
— welds in nickel-based alloys;
— welds in duplex steels;
— dissimilar metal welds;
— austenitic welds.
The purposes of the testing can be very different, for example:
— for the assessment of quality level (manufacturing);
— for the detection of specific discontinuities induced in service.
Acceptance levels are not included in this document, but can be applied in accordance with the scope of
the testing (see 4.1).
The requirements of this document are applicable to both manual and mechanized testing.

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This draft European Standard defines a method of microscopic non-metallic endogenous inclusion assessment using picture charts.
The method does not apply to particles of a length or diameter less than 3,0 µm or a width smaller than 2,0 µm. If defined by a product standard or agreement between the involved parties for certain special products, inclusions with a width below 2,0 µm can be evaluated by length alone.Inclusions with dimensions exceeding the upper limits in Table 2 are evaluated as belonging to the maximum class and noted separately with their true dimensions (see 7.5.6).
It is assumed, if particles are elongated or if there are stringers of particles, that they are parallel to each other. Other arrangements are not covered by this draft standard. This draft European Standard applies to samples with a microscopic precipitation approaching random distribution.
From the data of measurements obtained by this method, evaluation according to other standards can be established.
This draft European Standard does not apply to free cutting steels.
NOTE   The basic principle of this draft European Standard allows the determination of non-metallic inclusion content by image analysis techniques.

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This European Standard is part of a series of standards, details of this series are given in prEN ISO 15607, annex A.
This standard specifies how a preliminary welding procedure specification is qualified by welding procedure tests.
This standard defines the conditions for the execution of welding procedure tests and the range of qualification for welding procedures for all practical welding operations within the range of variables listed in clause 8.
Tests shall be carried out in accordance with this standard. Additional tests may be required by application standards.
This standard applies to the arc and gas welding of steels in all product forms and the arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys in all product forms
Arc and gas welding are covered by the following processes in accordance with EN ISO 4063:
111   - manual metal arc welding (metal-arc welding with covered electrode);
114   - self-shielded tubular-cored arc welding;
12   - submerged arc welding;
131   - metal inert gas welding, MIG welding;
135   - metal active gas welding, MAG welding;
136   - tubular-cored metal arc welding with active gas shield;
137   - tubular-cored metal arc welding with inert gas shield;
141   - tungsten inert gas arc welding; TIG welding;
15   - plasma arc welding;
311   - oxy-acetylene welding.
The principles of this European Standard may be applied to other fusion welding processes.

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