This document gives machine manufacturers guidance on potential security aspects in relation to safety of machinery when putting a machine into service or placing on the market for the first time. It provides essential information to identify and address IT-security threats which can influence safety of machinery.
This document gives guidance but does not provide detailed specifications on how to address IT-security aspects which can influence safety of machinery.
This document does not address the bypass or defeat of risk reduction measures through physical manipulation.

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This document establishes values for safety distances in both industrial and non-industrial environments to prevent machinery hazard zones being reached. The safety distances are appropriate for protective structures. It also gives information about distances to impede free access by the lower limbs (see Annex B).
This document covers people of 14 years and older (the 5th percentile stature of 14-year-olds is approximately 1 400 mm). In addition, for upper limbs only, it provides information for children older than 3 years (5th percentile stature of 3-year-olds is approximately 900 mm) where reaching through openings needs to be addressed.
NOTE 1 It is not practical to specify safety distances for all persons. Therefore, the values presented are intended to cover the 95th percentile of the population.
Data for preventing lower limb access for children is not considered.
The distances apply when sufficient risk reduction can be achieved by distance alone. Because safety distances depend on size, some people of extreme dimensions will still be able to reach hazard zones even when the requirements of this document are met.
Compliance with the requirements in this document will prevent access to the hazard zone. Nevertheless the user of this document is advised that it does not provide the required risk reduction for every hazard (e.g. hazards related to machine emissions such as ionizing radiation, heat sources, noise, dust).
The clauses covering lower limbs apply on their own only when access by the upper limbs to the same hazard zone is not foreseeable according to the risk assessment.
The safety distances are intended to protect those persons trying to reach hazard zones under the conditions specified (see 4.1.1).
NOTE 2 This document is not intended to provide measures against reaching a hazard zone by climbing over (see ISO 14120:2015, 5.18).

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ISO 13854:2017 enables the user (e.g. standard makers, designers of machinery) to avoid hazards from crushing zones. It specifies minimum gaps relative to parts of the human body and is applicable when adequate safety can be achieved by this method.
ISO 13854:2017 is applicable to risks from crushing hazards only and is not applicable to other possible hazards, e.g. impact, shearing, drawing-in.
NOTE For impact, shearing, drawing-in hazards, additional or other measures are to be taken.

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This document specifies requirements for the machine manufacturer for preparation of the safety-relevant parts of an instruction handbook for machinery.
This document:
— provides further specifications to the general requirements on information for use given in ISO 12100:2010, 6.4.5; and
— deals with the safety-related content, the corresponding structure and presentation of the instruction handbook, taking into account all phases of the life cycle of the machine.
NOTE 1 The strategy for risk reduction at the machine is given in ISO 12100:2010, Clause 6, and includes inherently safe design measures, safeguarding and complementary risk reduction measures as well as information for use.
NOTE 2 Annex A contains a correspondence table between ISO 12100:2010, 6.4, and this document.
NOTE 3 Information for conception and preparation of instructions in general is available in IEC/IEEE 82079-1.
This document establishes the principles which are indispensable to provide information on residual risks.
This document does not address requirements for declaration of noise and vibration emissions.
This document is not applicable to machinery manufactured before the date of its publication.

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This document specifies the safety requirements of a two-hand control device (THCD) and the dependency of the output signal from the actuation by hand of the control actuating devices.
This document describes the main characteristics of THCDs for the achievement of safety and sets out combinations of functional characteristics for three types. It does not apply to devices intended to be used as enabling devices, as hold-to-run devices or as special control devices.
This document does not specify with which machines THCDs shall be used. It also does not specify which types of two-hand-control device shall be used for a specific application. Moreover, while guidance is given, it does not specify the required distance between the THCD and the danger zone (see 8.8).
This document provides requirements for design and guidance on the selection (based on a risk assessment) of THCDs including the prevention of defeat, the avoidance of faults and verification of compliance.
NOTE 1 A THCD only offers protection for the person using it.
NOTE 2 For specific machines, the suitability of a two-hand control as a suitable protective device can be defined in a type-C standard. If such a standard does not exist or is not appropriate, the risk assessment and determination of suitable protective measures is the responsibility of the manufacturer of the machine.
This document applies to all THCDs, independent of the energy used, including:
— THCDs which are fully assembled for installation;
— THCDs which are assembled by the machine manufacturer or integrator.
This document is not applicable to THCDs manufactured before the date of its publication.

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This document specifies methods for identifying fire hazards resulting from machinery and for performing a risk assessment.
It gives the basic concepts and methodology of protective measures for fire prevention and protection to be taken during the design and construction of machinery. The measures consider the intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of the machine.
It provides guidelines for consideration in reducing the risk of machinery fires to acceptable levels through machine design, risk assessment and operator instructions.
This document is not applicable to:
— mobile machinery;
— machinery designed to contain controlled combustion processes (e.g. internal combustion engines, furnaces), unless these processes can constitute the ignition source of a fire in other parts of the machinery or outside of this;
— machinery used in potentially explosive atmospheres and explosion prevention and protection; and
— fire detection and suppression systems that are integrated in building fire safety systems.
It is also not applicable to machinery or machinery components manufactured before the date of its publication.

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ISO 14118:2017 specifies requirements for designed-in means aimed at preventing unexpected machine start-up (see 3.2) to allow safe human interventions in danger zones (see Annex A).
ISO 14118:2017 applies to unexpected start-up from all types of energy source, i.e.:
- power supply, e.g. electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic;
- stored energy due to, e.g. gravity, compressed springs;
- external influences, e.g. from wind.
ISO 14118:2017 does not specify performance levels or safety integrity levels for safety-related parts of control systems. While available means to prevent unexpected start-up are identified, this document does not specify the means for the prevention of unexpected machine start-up for specific machines.
NOTE A type-C standard can define the required means for the prevention of harm arising from unexpected start-up. Otherwise, the requirements for a specific machine need to be determined by risk assessment outside the scope of this document.

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ISO 14122-1:2016 gives general requirements for access to stationary machines and guidance about the correct choice of means of access when necessary access to the stationary machine is not possible directly from the ground level or from a floor.
It is applicable to permanent means of access which are a part of a stationary machine, and also to non-powered adjustable parts (e.g. foldable, slidable) and movable parts of fixed means of access.
NOTE 1 "Fixed" means of access are those mounted in such a manner (for example, by screws, nuts, welding) that they can only be removed by the use of tools.
ISO 14122-1:2016 specifies minimum requirements that also apply when the same means of access is required as the part of the building or civil construction (e.g. working platforms, walkways, ladders) where the machine is installed, on condition that the main function of that part of the construction is to provide a means of access to the machine.
NOTE 2 Where no local regulation or standards exist, this part of ISO 14122 can be used for means of access which are outside the scope of the standard.
It is intended that this part of ISO 14122 be used with a relevant access-specific part of ISO 14122.
The ISO 14122 series as a whole is applicable to both stationary and mobile machinery where fixed means of access are necessary. It is not applicable to powered means of access such as lifts, escalators, or other devices specially designed to lift persons between two levels.
ISO 14122-1:2016 is not applicable to machinery manufactured before the date of its publication.
For the significant hazards covered by this part of ISO 14122, see Clause 4.

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ISO 14122-4:2016 gives requirements for fixed ladders which are a part of a stationary machine, and to the non-powered adjustable parts (e.g. foldable, slidable) and movable parts of fixed ladder systems.
NOTE 1 "Fixed" means of access are those mounted in such a manner (for example, by screws, nuts, welding) that they can only be removed by the use of tools.
ISO 14122-4:2016 specifies minimum requirements that also apply when the same means of access is required as the part of the building or civil construction (e.g. fixed ladders) where the machine is installed, on condition that the main function of that part of the construction is to provide a means of access to the machine.
NOTE 2 Where no local regulation or standards exists, this part of ISO 14122 may be used also for means of access which are outside the scope of the standard.
It is intended that this part of ISO 14122 be used with ISO 14122‑1 to give the requirements for fixed ladder systems.
The ISO 14122 series as a whole is applicable to both stationary and mobile machinery where fixed means of access are necessary. It is not applicable to powered means of access such as lifts, escalators, or other devices specially designed to lift persons between two levels.
ISO 14122-4:2016 is not applicable to machinery manufactured before the date of its publication.

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ISO 14122-2:2016 gives requirements for non-powered working platforms and walkways which are a part of a stationary machine, and to the non-powered adjustable parts (e.g. foldable, sliding) and movable parts of those fixed means of access.
NOTE 1 "Fixed" means of access are those mounted in such a manner (for example, by screws, nuts, welding) that they can only be removed by the use of tools.
ISO 14122-2:2016 specifies minimum requirements that also apply when the same means of access is required as the part of the building or civil construction (e.g. working platforms, walkways) where the machine is installed, on condition that the main function of that part of the construction is to provide a means of access to the machine.
NOTE 2 Where no local regulation or standards exist, this part of ISO 14122 can be used for means of access which are outside the scope of the standard.
It is intended that this part of ISO 14122 be used with ISO 14122‑1 to give the requirements for walking platforms and walkways.
The ISO 14122 series as a whole is applicable to both stationary and mobile machinery where fixed means of access are necessary. It is not applicable to powered means of access such as lifts, escalators, or other devices specially designed to lift persons between two levels.
ISO 14122-2:2016 is not applicable to machinery manufactured before the date of its publication.

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ISO 14122-3:2016 gives requirements for non-powered stairs, stepladders and guard-rails which are a part of a stationary machine, and to the non-powered adjustable parts (e.g. foldable, slidable) and movable parts of those fixed means of access.
NOTE 1 "Fixed" means of access are those mounted in such a manner (for example, by screws, nuts, welding) that they can only be removed by the use of tools.
ISO 14122-3:2016 specifies minimum requirements that also apply when the same means of access is required as the part of the building or civil construction (e.g. stairs, stepladders, guard-rails) where the machine is installed, on condition that the main function of that part of the construction is to provide a means of access to the machine.
NOTE 2 Where no local regulation or standards exists, this part of ISO 14122 may be used also for means of access which are outside the scope of the standard.
It is intended that this part of ISO 14122 be used with ISO 14122‑1 to give the requirements for steps, stepladders and guard-rails.
The ISO 14122 series as a whole is applicable to both stationary and mobile machinery where fixed means of access are necessary. It is not applicable to powered means of access such as lifts, escalators, or other devices specially designed to lift persons between two levels.
ISO 14122-3:2016 is not applicable to machinery manufactured before the date of its publication.

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ISO 13849-1:2015 provides safety requirements and guidance on the principles for the design and integration of safety-related parts of control systems (SRP/CS), including the design of software. For these parts of SRP/CS, it specifies characteristics that include the performance level required for carrying out safety functions. It applies to SRP/CS for high demand and continuous mode, regardless of the type of technology and energy used (electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical, etc.), for all kinds of machinery.
It does not specify the safety functions or performance levels that are to be used in a particular case.
This part of ISO 13849 provides specific requirements for SRP/CS using programmable electronic system(s).
It does not give specific requirements for the design of products which are parts of SRP/CS. Nevertheless, the principles given, such as categories or performance levels, can be used.
NOTE 1 Examples of products which are parts of SRP/CS: relays, solenoid valves, position switches, PLCs, motor control units, two-hand control devices, pressure sensitive equipment. For the design of such products, it is important to refer to the specifically applicable International Standards, e.g. ISO 13851, ISO 13856‑1 and ISO 13856‑2.
NOTE 2 For the definition of required performance level, see 3.1.24.
NOTE 3 The requirements provided in this part of ISO 13849 for programmable electronic systems are compatible with the methodology for the design and development of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems for machinery given in IEC 62061.
NOTE 4 For safety-related embedded software for components with PLr = e, see IEC 61508?3:1998, Clause 7.

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ISO 14123-2:2015 establishes a methodology that leads to the selection of critical factors relating to emissions of hazardous substances for the purpose of specifying suitable verification procedures.
ISO 14123-2:2015 is intended to be used in conjunction with ISO 14123‑1 and relates specifically to ISO 14123‑1:2015, Clause 8.

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ISO 14120:2015 specifies general requirements for the design, construction, and selection of guards provided to protect persons from mechanical hazards.
ISO 14120:2015 indicates other hazards that can influence the design and construction of guards.
ISO 14120:2015 applies to guards for machinery which will be manufactured after it is published.
The requirements are applicable if fixed and movable guards are used. This International Standard does not cover interlocking devices. These are covered in ISO 14119.
ISO 14120:2015 does not provide requirements for special systems relating specifically to mobility such as ROPS (rollover protective structures), FOPS (falling-object protective structures), and TOPS (tip over protective structures) or to the ability of machinery to lift loads.

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ISO 14123-1:2015 establishes principles for the control of risks to health resulting from hazardous substances emitted by machinery.
ISO 14123-1:2015 is not applicable to substances that are a hazard to health solely because of their explosive, flammable or radioactive properties or their behaviour at extremes of temperature or pressure.

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ISO 13850:2015 Standard specifies functional requirements and design principles for the emergency stop function on machinery, independent of the type of energy used.
It does not deal with functions such as reversal or limitation of motion, deflection of emissions (e.g. radiation, fluids), shielding, braking or disconnecting, which can be part of the emergency stop function.
The requirements for this International Standard apply to all machines, with exception to:
- machines where an emergency stop would not reduce the risk;
- hand-held or hand-operated machines.
NOTE The requirements for the realization of the emergency stop function based on electrical/electronic technology are described in IEC 60204‑1.

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ISO 14119:2013 specifies principles for the design and selection ? independent of the nature of the energy source ? of interlocking devices associated with guards.It covers the parts of guards which actuate interlocking devices. It does not necessarily provide all the specific requirements for trapped key systems.
ISO 14119:2013 provides measures to minimize defeat of interlocking devices in a reasonably foreseeable manner.

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ISO 13856-3:2013 establishes general principles and specifies requirements for the design and testing of those pressure-sensitive protective devices, with or without an external reset facility, that are not specified in either ISO 13856‑1 or ISO 13856‑2, and the majority of which are produced for specific applications and are not available as "off-the-shelf" items.
ISO 13856-3:2013 also gives specific requirements for the following pressure-sensitive protective devices: pressure-sensitive bumpers; pressure-sensitive plates; pressure-sensitive wires (trip wires).
It deals with the design of a pressure-sensitive device with regard to safety and reliability rather than its suitability for particular applications.
It is not applicable to specifying the dimensions of pressure-sensitive protective devices in relation to any particular application, or stopping devices according to IEC 60204‑1 used for the normal operation, including emergency stopping of machinery.
While requirements are given for the immunity of the device to electromagnetic disturbances, these are not intended to cover all aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC).

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ISO 13856-2:2012 establishes general principles and specifies requirements for the design and testing of pressure-sensitive edges and pressure-sensitive bars used as safeguards and not as actuating devices for normal operation.
ISO 13856-2:2012 is applicable to pressure-sensitive edges and pressure-sensitive bars, with or without an external reset facility, used to detect persons or body parts that can be exposed to hazards such as those caused by the moving parts of machines.
It is not applicable to determining the suitability of a pressure-sensitive edge or pressure-sensitive bar for a particular safeguarding application, selection of an appropriate performance level for safety-related parts of control systems (SRP/CSs) other than to give minimum values,dimensioning or configuring of the effective sensing area of pressure-sensitive edges or pressure-sensitive bars in relation to any particular application or to stopping devices according to IEC 60204-1 used only for normal operation, including emergency stopping of machinery.

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ISO 13856-1:2013 establishes general principles and specifies requirements for the design and testing of pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floors normally actuated by the feet for use as devices for protecting persons from hazardous machinery. The minimum safety requirements for the performance, marking and documentation are given.
ISO 13856-1:2013 is applicable to pressure-sensitive mats and pressure-sensitive floors, regardless of the type of energy used (e.g. electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical), designed to detect
— persons weighing more than 35 kg, and
— persons (e.g. children) weighing more than 20 kg.
It is not applicable to the detection of persons weighing less than 20 kg.
It does not specify the following because they are application-specific:
a) dimensions or configuration of the effective sensing area of pressure-sensitive mat(s) or pressure-sensitive floor(s) in relation to any particular application;
b) when pressure-sensitive mats or floors are appropriate in a particular situation;
c) performance levels (PLs) for safety-related parts of control systems (SRP/CSs) other than providing a minimum level.
ISO 13856-1:2013 gives guidance to assist the user (i.e. machinery manufacturer and/or user of the machinery) in providing an adequate arrangement.

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ISO 13849-2:2012 specifies the procedures and conditions to be followed for the validation by analysis and testing of the specified safety functions, the category achieved, and the performance level achieved by the safety-related parts of a control system (SRP/CS) designed in accordance with ISO 13849-1.

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ISO 4413:2010 specifies general rules and safety requirements for hydraulic fluid power systems and components used on machinery as defined by ISO 12100. ISO 4413:2010 deals with all significant hazards associated with hydraulic fluid power systems and specifies the principles to apply in order to avoid those hazards when the systems are put to their intended use.
ISO 4413:2010 applies to the design, construction and modification of systems and their components, also taking into account the following aspects: assembly, installation, adjustment, uninterrupted system operation, ease and economy of maintenance and cleaning, reliable operation in all intended uses, energy efficiency and environment.

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ISO 4414:2010 specifies general rules and safety requirements for pneumatic fluid power systems and components used on machinery as defined by ISO 12100. ISO 4414:2010 deals with all significant hazards associated with pneumatic fluid power systems and specifies principles to apply in order to avoid those hazards when the systems are put to their intended use.
ISO 4414:2010 applies to the design, construction and modification of systems and their components, also taking into account the following aspects: assembly, installation, adjustment, uninterrupted system operation, ease and economy of maintenance and cleaning, reliable operation in all intended uses, energy efficiency and environment.
ISO 4414:2010 does not apply to air compressors and the systems associated with air distribution as typically installed in a factory, including gas bottles and receivers.

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ISO 12100:2010 specifies basic terminology, principles and a methodology for achieving safety in the design of machinery. It specifies principles of risk assessment and risk reduction to help designers in achieving this objective. These principles are based on knowledge and experience of the design, use, incidents, accidents and risks associated with machinery. Procedures are described for identifying hazards and estimating and evaluating risks during relevant phases of the machine life cycle, and for the elimination of hazards or sufficient risk reduction. Guidance is given on the documentation and verification of the risk assessment and risk reduction process.
ISO 12100:2010 is also intended to be used as a basis for the preparation of type-B or type-C safety standards.
It does not deal with risk and/or damage to domestic animals, property or the environment.

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ISO 13855:2010 establishes the positioning of safeguards with respect to the approach speeds of parts of the human body.
It specifies parameters based on values for approach speeds of parts of the human body and provides a methodology to determine the minimum distances to a hazard zone from the detection zone or from actuating devices of safeguards.
The values for approach speeds (walking speed and upper limb movement) in ISO 13855:2010 are time tested and proven in practical experience. ISO 13855:2010 gives guidance for typical approaches. Other types of approach, for example running, jumping or falling, are not considered in ISO 13855:2010.
Safeguards considered in ISO 13855:2010 include:
- electro-sensitive protective equipment, including light curtains and light grids (AOPDs), and laser scanners (AOPDDRs) and two-dimensional vision systems;
- pressure-sensitive protective equipment, especially pressure-sensitive mats;
- two-hand control devices;
- interlocking guards without guard locking.

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This European Standard specifies parameters which can be used for the assessment of the emission of pollutants from machines or the performance of the pollutant control systems integrated in machines. It gives guidance on the selection of appropriate test methods according to their various fields of application and types of machines including the effects of measures to reduce exposures to pollutants. The test methods are given in additional parts of this European Standard (see Table 1 and Annex A).

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This European Standard defines basic technology and specifies general procedures for making and reporting measurements of quantities related to radiation emitted by machinery. It covers the different radiation emissions as defined in EN 12198-1.
This standard applies to machinery as defined in 3.1 of EN 292-1:1991.

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This standard deals with the emission of radiation from machinery. This European Standard gives advice to manufacturers for the construction of safe machinery, if no relevant C-type standard exists. This radiation emission may be functional for processing or may be undesirable.
The issues of electromagnetic compatibility are not addressed in the standard.
This European Standard is intended to give advice to C-type standardization groups, on how to identify radiation emissions or fields , how to determine their significance and intensity, how to assess the possible risks and what means may be used to avoid or reduce radiation emissions. This advice should be elaborated in C-type standards for specific classes of machines as assessable requirements.
This standard deals with the emission of all types of electromagnetic non-ionizing radiation.
Ionizing radiation may be dealt with in other documents or in the future revisions.
This standard does not deal with the emission of laser radiation.
Radiation sources fixed to a machine which are used only for lighting are excluded from the scope of this standard.
This standard applies to machinery as defined in clause 3.1 of EN 292-1:1991.

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The purpose of this European standard is to provide means to enable manufacturers of machinery concerned by a radiation hazard to design and manufacture efficient safeguards against radiations.
Specific technical details of the design of shields for the different types of radiation and machines will be provided in other standards.
This European standard applies to machinery as defined by EN 292.
Part 1 of this standard contains the general principles of risk assessment of radiation emission by machinery. Details of the measurement of the radiation emission are given in Part 2 of this standard.
This standard deals with a design strategy for reducing the radiation flux by attenuation or screening.

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This European Standard specifies a test rig method for the measurement of the separation efficiency by mass of air cleaning systems with unducted outlet, operating under defined conditions. The method shall apply to systems that clean air of aerosols (smoke, dust, fume, mist), vapour or gas.
Measurement of the separation efficiency by mass of an air cleaning system for an intended use can serve for the:
a)   evaluation of the performance of an air cleaning system;
b)   evaluation of the improvement of the air cleaning system;
c)   comparison of air cleaning systems;
d)   ranking of air cleaning systems according to their separation efficiency by mass;
e)   determination of the state of the art of air cleaning systems of the same intended use with respect to their separation efficiency by mass.

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This European Standard specifies a test bench method for the measurement of the pollutant concentration parameter of a specified airborne hazardous substance from machines using a test bench under specified operating conditions.
This method is only applicable for the determination of emitted gases, vapours and respirable particles.
The determination of the emission rate in a test bench (see EN 1093-3) shall be used when possible.
Measurement of the pollutant concentration parameter of a machine can serve for the:
a)   evaluation of the performance of a machine;
b)   evaluation of the improvement of the machine;
c)   comparison of machines within groups of machines with the same intended use (groups are defined by the function and materials processed),
d)   ranking of machines from the same group according to their pollutant concentration parameters;
e)   determination of the state of the art of machines with respect to their pollutant concentration parameter.

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This European Standard specifies a room method for the measurement of the pollutant concentration parameter of a specified airborne hazardous substance from machines, located in a test room and operating the machines under defined conditions.
This method can only be used for machines with a local exhaust ventilation with an air flow rate ³ 500 m3/h and machines without recirculated air.
Measurement of the pollutant concentration parameter of a machine can serve for the:
a)   evaluation of the performance of a machine;
b)   evaluation of the improvement of the machine;
c)   comparison of machines within groups of machines with the same intended use (groups are defined by the function and materials processed);
d)   ranking of machines from the same group according to their pollutant concentration parameters;
e)   determination of the state of the art of machines with respect to their pollutant concentration parameter.

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This European Standard specifies a test rig method for the measurement of the separation efficiency by mass of air cleaning systems, operating under defined conditions. The method shall apply to systems that clean air of aerosols (smoke, dust, fume, mist), vapour or gas with defined air inlet and air outlet which can be connected to measurement ducts.
Measurement of the separation efficiency by mass of an air cleaning system for an intended use can serve for the:
a)   evaluation of the performance of an air cleaning system;
b)   evaluation of the improvement of the air cleaning system;
c)   comparison of air cleaning systems;
d)   ranking of air cleaning systems according to their separation efficiency by mass;
e)   determination of the state of the art of air cleaning systems of the same intended use with respect to their separation efficiency by mass.

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This standard describes a method for the measurement of the decontami¬nation index of pollution con¬trol systems e. g. capture devices including local exhaust ventilation, water spray systems and, when appropriate, separation equipment installed on a machine. This method uses the real pollutant (see 4.2 of EN 1093-1 : 1998 “ Safety of machinery — Evaluation of the emission of airborne  hazardous substances — Part 1: Selection of test methods”) and can be operated in room or field environments.
It should be observed that during the test, especially during the shutdown or the removal of the pollution control system, the concentration of hazardous substances , if present, can reach levels which are liable to incur a risk to the health of the operators or other occupants present in the room.
Warning: This standard does not deal with the protective measures required to control these risks.
Measurement of the decontamination index of pollution control system can serve for the:
–   evaluation of the performance of a pollution control system of a machine;
–   evaluation of the improvement of a pollution control system;
–   comparison of pollution control systems for machines of similar design;
–   ranking of pollution control systems according to their decontamination efficiency;
–   determination of the air flow rate in the case of an exhaust system to achieve a given level;
–   determination of the state of the art of pollution control systems for machines with respect to the decontamina¬tion efficiency.

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This European Standard specifies a method to enable measurements of the emission rates of gaseous
substances from a single machine, whose operation can be controlled, using tracer gas techniques.
This European Standard is not applicable to machinery which is manufactured before the date of its
publication as an EN.

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This standard describes a method for the measurement of the capture efficiency of an exhaust system installed on a machine. This method is based on a tracer technique and may be operated in all types of test environment (bench, room and field, see ENV 1093-1).   This technique is applicable only if the tracer shows aerodynamic behaviour comparable with the real pollutant (see 7.1.1).  The measurement of the capture efficiency of an exhaust system can serve for:   a) the evaluation of the performance of an exhaust system of a machine;  b) the evaluation of the improvement of an exhaust system;  c) the comparison of exhaust systems for machines of similar design; d) the ranking of exhaust systems according to their capture efficiency; e) the determination of the air flow of an exhaust to achieve a given level of capture efficiency; f) the determination of the state of the art of exhaust systems for machines with respect to the capture efficiency.

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This European Standard specifies a test bench method for the measurement of the emission rate of a given airborne hazardous substance from machines using a test bench under specified operating conditions of the machine.
The measurement of the emission rates of a given pollutant emitted from machines can serve for:
a)   the evaluation of the performance of a machine;
b)   the evaluation of the reduction of pollutant emissions of the machine;
c)   the comparison of machines within groups of machines with the same intended use (groups are defined by the function and materials processed);
d)   the ranking of machines from the same group according to their emission rates;
e)   the determination of the state of the art of machines with respect to their emission rates.
This European Standard is not applicable to machinery which is manufactured before the date of its publication as an EN.

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This International Standard specifies hygiene requirements of machines and provides information for the intended use to be provided by the manufacturer. It applies to all types of machines and associated equipment used in applications where hygiene risks to the consumer of the product can occur.
This International Standard does not cover requirements relative to the uncontrolled egress of microbiological agents from the machine.

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ISO 11161:2007 specifies the safety requirements for integrated manufacturing systems (IMS) that incorporate two or more interconnected machines for specific applications, such as component manufacturing or assembly. It gives requirements and recommendations for the safe design, safeguarding and information for the use of such IMSs.
ISO 11161:2007 is not intended to cover safety aspects of individual machines and equipment that may be covered by standards specific to those machines and equipment. Therefore it deals only with those safety aspects that are important for the safety-relevant interconnection of the machines and components. Where machines and equipment of an integrated manufacturing system are operated separately or individually, and while the protective effects of the safeguards provided for production mode are muted or suspended, the relevant safety standards for these machines and equipment apply.

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This document provides assistance to the designer/manufacturer of machinery and related components
as to how the system of existing type-A, type-B and type-C machinery safety standards should be
applied in order to design a machine to achieve a level of tolerable risk by adequate risk reduction.
This document explains the general principles of ISO 12100 and how this type-A standard is used for
practical cases in conjunction with type-B and type-C machinery safety standards.
This document provides assistance to standards-writing committees on how ISO 12100 and type-B and
type-C standards relate and explains their function in the risk assessment and risk reduction process
according to ISO 12100.
This document includes an overview of existing categories of type-B standards to assist standards
readers and writers to navigate the many standards.

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ISO 21469:2006 specifies hygiene requirements for the formulation, manufacture, use and handling of lubricants which, during manufacture and processing, can come into incidental contact (e.g. through heat transfer, load transmission, lubrication or the corrosion protection of machinery) with products and packaging used in the food, food-processing, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, tobacco or animal-feeding-stuffs industries. It is not applicable to substances used as product additives or to those in direct product contact, but confines itself to hygiene without addressing occupational health and safety matters.

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The purpose of this report is to give guidance on:
a) how to comply with the relevant legislative requirements, and
b) how to take into account the technical recommendations specified in International, European and National Standards when machines emitting ionizing radiation are designed and built.

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This European Standard defines limits for physical contacts between machines and humans that are caused by movement of the machine as part of its intended use or foreseeable misuse. It covers all types of machines that are designed to function where people can be present without physical barriers and as a result can contact those people. It also covers hazardous mechanical contacts of humans with surroundings that are caused by human fall originated by the movement of a machine. It includes machines that contact people as part of their function and machines that do not require human contact. It encompasses interactions that are intentional or unintentional.
Machines include but are not limited to, fixed robots, mobile robots, collaborative robots, vehicles, machine tools, moving equipment, doors and powered doors, flying robots, exoskeletons, care and domestic servant robots, hand tools.
Requirements that are mandated by local, national or international regulations take precedence over this standard.
Medical devices are not covered by this European Standard.

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ISO 13857:2007 establishes values for safety distances in both industrial and non-industrial environments to prevent machinery hazard zones being reached. The safety distances are appropriate for protective structures. It also gives information about distances to impede free access by the lower limbs. It covers people of 14 years and older (the 5th percentile stature of 14 year olds is approximately 1 400 mm). In addition, for upper limbs only, it provides information for children older than 3 years (5th percentile stature of 3 year olds is approximately 900 mm) where reaching through openings needs to be addressed.

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The object of this European Standard is to enable the user (e.g. standard makers, designers of machinery) to
avoid hazards from crushing zones. It specifies minimum gaps relative to parts of the human body and is
applicable when adequate safety can be achieved by this method.
This European Standard is applicable to risks from crushing hazards only and is not applicable to other
possible hazards, e.g. impact, shearing, drawing-in.
NOTE For e.g. impact, shearing, drawing-in hazards, additional or other measures need to be taken

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This standard specifies the safety requirements of a two-hand control device and its logic unit as defined in
3.1.
This standard describes the main characteristics of two-hand control devices for the achievement of safety
and sets out combinations of functional characteristics for three types. This standard does not apply to
devices intended to be used as enabling devices, hold to run devices and as special control devices.
This standard does not specify with which machines two-hand control devices shall be used. It also does not
specify which types of two-hand-control device shall be used. Moreover it does not specify the distance
between the two-hand control device and the danger zone (see 9.8).
The standard provides requirements and guidance on the design and selection (based on a risk assessment)
of two-hand control devices including their assessment, the prevention of defeat and the avoidance of faults.
The standard also provides requirements and guidance for two-hand control devices containing a
programmable electronic system (see 7).
This standard applies to all two-hand control devices, independent of the energy used, including:
- Two-hand control devices which are or are not integral parts of a machine;
- Two-hand control devices which consist of one or more than one separate elements.

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ISO 19353:2015 specifies methods for identifying fire hazards resulting from machinery and for performing a risk assessment.
It gives the basic concepts and methodology of protective measures for fire prevention and protection to be taken during the design and construction of machinery. The measures consider the intended use and reasonably foreseeable misuse of the machine.
It provides guidelines for consideration in reducing the risk of machinery fires to acceptable levels through machine design, risk assessment and operator instructions.
This International Standard is not applicable to
- mobile machinery,
- machinery designed to contain controlled combustion processes (e.g. internal combustion engines, furnaces), unless these processes can constitute the ignition source of a fire in other parts of the machinery or outside of this,
- machinery used in potentially explosive atmospheres and explosion prevention and protection, and
- fire detection and suppression systems that are integrated in building fire safety systems.
It is also not applicable to machinery or machinery components manufactured before the date of its publication.

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This standard specifies built-in safety measures aimed at preventing unexpected machine start-up (see 3.2) to
allow safe human interventions in danger zones (see Annex A).
This standard applies to unexpected start-up from all types of energy source, i.e.:
- Power supply, e.g. electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic;
- Stored energy due to, e.g., gravity, compressed springs;
- External influences, e.g. from wind;

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