This document specifies a method for the semi-quantitative analysis of oils, fats and oil/fat-related samples (deodistillates). It is applicable to the screening of oils, fats and oil/fat-related samples to obtain main (e.g. triglycerides) and minor (e.g. sterols, sterol esters, tocopherols, wax esters, fatty alcohols, glycerol) component information in one single analysis. For a truly quantitative analysis of pre-identified compound classes, specific methods are more appropriate. The method can also be used as a useful qualitative screening tool for the relative comparison of sample compositions.

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This document specifies two methods for the determination of the melting point in open capillary tubes, commonly known as the slip melting point, of animal and vegetable fats and oils (referred to as fats hereinafter). —   Method A is only applicable to animal and vegetable fats which are solid at ambient temperature and which do not exhibit pronounced polymorphism. —   Method B is applicable to all animal and vegetable fats which are solid at ambient temperature and is the method to be used for fats whose polymorphic behaviour is unknown. For the determination of the slip melting point of palm oil samples the method given in Annex A shall be used. NOTE 1  If applied to fats with pronounced polymorphism, method A will give different and less satisfactory results than method B. NOTE 2  Fats which exhibit pronounced polymorphism are principally cocoa butter and fats containing appreciable quantities of 2-unsaturated, 1,3-saturated triacylglycerols.

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This document specifies a titrimetric method for the determination of acid value in light coloured Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, hereinafter referred as FAME.
It allows the determination of acid value within a range of 0,10 mg KOH/g to 1,00 mg KOH/g.
NOTE 1 For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
NOTE 2 For oils and fats the determination of acid value is specified in EN ISO 660 [1].
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the document, and to determine the applicability of any other restrictions for this purpose.

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The purpose of this European Standard is to determine the free glycerol and residual mono-, di- and triglyceride contents in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for addition to mineral oils. The total glycerol content is then calculated from the obtained results.
Under the conditions described, the quantification limits are 0,001 % (m/m) for free glycerol, 0,10 % (m/m) for all glycerides (mono-, di- and tri-). This method is suitable for FAME prepared from rapeseed, sunflower, soybean, palm, animal oils and fats and mixture of them. It is not suitable for FAME produced from or containing coconut and palm kernel oils derivatives because of overlapping of different glyceride peaks.
NOTE  For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "% (m/m)" is used to represent respectively the mass fraction.
WARNING - The use of this method may involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the oxidation stability of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) at 110 °C, by means of measuring the induction period up to 48 h.
NOTE 1   EN 15751 [1] describes a similar test method for oxidation stability determination of pure fatty acid methyl esters and of blends of FAME with petroleum-based diesel containing 2 % (V/V) of FAME at minimum.
NOTE 2   The precision statement of this test method was determined in a Round Robin exercise with induction periods up to 8,5 h, thus covering the limit value in EN 14214. Results from precision studies on EN 15751 indicate that the precision statement is valid for induction periods up to 48 h but not for higher values.
NOTE 3   Limited studies on EN 15751 with EHN (2-ethyl hexyl nitrate) on FAME blends indicated that the stability is reduced to an extent which is within the reproducibility of the test method. It is likely that the oxidation stability of pure FAMEs is also reduced in the presence of EHN when EN 14112 is used for testing.

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This document specifies three methods (two titrimetric and one potentiometric) for the determination
of acidity in animal and vegetable fats and oils, hereinafter referred to as “fats”. The acidity is expressed
preferably as acid value or, alternatively, as acidity calculated conventionally.
This document is applicable to refined and crude vegetable or animal fats and oils, soap stock fatty
acids or technical fatty acids. It does not apply to waxes.
Since the methods are completely non-specific, they do not apply to differentiating between mineral
acids, free fatty acids and other organic acids. The acid value, therefore, includes any mineral acids that
are present.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the Scope of this
document.

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This document specifies a method for the quantitative determination of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol content in extra virgin olive oils using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with spectrophotometric detection. The method is also applicable to all other olive oils of a different commercial category.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the saponification value of animal and
vegetable fats and oils. The saponification value is a measure of the free and esterified acids present in
fats and fatty acids.
The method is applicable to refined and crude vegetable and animal fats.
If mineral acids are present, the results given by this method are not interpretable unless the mineral
acids are determined separately.
The saponification value can also be calculated from fatty acid data obtained by gas chromatography
analysis as given in Annex B. For this calculation, it is necessary to be sure that the sample does not
contain major impurities or is thermally degraded.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the saponification value of animal and vegetable fats and oils. The saponification value is a measure of the free and esterified acids present in fats and fatty acids. The method is applicable to refined and crude vegetable and animal fats. If mineral acids are present, the results given by this method are not interpretable unless the mineral acids are determined separately. The saponification value can also be calculated from fatty acid data obtained by gas chromatography analysis as given in Annex B. For this calculation, it is necessary to be sure that the sample does not contain major impurities or is thermally degraded.

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This document specifies three methods (two titrimetric and one potentiometric) for the determination of acidity in animal and vegetable fats and oils, hereinafter referred to as "fats". The acidity is expressed preferably as acid value or, alternatively, as acidity calculated conventionally. This document is applicable to refined and crude vegetable or animal fats and oils, soap stock fatty acids or technical fatty acids. It does not apply to waxes. Since the methods are completely non-specific, they do not apply to differentiating between mineral acids, free fatty acids and other organic acids. The acid value, therefore, includes any mineral acids that are present. Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the Scope of this document.

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The purpose of this document is to describe a procedure for the determination of the ester content in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for incorporation into diesel oil. It also allows determining the linolenic acid methyl ester content. It allows verifying that the ester content of FAME is greater than 90 % (m/m) and that the linolenic acid content is between 1 % (m/m) and 15 % (m/m).
This method is suitable for FAME which contains methyl esters between C6 and C24.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (v/v)" are used to represent respectively the mass and volume fractions.
NOTE 2   This method was elaborated for FAME samples from usual raw material. For FAME sample from unidentified raw material, a solution of the test sample should be prepared without any internal standard addition, in order to verify the absence of natural nonadecanoic acid methyl ester.
NOTE 3   The distribution off fatty acid methyl esters is given in Annex C.
WARNING - The use of this method may involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use, but it is the responsibility of the user to search and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of free sterols/stanols and steryl/stanol esters (0,1 % to 97 % mass fraction) in foods and dietary supplements containing added phytosterols and in phytosterol food additive concentrates. Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document. This method does not apply to matrices that contain rice bran oil at concentrations of more than 20 % due to possible interferences in the gas chromatogram.

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The purpose of this document is to describe a procedure for the determination of the ester content in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) intended for incorporation into diesel oil. It also allows determining the linolenic acid methyl ester content. It allows verifying that the ester content of FAME is greater than 90 % (m/m) and that the linolenic acid content is between 1 % (m/m) and 15 % (m/m).
This method is suitable for FAME which contains methyl esters between C6 and C24.
NOTE 1   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (v/v)" are used to represent respectively the mass and volume fractions.
NOTE 2   This method was elaborated for FAME samples from usual raw material. For FAME sample from unidentified raw material, a solution of the test sample should be prepared without any internal standard addition, in order to verify the absence of natural nonadecanoic acid methyl ester.
NOTE 3   The distribution off fatty acid methyl esters is given in Annex C.
WARNING - The use of this method may involve hazardous equipment, materials and operations. This method does not purport to address to all of the safety problems associated with its use, but it is the responsibility of the user to search and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This Technical Specification describes a method for the analysis of pesticide residues in fatty oils of plant origin (essential oils are excluded). It has been validated in an interlaboratory test with olive oil. However, laboratory experiences have shown that this method is also applicable to other kinds of oils such as sunflower seed oil, sesame oil, flax seed oil, rape seed oil, grape seed oil, thistle oil and pumpkin seed oil.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of milk fat purity using gas chromatographic analysis of triglycerides. The method utilizes the differences in triglyceride fingerprint of milk fat from the individual triglyceride fingerprints of other fats and oils to determine samples which are outside the range normally observed for milk fat. This is achieved by using the defined triglyceride formulae based on the normalized weighted sum of individual triglyceride peaks which are sensitive to the integrity of the milk[6][7]. The integrity of the milk fat can be determined by comparing the result of these formulae with those previously observed for a range of pure milk fat samples[12]. Both vegetable fats and animal fats such as beef tallow and lard can be detected.
The method is applicable to bulk milk, or products made thereof, irrespective of the variation in common feeding practices, breed or lactation conditions. In particular, the method is applicable to fat extracted from milk products purporting to contain pure milk fat with unchanged composition, such as butter, cream, milk and milk powder.
Because a false-positive result can occur, the method does not apply to milk fat related to these circumstances:
a) obtained from bovine milk other than cow's milk;
b) obtained from single cows;
c) obtained from cows whose diet contained a particularly high proportion of vegetable oils such as rapeseed, cotton or palm oil, etc.;
d) obtained from cows suffering from serious underfeeding (strong energy deficit);
e) obtained from colostrum;
f) subjected to technological treatment such as removal of cholesterol or fractionation;
g) obtained from skim milk, buttermilk or whey;
h) obtained from cheeses showing increased lipolysis;
i) extracted using the Gerber, Weibull?Berntrop or Schmid?Bondzynski?Ratzlaff methods, or that has been isolated using detergents (e.g. the Bureau of Dairy Industries method).
With the extraction methods specified in i), substantial quantities of partial glycerides or phospholipids can pass into the fat phase.
NOTE 1 In nature, butyric (n-butanoic) acid (C4) occurs exclusively in milk fat and enables quantitative estimations of low to moderate amounts of milk fat in vegetable and animal fats to be made. Due to the large variation of C4, for which the approximate content ranges from 3,1 % fat mass fraction to 3,8 % fat mass fraction, it is difficult to provide qualitative and quantitative information for foreign fat to pure milk fat ratios of up to 20 % mass fraction[11].
NOTE 2 In practice, quantitative results cannot be derived from the sterol content of vegetable fats, because they depend on production and processing conditions. Furthermore, the qualitative determination of foreign fat using sterols is ambiguous.
NOTE 3 Due to special feeding practices such as those related to c) and d), false-positive results have sometimes been reported for milk from certain Asian regions[15]. Moreover, grass-only diets such as mountain and, in particular, highland pasture feeding sometimes cause false-positive results, which can be substantiated by a content of conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 c9t11) of ≥ 1,3 % fatty acid mass fraction[16][17]. Nevertheless, results conforming to the criteria of milk fat purity specified in this document are accepted, even if samples were undoubtedly produced under conditions reported in this note, including those described in h).
NOTE 4 In cases where a positive resu

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of methanol content in fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use as diesel fuel and domestic heating fuel. The method is applicable for a concentration range from 0,01 % to 0,5 % (m/m) methanol. The method is not applicable to mixtures of FAME which contain other low boiling components.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the methanol content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use as diesel fuel and domestic heating fuel. The method is applicable to methanol contents between 0,01 % (m/m) and 0,5 % (m/m). The method is not applicable to mixtures of FAME containing other low boiling components.
NOTE   For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this document can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This document does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this document to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a procedure for the determination of the content, as a mass fraction expressed as milligrams per kilogram, of aliphatic and triterpenic alcohols in olive oils and olive-pomace oils. NOTE This document is based on COI/T.20/Doc. 26 Rev.2:2017[4].

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This part of ISO 18363 describes a procedure for the parallel determination of glycidol together with 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD present in bound or free form in oils and fats. The method is based on alkalinecatalyzed ester cleavage, transformation of the released glycidol into monobromopropanediol (MBPD) and derived free diols (MCPD and MBPD) with phenylboronic acid (PBA). Though free MCPD and glycidol are supposed to be present in fats and oils in low to negligible quantities only, significant content would increase proportionately the determination of bound analytes.
This method is applicable to solid and liquid fats and oils. This part of ISO 18363 can also apply to animal fats and used frying oils and fats, but a validation study must be undertaken before the analysis of these matrices.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this international standard.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of the iodine value (commonly known in the industry as IV) of animal and vegetable fats and oils, hereinafter referred to as fats. Annex B describes a method for the calculation of the IV from fatty acid compositional data. This method is not applicable to fish oils. Furthermore, cold-pressed, crude and unrefined vegetable oils as well as (partially) hydrogenated oils can give different results by the two methods. The calculated IV is affected by impurities and thermal degradation products.
NOTE The method in Annex B is based upon the AOCS Official method Cd 1c-85[10].

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This document specifies a procedure for the parallel determination of glycidol together with 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD present in bound or free form in oils and fats. The method is based on alkaline-catalysed ester cleavage, transformation of the released glycidol into monobromopropanediol (MBPD) and derivatisation of the derived free diols (MCPD and MBPD) with phenylboronic acid (PBA). Though free MCPD and glycidol are supposed to be present in fats and oils in low to negligible quantities only, in the event that free analytes are present, they would contribute proportionately to the results. The results always being the sum of the free and the bound form of a single analyte.
This method is applicable to solid and liquid fats and oils. This document can also apply to animal fats and used frying oils and fats, but a validation study is undertaken before the analysis of these matrices.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the content of toluene insoluble matter (TIM) in lecithin formulations, which indicates the presence of impurities such as protein, carbohydrate-containing extraction residues and other solid contaminants. This method is applicable to all types of vegetable lecithin. The purpose of the method is to enable the analysis of lecithin under several regulations. Lecithin [Codex International Numbering System for Food Additives (INS) No. 322] is a generally permitted additive and the determination of the TIM is part of many specifications. The purity requirement with regard to TIM content is based on the method specified. Toluene is the replacement for the carcinogenic benzene, which was used in older methods.

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This document specifies a procedure for the parallel determination of glycidol together with 2-MCPD and 3-MCPD present in bound or free form in oils and fats. The method is based on alkaline-catalysed ester cleavage, transformation of the released glycidol into monobromopropanediol (MBPD) and derivatisation of the derived free diols (MCPD and MBPD) with phenylboronic acid (PBA). Though free MCPD and glycidol are supposed to be present in fats and oils in low to negligible quantities only, in the event that free analytes are present, they would contribute proportionately to the results. The results always being the sum of the free and the bound form of a single analyte. This method is applicable to solid and liquid fats and oils. This document can also apply to animal fats and used frying oils and fats, but a validation study is undertaken before the analysis of these matrices. Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of the iodine value (commonly known in the industry as IV) of animal and vegetable fats and oils, hereinafter referred to as fats.
Annex B describes a method for the calculation of the IV from fatty acid compositional data. This method is not applicable to fish oils. Furthermore, cold-pressed, crude and unrefined vegetable oils as well as (partially) hydrogenated oils can give different results by the two methods. The calculated IV is affected by impurities and thermal degradation products.
NOTE The method in Annex B is based upon the AOCS Official method Cd 1c-85[10].

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This document specifies the determination of composition of triacylglycerols and the determination of the composition and content of diacylglycerols by capillary gas chromatography in vegetable oils with a lauric acid content below 1 %. Applying certain technological processing 1,2-diacylglycerols (1,2-DAGs) are transformed to the more stable isomeric 1,3-diacylglycerols (1,3-DAGs) due to acidic catalysed reaction. During storage, the speed and amount of this rearrangement depends on the acidity of the oil. The transformation normally reaches an equilibrium between the two isomeric forms. The relative amount of 1,2-DAGs is related to oil freshness or to a possible technological treatment. Therefore, it is possible to use the ratio of 1,2-DAGs to 1,3-DAGs as a quality criterion for vegetable fats and oils. The triacylglycerols profile is of potential interest for the fingerprint of each vegetable oil and may help the detection of certain types of adulteration, such as the addition of high oleic sunflower oil or palm olein in olive oil. NOTE This document is based on Reference [3].

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This document specifies a reference method for the determination of the iodine value (commonly known in the industry as IV) of animal and vegetable fats and oils, hereinafter referred to as fats. Annex B describes a method for the calculation of the IV from fatty acid compositional data. This method is not applicable to fish oils. Furthermore, cold-pressed, crude and unrefined vegetable oils as well as (partially) hydrogenated oils can give different results by the two methods. The calculated IV is affected by impurities and thermal degradation products. NOTE The method in Annex B is based upon the AOCS Official method Cd 1c-85[10].

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ISO 18363-3:2017 specifies a procedure for the simultaneous determination of 2-MCPD esters (bound 2-MCPD), 3‐MCPD esters (bound 3‐MCPD) and glycidyl esters (bound glycidol) in a single assay, based on acid catalysed ester cleavage and derivatization of cleaved (free) analytes with phenylboronic acid (PBA) prior to GC/MS analysis. ISO 18363-3:2017 is applicable to solid and liquid fats and oils. For all three analytes the limit of quantification (LOQ) is 0,1 mg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) is 0,03 mg/kg.

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2016-05-02: ISO project has become an amendment instead of a revision - CEN project has been aligned (see TCminares on 2016-04-28).

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (from C10 to C50) in vegetable fats and oils and foodstuff on basis of vegetable oils with online-HPLC-GC-FID [1], [2]. HPLC-GC-FID provides a highly efficient method for the determination of mineral oils in different foodstuffs [3].
The method can be used for the analysis of MOSH and/or MOAH. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) are paraffinic (open-chain, usually branched) and naphthenic (cyclic, alkylated) hydrocarbons, mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) are aromatic mainly alkylated hydrocarbons.
The method has been tested in an interlaboratory study via the analysis of both naturally contaminated and spiked vegetable oil samples and mayonnaise and margarine samples, ranging from 4 mg/kg to 197 mg/kg for MOSH, and from 2 mg/kg to 51 mg/kg for MOAH.
The method has been proved suitable above 10 mg/kg on basis on the results of the interlaboratory tests.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of the zearalenone content in edible vegetable oils specifically maize germ oil by either of the following techniques: High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) or high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after basic extraction of the diluted oil.
The method has been validated for zearalenone in naturally contaminated maize germ oil at levels of 61,2 µg/kg to 515 µg/kg [5].
Laboratory experiences [6] have shown that this method is also applicable to vegetable oils such as wheat germ oil (n = 4), sunflower oil (n = 5), pumpkin seed oil (n = 1), soybean oil (n = 5), hemp seed oil (n = 5), rape seed oil (n = 11), and mixed oils including maize germ oils (n = 3). However occasionally, samples can result in interferences in the FLD-chromatograms. In this case, the detection with MS/MS is recommended.

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This European Standard specifies a highly efficient method for the determination of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons (from C10 to C50) in vegetable fats and oils and foodstuff on basis of vegetable oils for which it has been interlaboratory validated, with online-HPLC-GC-FID [1], [2] and [3]. This standard is not intended to be applied to other matrices.
The method can be used for the analysis of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and/or mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH).
The method has been tested in an interlaboratory study via the analysis of both naturally contaminated and spiked vegetable oil samples and mayonnaise and margarine samples, ranging from 4 mg/kg to 197 mg/kg for MOSH, and from 2 mg/kg to 51 mg/kg for MOAH.
According to the results of the interlaboratory studies, the method has been proven suitable for MOSH- and MOAH mass concentrations each above 10 mg/kg.
In case of suspected interferences from natural sources, the mineral origin of the MOSH and MOAH fraction can be verified by examination of the pattern by GC-MS.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene in crude or refined edible
oils and fats by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorimetric
detection in the range 0,1 μg/kg to 50 μg/kg.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this
document.

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ISO 12966-4:2015 specifies a method for the determination of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) derived by transesterification or esterification from fats, oils, and fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography (GLC). Fatty acid methyl esters from C8 to C24 can be separated using this part of ISO 12966 including saturated fatty acid methyl esters, cis- and trans-monounsaturated fatty acid methyl esters, and cis- and trans-polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters.
The method is applicable to crude, refined, partially hydrogenated, or fully hydrogenated fats, oils, and fatty acids derived from animal and vegetable sources.
This method is not suitable for the analysis of dairy, ruminant fats and oils, or products supplemented with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this part of ISO 12966.
ISO 12966-4:2015 is not applicable to di-, tri-, polymerized and oxidized fatty acids, and fats and oils.

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This European Standard describes a procedure for the determination of the zearalenone content in edible vegetable oils specifically maize germ oil by either of the following techniques: High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) or high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after basic extraction of the diluted oil.
The method has been validated for zearalenone in naturally contaminated maize germ oil at levels of 61,2 µg/kg to 515 µg/kg [5].
Laboratory experiences [6] have shown that this method is also applicable to other vegetable oils such as wheat germ oil (n = 4), sunflower oil (n = 5), pumpkin seed oil (n = 1), soybean oil (n = 5), hemp seed oil (n = 5), rape seed oil (n = 11), and mixed oils including maize germ oil (n = 3). However occasionally, samples can result in interferences in the FLD-chromatograms. In this case, the detection with MS/MS is recommended.

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2016-05-02: ISO project has become an amendment instead of a revision - CEN project has been aligned (see TCminares on 2016-04-28).

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ISO 15302:2017 specifies a method for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene in crude or refined edible oils and fats by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorimetric detection in the range 0,1 µg/kg to 50 µg/kg.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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ISO 12966-2:2017 specifies methods of preparing the methyl esters of fatty acids.
It includes methods for preparing fatty acid methyl esters from animal and vegetable fats and oils, fatty acids and soaps. To cover different requirements, four methylation methods are specified, namely:
a) a "rapid" transmethylation procedure under alkaline conditions;
b) a "general" transmethylation/methylation procedure under sequential alkaline and acid conditions;
c) a BF3 transmethylation procedure;
d) an alternative procedure using acid-catalysed transmethylation of glycerides.
Methyl esters so produced are used in various analytical procedures requiring such derivatives, e.g. gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and infrared spectrometry (IR).
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the conventional mass per volume (“litre
weight in air”) of animal and vegetable fats and oils (hereinafter referred to as fats) in order to convert
volume to mass or mass to volume.
The procedure is applicable to fats only when they are in a liquid state. Milk and milk products (or fat
coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.
NOTE The determination of conventional mass per volume (litre weight in air) using the oscillating U-tube
method can be found in ISO 18301.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the refractive index of animal and vegetable
fats and oils.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this
document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the water content of animal and vegetable fats and oils (hereinafter referred to as fats) using Karl Fischer apparatus and a reagent which is free of pyridine.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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This document specifies a method for the iodometric determination of the peroxide value of animal and
vegetable fats and oils with a visual endpoint detection. The peroxide value is a measure of the amount
of oxygen chemically bound to an oil or fat as peroxides, particularly hydroperoxides.
The method is applicable to all animal and vegetable fats and oils, fatty acids and their mixtures with
peroxide values from 0 meq to 30 meq (milliequivalents) of active oxygen per kilogram. It is also
applicable to margarines and fat spreads with varying water content. The method is not suitable for
milk fats and is not applicable to lecithins.
It is to be noted that the peroxide value is a dynamic parameter, whose value is dependent upon the
history of the sample. Furthermore, the determination of the peroxide value is a highly empirical
procedure and the value obtained depends on the sample mass. It is stressed that, due to the prescribed
sample mass, the peroxide values obtained can be slightly lower than those obtained with a lower
sample mass.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this
document.
NOTE 1 A preferred method for the iodometric determination of the peroxide value for milk fats is specified in
ISO 3976.
NOTE 2 A method for the potentiometric determination of the peroxide value is given in ISO 27107.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the insoluble impurities content of animal
and vegetable fats and oils.
If it is not desired to include soaps (particularly calcium soaps) or oxidized fatty acids in the insoluble
impurities content, it is necessary to use a different solvent and procedure. In this case, an agreement is
to be reached between the parties concerned.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this
document.

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This document describes a method for the determination of trace amounts (micrograms per kilogram)
of cadmium in all types of crude or refined edible oils and fats.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this
document.

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ISO 12966-2:2017 specifies methods of preparing the methyl esters of fatty acids. It includes methods for preparing fatty acid methyl esters from animal and vegetable fats and oils, fatty acids and soaps. To cover different requirements, four methylation methods are specified, namely: a) a "rapid" transmethylation procedure under alkaline conditions; b) a "general" transmethylation/methylation procedure under sequential alkaline and acid conditions; c) a BF3 transmethylation procedure; d) an alternative procedure using acid-catalysed transmethylation of glycerides. Methyl esters so produced are used in various analytical procedures requiring such derivatives, e.g. gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and infrared spectrometry (IR). Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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ISO 15302:2017 specifies a method for the determination of benzo[a]pyrene in crude or refined edible oils and fats by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using fluorimetric detection in the range 0,1 µg/kg to 50 µg/kg. Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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ISO 6320:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the refractive index of animal and vegetable fats and oils.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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ISO 6320:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the refractive index of animal and vegetable fats and oils. Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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ISO 15774:2017 describes a method for the determination of trace amounts (micrograms per kilogram) of cadmium in all types of crude or refined edible oils and fats.
Milk and milk products (or fat coming from milk and milk products) are excluded from the scope of this document.

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